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TOOLS

AND

SAFETY

INTRODUCTION
Tools are designed to make a job easier and enable
you to work more efficiently.
If they are not properly used and cared for, their
advantages are lost to you.
Regardless of the type of work to be done, you must
have, choose, and use the correct tools in order to do
your work quickly, accurately, and safely.
Without the proper tools and the knowledge of how to
use them, you waste time, reduce your efficiency, and
may even injure yourself.

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TOOLBOX
"A place for everything and everything in its place
just good common sense.
You can't do an efficient repair job if you have to stop
and look around for each tool you need.
The following rules will make your job easier and safer.

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is

SAFETY RULES

KEEP EACH TOOL IN ITS PROPER STOWAGE PLACE.

KEEP YOUR TOOLS IN GOOD CONDITION. Protect them from rust, nicks,
burrs, and breakage.

KEEP YOUR TOOL ALLOWANCE COMPLETE.

USE EACH TOOL ONLY FOR THE JOB IT WAS DESIGNED TO DO.

SAFE MAINTENANCE PRACTICES.

NEVER USE DAMAGED TOOLS.

Remember, the efficiency of craftsmen and the tools they use are determined to
a great extent by the way they keep their tools.

Keep hand tools clean and free from dirt, grease, and foreign matter.

After use, return tools promptly to their proper place in the toolbox.

Improve your own efficiency by organizing your tools.

Avoid accumulating unnecessary junk.

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TOOL BOX WALL CABINET

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TOOL BOX - TOP CHESTS

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TOOLBOX & ROLLER CABINET

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TOOLKIT - PORTABLE

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TOOL BOXES / CHESTS / CABINETS


Use the handle when opening and closing a drawer or door of a tool
box, chest, or cabinet
Tape over or file off sharp edges on tool boxes, chests or cabinets
Do not stand on tool boxes, chests or cabinets to gain extra height
Lock the wheels on large tool boxes, chests or cabinets to prevent
them from rolling
Push large chests, cabinets and tool boxes; do not pull them
Do not open more than one drawer of a tool box at a time
Close and lock all drawers and doors before moving the tool chest
to a new location
Do not move a tool box, chest or cabinet if it has loose tools or
parts on the top
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SAFETY
Eye protection
Safety glasses
Face mask

Hearing Protection
Ear plugs
Headphones
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SAFETY
Gloves

Apron

Shoes
No sandals or open-toe shoes
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SAFETY
Respirator

Dust mask

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SAFETY
Clothing
No loose clothing
Button long sleeves
Shirts tucked in

Long hair tied back or contained


Jewelery, watches, necklaces, earrings

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HAND TOOLS
The aviation maintenance technician (AMT) spends a
major portion of each day using a wide variety of hand
tools to accomplish maintenance tasks.
This is an overview of some of the hand tools an AMT
can expect to use.
An AMT encounters many special tools as their
experience widens;
Large transport category aircraft have different
maintenance tasks from those of a light airplane,
Special hand tools are often required when working on
complex aircraft.
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HAMMERS AND MALLETS


Obviously, hammers and mallets are used for hitting things but
there are certain situations which demand a particular type of
hammer or mallet be used.
Inserting and shaping metal rivets is done using Cross Peen and
Ball Peen hammers. A Claw hammer is a good general purpose
hammer although it has a claw specifically designed for the
removal of bent nails from wood.
When materials need to be driven in or knocked together and they
are soft enough to be easily damaged, the solution is usually to use
a Mallet instead of a Hammer.
There are a wide range of materials used to make the heads of
Mallets ; Rubber, Plastic (Nylon), Wood, Copper etc. The most
common type of Mallet found in the workshop is a Hide (Leather)
Mallet.
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HAMMERS AND MALLETS


