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- Ceramic materials that are capable of withstanding

high temperatures, resistant to thermal shock,
chemically inert, and have low thermal
conductivities and coefficients of expansion
- Used to line furnaces and keep heat within the
furnace heart (metal smelting, glass production,
ceramic component manufacture)

Requisites of a good refractory material

- Dependent on operating factors such as:
-Materials to be in contact with


- Certain refractory material can operate and are
chemically stable at certain temperature
Silicon oxide ()
stable <1702
Graphite (C)
sublimes at 1000under
oxidizing conditions
- Atmosphere dictate what material to be used
under a particular condition
Graphite- can operate at several thousand
Celsius under reducing conditions

Type of Material to be in contact with

- Type of material the a refractory come into contact
with can also dictate which materials are suitable
steel making -uses basic refractory
-acidic refractory (silica) will be eroded
quickly by the basic slag forming low melting point
Raw materials used
Oxide refractories:
- Silicon
- Aluminum
- Magnesium
- Calcium
- Zirconium

Non-oxide refractories:
- Carbides
- Nitrides
- Borides
- Graphites
Properties of Refractories
1. Any refractory should withstand very high
temperature with any deformation or softening
2. Can withstand adequate load during working in
kilns or furnaces
3. Able to withstand abrading action of furnace

4. Should withstand spalling during any process

5. Dimensional stability and chemical inertness
6. Have either low or high thermal conductivities
7. Comes in range of different densities and
8. Materials of low electrical conductivity are
generally used for lining in furnaces
Classification of Refractories
1. Acid -Silica Bricks, Fire clay bricks
2. Basic Magnesia Bricks, Bauxite Bricks
3. Neutral Chromite, silicon carbide, graphite,

Acid Refractory
- Most abundant material in earths crust
- Raw material for manufacture of glass and
- Sources: sandstone, silica sand or quartzite
- Good abrasion resistance
- Electrical insulation
- High thermal stability (Behaves like an acid when
reacted to base at high temperatures)
- Insoluble in majority of acids

- Manufactured by taking 90% crushed mineral
Silica along with a Flux material of CaO and
heating at elevated temperature of 1010
- Operates up to 1093
- Resistant to thermal shock due to high porosity
- Used primarily in steel mills and coke by-product,
primarily in strong phosphoric acid exposures
- May have lower strength and abrasion resistance


- Most common and extensively used in all places
of heat generation (abundant supply, cheap)
- Can withstand above Pyrometric Cone Equivalent
(PCE) 19 (1500
- Kaolinite group: alteration or kaolinization of
feldspar and
aluminum silicates
- An Aluminum silicate based mineral clay
- Used in glass melting furnaces,
- Chimney linings,
- Pottery kilns blast furnaces,
- Reheating Furnaces,

Basic Refractory

- Based on compounds of magnesium and oxygen
- Divided based on origin and process:
Caustic Magnesia - and are calcined to form
-(700-1000 plastics, rubber, adhesives
-(1000-1500) fertilizer


Dead-burned Magnesia -produced in shaft and rotary kilns

-reduced chemical reactivity, suitable to refractory applications
Fused Magnesia -produced in an electric arc furnace in excess
of 2650
-used in variety of refractory and electrical

- Properties:
-good corrosion resistance
-high thermal conductivity
-low electrical conductivity
-transparency to infrared
- Application:
-Steel industry as a refractory brick impregnated
with carbon
-In Glass cement industries in combination with
spinel or
-Castables and sprayables based on magnesia
used for basic refractory for steel transfer


Silicon Carbide
- Made by heating silica and petroleum coke in a
furnace above 2200
- Resistant to abrasion, corrosion and thermal
- Can oxidise readily
- Has excellent thermal conductivity
- Posses electrical properties due to semiconductor

Manufacture of Refractories
1. Crushing and Grinding the material in crushed
and grounded well to a proper size and sieved to
a particular uniform size

2. Screening -the materials are subjected to

different physical, chemical and magnetic methods
to free from unwanted impurities
3. Mixing it is subjected to mixing for equal
distribution of plastic materials throughout the mass
so that molding would be easy

4. Molding
Hand Molding hand molding gives low density
Mechanical Molding Produces refractories of
strength and density
-de-airing is desired to increase the
density and strength

5.Drying the removal of water/moisture

-carried out at very slow and in particular set
conditions of humidity and temperature

Firing and Sintering the material fired to
achieve desirable
properties such as
vitrification, sintering
and to obtain a stable
mineral form.
-temperature range is 1400-2000 for any
type of brick

Manufacture of Fireclay/kaolin
1. Storage of procured clay to weather for a year
2. Grinding the weathered clay is mixed with grog
and sent to the grinding mill
3. Milling a suitable water is added to give proper
4. Molding mold is supplied to different mahicines
for making standard brick or shapes
-intricate shapes are made by hand
5. Drying in hot floor driers
6. Firing of the clay in kilns
7. Cooling kilns are allowed to be cooled
8. Unloading of the bricks