Hammers
Claw

Ball peen

Dead blow

standard
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slimline

HAMMERS AND MALLETS


Straight peen

Cross peen

Tinners mallet

Riveting hammer

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HAMMERS AND MALLETS


Nylon (soft) face

Rubber mallet

Sheet metal forming

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HAMMERS AND MALLETS


Tinner hammer

Sheet metal hammer

Brass hammer

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SAFETY
Hammers are dangerous tools when used carelessly and
without consideration. Practice will help you learn to use
a hammer properly. Some important things to remember
when using a hammer or mallet follow:
Do not use a hammer handle for bumping parts in assembly, and
never use it as a pry bar.
When a handle splits or cracks, do not try to repair it by binding
with string, wire, or tape. Replace it.
Make sure the handle fits tightly on the head.
Do not strike a hardened steel surface with a steel hammer.
Small pieces of steel may break off and injure someone in the
eye or damage the work.
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SCREWDRIVERS
A tool for driving screws that consists of a handle or
power tool with a metal rod shaped at the tip to fit into
the head of a screw.
There are many types of screwdrivers. Choosing the right
one leads to the successful completion of projects and
eliminates problems such as stripped screws.
Most types of screwdrivers are designed for use with
specific screws that match the shape of the screwdriver's
tip.
Screwdrivers are identified by the shape of their tip.
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SCREWDRIVERS
Flat Head (or Slotted or Straight Head)
phillips screwdriver
Pozidrive (or Crosspoint) screwdriver
Torx screwdriver
Hex (or Allen) screwdriver
Robertson screwdriver

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SCREWDRIVERS

Tri-Wing screwdriver

Torq-Set

Spanner

Offset screwdriver

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Types of Screwdrivers
Robertson

Phillips

Hex

Square

Double hex

Slotted

Polydrive

Torx

Spline drive

Triple square

Tri-Wing

Pozidrive

One-way - Clutch

Bristol

Torq-set

Hex socket (Allen)

Spanner head

SCREWDRIVER HEAD TYPES

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SCREWS AND SCREWDRIVERS

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SAFETY
Screwdrivers, like any other hand tool, are dangerous
when not used properly. Therefore, the following safety
precautions should always be followed:
Never use a screwdriver to check an electrical circuit.
Never try to turn a screwdriver with a pair of pliers.Do not hold
work in your hand while using a screwdriverif the point slips,
it can cause a bad cut. Hold the work in a vise, with a clamp, or
on a solid surface.
NEVER GET ANY PART OF YOUR BODY IN FRONT OF
THE SCREWDRIVER BLADE TIP.
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PLIERS
Used to grip, cut, crimp, hold, and bend various parts
Never use pliers when another type tool will work
Pliers can nick and scar a part

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PLIERS
Standard Pliers
Slip jaws (channel locks) pliers
Side Cutters
Linemans
Vise Grip
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PLIERS
Needle nose
Wire stripper pliers
Crimping pliers
Water pump pliers
Combination pliers
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PLIERS

Combination (Slip Joint) Pliers

Snap Ring Pliers

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SAFETY
Two important rules for using pliers are:
Do not make pliers work beyond their capacity. The long-nosed
variety is especially delicate. It is easy to spring or break them,
or nick the edges. If this occurs, they are practically useless.
Do not use pliers to turn nuts. In just a few seconds, a pair of
pliers can damage a nut more than years of service.

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CHISELS AND PUNCHES


Chisels
used for cutting off damaged or badly rusted nuts, bolts, and
rivet heads

Punches
used to mark or make an indentation in metal or to drive parts
like pins or bolts out of holes

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PUNCHES
Punches are used :

to locate centers for drawing circles,


to start holes for drilling,
to punch holes in sheet metal,
to transfer location of holes in patterns,
to remove damaged rivets, pins or bolts.

Solid or hollow punches are the two types generally used.


Solid punches are classified according to the shape of
their points.

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PUNCHES
Pin punch
Solid Punch
Center punch
Automatic center punch
Whitney punch
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CHISELS
Prick Punch

Standard Chisel

Slot cutting chisel

Diamond point Chisel


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SAFETY
Important rules for using punches:
Strike the face of the punch squarely with a ball peen or
machinists hammer.
Never strike with a nail hammer.
Always strike the punch with a light, cautious blow when
starting a job to determine the relative hardness of the material
being punched.
Always wear safety goggles when using a punch.

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WRENCHES
Used to install and remove nuts and bolts
Available in both conventional (inch) and metric
(millimeter) sizes
size is stamped on the side of the wrench

Wrench size is determined by measuring across


the wrench jaws

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WRENCHES
The wrenches most often used in aircraft maintenance are classified
as open-end, box-end, socket, adjustable, ratcheting and special
wrenches.
The Allen wrench, although seldom used, is required on one special
type of recessed screw.
One of the most widely used metals for making wrenches is
chrome-vanadium steel. Wrenches made of this metal are almost
unbreakable.
Solid, nonadjustable wrenches with open parallel jaws on one or
both ends are known as open-end wrenches.
The wrenches are designed to fit a nut, bolt head, or other object,
which makes it possible to exert a turning action.

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WRENCHES
Adjustable wrench
Box end wrench
Open end wrench
Combination wrench
Allen wrench
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WRENCHES
Cylinder wrenches

Tubing wrench

Pipe wrench

Crowfoot wrench
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WRENCHES
Flare nut wrench

Torque wrench

Dial indicating torque wrench

Strap wrench
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SPECIALTY WRENCHES
Ratchet wrench

Flex-Combination

Half-moon

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SAFETY
Do not use push on a wrench - losing your balance is more likely if
the wrench slips.
Do not use a wrench that is bent handle or damaged.
Do not use worn adjustable wrenches. Inspect the knurl, jaw and
pin for wear.
Do not pull on an adjustable wrench that is loosely adjusted.
Do not use pipe wrenches on nuts or bolts.
Do not use pipe wrenches for lifting or bending pipes.
Do not use a wrench on moving machinery.
Do not use the wrong tools for the job. Never use pliers instead of a
wrench or a wrench as a hammer.

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SAFETY
Do not use a make-shift wrench.
Do not insert a shim in a wrench for better fit.
Do not strike a wrench (except a "strike face" wrench) with a
hammer, or similar object, to gain more force.
Do not increase the leverage by adding sleeved additions (e.g., a
pipe) to increase tool handle length.
Do not expose a wrench to excessive heat (like from a blow torch)
that could affect the temper of the metal and ruin the tool.
Keep wrenches clean and free from oil.
Return them to the case at the completion of each job.

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SOCKET SETS
Sockets have a square drive on one end for a socket
wrench to turn the socket.
The other end is designed to fit a fastener.
The most common square drives are , 3/8, and
drives. There are bigger drives available.
Sockets come in different styles; regular length, deep well
(longer), impact strength, 6 point, 8 point, 12 point

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SOCKET HANDLES
There are 4 basic handles for turning a socket
Ratchet handle, allows turning without removing the tool from
the fastener.
Breaker bar or pull bar has a hinged square drive and allows
more force to be used.
T-bar handle has a sliding head on a straight bar that will allow
different amounts of leverage to be used.
Speed wrench is a two handed fast wrench but allow very little
leverage.

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SOCKET ACCESSORIES
Extensions add length and allows access to bolts that deep
in an assembly or to rise above an obstruction.
Socket adapters allow 2 different square drives to be used
together.
U-joints allow the wrench to be used in obstructed areas.
Universal sockets are u-joints built into the socket end.
Crows foot wrenches-open end wrench head driven by a
ratchet
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Socket Sets

Socket wrench set

A socket is a cylinder-shaped, box-end tool for removing or


installing bolts and nuts.
One end fits over the fastener. The other end has a square hole
that fits on a handle used for turning.
A socket's drive size is the size of the square opening for the
ratchet or tool handle.

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DIFFERENT SOCKET TYPES.

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Socket Handles
Socket handles fit into the square opening in the top of
the socket.
A ratchet is the most commonly used and versatile
socket handle. It has a small lever that can be moved for
either loosening or tightening bolts.
A flex bar, or breaker bar, is the most powerful and
strongest socket handle. It should be used when
breaking loose large or extremely tight bolts and nuts.
A speed handle is the fastest hand operated socket
handle. After a bolt is loosened, a speed handle will
rapidly spin out the bolt.

Socket Handles
Ratchet

Breaker bar or flex handle

Socket Handles
Speed handle

T-handle

Socket Handles
Torque wrench

Flexible driver

TORQUE WRENCHES
Are used to tighten fasteners to a specific tightness
(torque) value.
There are several styles;
Click type, gives an audible sound with the desired torque is
reached.
Beam type, uses a needle to indicate torque value.
Dial type which indicates torque value on a dial.

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EXTENTIONS
Extensions are used between a socket and its handle.
They allow the handle to be placed farther from the
workpiece, giving you room to swing the handle and turn
the fastener.
A universal joint is a swivel that lets the socket wrench
reach around obstructions, it is used between the socket
and drive handle, with or without an extension. Avoid
putting too much bend into a universal joint, or it may
bind and break.
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EXTENSIONS

Used between a socket and its handle


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UNIVERSAL JOINT

Swivel that lets the socket wrench reach around


obstructions
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METAL CUTTING TOOLS


Many types of tool materials, ranging from high carbon steel to
ceramics and diamonds, are used as cutting tools in todays
metalworking industry.
A cutting tool must have the following characteristics in order to
produce good quality and economical parts:
Hardness
Toughness
Wear Resistance

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METAL CUTTING TOOLS


sheet metal snips
Aviation snips
Power shears

Nibblers

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METAL CUTTING TOOLS


Hacksaws

Shears

Notchers

Bench mounted shear


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METAL CUTTING TOOLS


Bolt Cutters

Shears/Tin Snips

Utility Knife

Bulldog Snips
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METAL CUTTING TOOLS


Compound Lever Shears

Circle Snips

Hawks Bill Snips

Trojan Snips
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SAWS
Keep control of saws
Do not use an adjustable blade saw
Do not use a saw that has dull saw blades
Oil saw blades after each use of the saw
Keep your hands and fingers away from the saw blade while you
are using the saw
Do not carry a saw by the blade
When using the hand saw, hold the workpiece firmly against the
work table

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SNIPS
Wear your safety glasses or safety goggles when using
snips to cut materials
Wear your work gloves when cutting materials with snips
Do not use straight cut snips to cut curves
Keep the blade aligned by tightening the nut and bolt on
the snips
Do not use snips as a hammer, screwdriver or pry bar
Use the locking clip on the snips after you have finished
using them
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HAND FILES
Hand files are used in the workshop to smooth rough
edges. They can be used to smooth a range of materials
including metals such as brass and steel.
They are made from high carbon steel and they are heat
treated so that they are tougher than the steel or other
materials that they are to be applied to.
Files have wooden or plastic handles with a metal body.
On the metal body are thousands of tiny teeth. In smooth
files, these teeth are small. In rough files, these teeth are
larger.
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HAND FILES
Files are used for removing material from either metal,
wood or plastic, to create a smooth edge or to create a
new profile (shape).
The material being filed should be secured in a vice.
Files come in a wide range from very rough to very
smooth files.
Files come in a range of cross sections for different jobs.
Files can be Flat, Round, Half Round and Three Square.
A Rasp is used when a lot of material needs to be
removed quickly.
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HAND FILES
ROUND FILE (rat tail)
FLAT FILE
HALF ROUND FILE
THREE SQUARE FILE
(Triangular)
RASP

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CARING FOR FILES


Do not use a file as a pry bar, hammer, screwdriver or
chisel
When using a file or a rasp, grasp the handle in one hand
and the toe of the file in the other
Do not hammer on a file
Choose the right file for the material and work to be
performed.
Keep all files racked and separated so they do not bear
against each other.
Keep the files in a dry placerust will corrode the teeth
points, dulling the file.
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CARING FOR FILES


Keep files clean. Tap the end of the file against the bench
after every few strokes, to loosen and clear the filings.
Use the file card to keep files cleana dirty file is a dull
file. A dirty file can also contaminate different metals
when the same file is used on multiple metal surfaces.

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DRILLS & TWIST DRILLS


There are generally four types of portable drills used in aviation for
holding and turning twist drills. Holes inch in diameter and under
can be drilled using a hand drill. This drill is commonly called an
egg beater.

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DRILLS & TWIST DRILLS


The breast drill is designed to hold larger size twist drills than the
hand drill. In addition, a breastplate is affixed at the upper end of
the drill to permit the use of body weight to increase the cutting
power of the drill.

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DRILLS & TWIST DRILLS


Electric and pneumatic power drills are available in various shapes
and sizes to satisfy almost any requirement.

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DRILLS & TWIST DRILLS


Pneumatic drills are preferred for use around flammable materials,
since sparks from an electric drill are a fire or explosion hazard.

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Keyless
Chuck

Chuck

Morse Taper
Chuck Key

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SAFETY RULES
Wear safety glasses to protect your eyes from debris.
Keep the work area clean and uncluttered.
Loose fitting clothes, jewelry, or hair that is not tied back can get
tangled in the drill and cause serious injury.
Drilling boards with nails, paint, gravel, staples, or other foreign
materials can dull the drill bit.
Using the drill with out first clamping the work firmly in place is
very dangerous.
Hold the portable electric drill motor firmly with both hands at all
times when drilling.
Make sure the chuck key has been removed before turning the
power on.
Use the proper speed for the material you are drilling.
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SAFETY RULES
Feed the drill into the material at a constant rate.
Never make adjustments or attempt to change bits while the drill is
plugged in or running.
Keep others away from the machine and out of the safety zone.
Have the instructor check your set up before using the machine.
Wearing gloves while using the drill is unsafe.
Drilling into a container that mayhave once contained or does
contain flammable materials could cause a fire or explosion.
If you drill into an electric wire or cord you will probably get
shocked.
Use a "V" block to hold round or cylindrical stock.
Raise the drill bit off the wood until the machine has been turned on
and reached full speed.
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SAFETY RULES
Turn off the drill and wait for it to come to a complete stop before
clearing sawdust off the table.
Check the trigger on the portable electric drills that have cords to be
sure it is in the off position before plugging the drill into the power
source.
A cordless drill should be in the off position (between forward and
reverse) or have the battery removed when changing bits or when it
is not in use.

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TWIST DRILLS
A twist drill is a pointed tool that is rotated to cut holes in
material.
It is made of a cylindrical hardened steel bar having spiral
flutes (grooves) running the length of the body, and a
conical point with cutting edges formed by the ends of the
flutes.
Twist drills are made of carbon steel or high-speed alloy
steel. Carbon steel twist drills are satisfactory for the
general run of work and are relatively inexpensive.
The more expensive high-speed twist drills are used for
the tough materials such as stainless steels.
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TWIST DRILLS
Twist drills have from one to four spiral flutes.
Drills with two flutes are used for most drilling;
those with three or four flutes are used principally to
follow smaller drills or to enlarge holes.

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TWIST DRILLS OR DRILL BITS


The twist drill or drill bit is made from High Speed
Steel, tempered to give maximum hardness throughout the
parallel cutting portion.
Flutes are incorporated to carry away the chips of metal
and the outside surface is relieved to produce a cutting
edge along the leading side of each flute.
Twist drills have from one to four spiral flutes.
Drills with two flutes are used for most drilling;
those with three or four flutes are used principally to
follow smaller drills or to enlarge holes.
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TWIST DRILL
Twist drills are available with parallel shanks up to
16mm diameter and with taper shanks up to 100mm
diameter and are made from high-speed steel.
Standard lengths are known as jobber-series twist
drills, short drills are known as stub series, and long
drills as long series and extra long series.
Different helix angles are available for drilling a
range of materials

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DRILL BIT

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DRILL BIT FEATURES

Drill Bit Features


The point of the drill is
ground to an angle of
118 degrees
each side is ground back
to give " relief " of
about 12 degrees to each
cutting edge as shown

Helix types

Standard

slow

quick helix

Drill Bit

Wood bits

masonry

steel

Hole Cutters for Used Sheets


When cutting large holes
in sheet stock, a hole
cutter is used
Hole cutters have a pilot
drill in the center used to
accurately locate the
center
Also called a hole saw

COUNTERBORING, COUNTERSINKING, AND SPOT


FACING
Counterboring: Follows a drilling operation, or in with
drilling with a custom tool. Purpose is to produce a flat
bottom so that bolt head or nut is below the surface with
enough clearance for a tool.
Countersinking: Similar to counterboring, but with a 60,
82, or 90 beveled bottom to accommodate flat-head screw
or rivet.
Spot facing: Machine minimum depth and diameter around
hole to ensure full seating of a bolt head. Used on rough
stock surfaces where corrosion or fatigue requirements
require full seating
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COUNTERBORING AND COUNTERSINKING TOOLS


(a) Surfaces
produced by counterboring,
countersinking, and spot facing.
(b) Counterboring tools:
Interchangeable counterbore;
solid, taper-shank counterbore
with integral pilot;
replaceable counterbore and
pilot;
replaceable counterbore,
disassembled.
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REAMING
Reams remove small amounts of material to
ensure exact hole size and improve hole surface
finish
Reams are either hand operated or machined at slow
speed
Ream types

Shell reams
Expansion reams
Adjustable reams
Tapered reams

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TYPES OF REAMS
Straightfluted rose
reamer,
straight-fluted chucking
reamer,
straight-fluted taper
reamer,
straight-fluted hand
reamer,
expansion reamer,
shell reamer,
adjustable insertblade
reamer.
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TAPS AND DIES


A tap is used to cut threads on the inside of a hole, while
a die is for cutting external threads on round stock.
They are made of hard tempered steel and ground to an
exact size.
There are four types of threads that can be cut with
standard taps and dies.
They are: Coarse, Fine, Extra Fine, and Pipe.

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HAND TAPS

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TYPES OF DIES

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DIESTOCK AND TAP WRENCHES

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