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NS100

Fundamentals of
Naval Science

Precise Piloting

Objectives:
1. Describe shiphandling characteristics.
2. Demonstrate how to calculate advance,
transfer, and turn bearings.
3. Determine position in relation to track

4. Demonstrate how to calculate danger bea

Handling Characteristics
Turning Circle - The path followed by the
pivot
point of a ship during a 360 degree (or
more)
turn using a constant rudder and speed.
- The pivot point for most warships is
about
1/3 the way aft from the bow when
the ship

60
C

P
B

F
H

T
G

Typical Ships Turning Circle

Handling Characteristics
Advance - The distance gained in the
original
direction the ship was traveling from the
point
that the rudder was put over to the point
where the ship is steady on the new
course.

Advance

Final Course

Original Course

End
of
Turn

Start
of
Turn

Measured from the


point the rudder was
put over to the point
where the ship is
steady on its course

Handling Characteristics
Transfer - The distance gained,
perpendicular
to the original course from the point
where the
rudder was thrown over, to the point
where the
ship is steady on the new course.

Transfer
Final Course

Original Course

End
of
Turn

Start
of
Turn

Distance measured
perpendicular to the
original course

Handling Characteristics
Tactical Diameter - The transfer of a vessel
during a 180 degree turn.
Final Diameter - The diameter of the
approximate circular path that a ship
describes
if the rudder is kept over indefinitely.

Diameter
Tactical

Diameter
B

Final
F
A
Wheel Over
Original
Course
000

Tactical Diameter

Handling Characteristics
Standard Tactical Diameter - A specified
tactical
diameter is laid down in tactical
publications
for naval ship types (i.e., frigates,
destroyers,
cruisers, and aircraft carriers).
- This data is used when ships are
maneuvering in company to ensure all

Handling Characteristics
Standard Rudder - The amount of rudder
required to ensure a warship achieves
the
ordered standard tactical diameter.
- This rudder amount will vary between
warship classes.

Diameter
Tactical

Diameter
B

Final
F
A
Wheel Over
Original
Course
000

Tactical Diameter

Handling Characteristics
Turn Bearings - In order to plot the position
at
which the ship must put the rudder over
(to
turn onto a planned track), the figures
for
advance and transfer must be calculated
using
interpolation, unless the specific speed

TR

TR - 000 T

50

TR

-0
50

ADVANCE AND TRANSFER TABLE


SPEED

RUDDER
ADVANCE/TRANSFER
ANGLE
45deg turn
90deg turn
YDS
YDS

6KTS

STD.
FULL

117/55
67/40

10KTS

STD.
FULL

80/45
45/30

135/85
55/55
125/80
75/50

Handling Characteristics
Turn Bearings - Should interpolation be
necessary, the figure for transfer is used
first
to find the point where the ship will be
steady
on the new track.
- The figure for advance is then used to
determine where the rudder must be

T
-0
50
TR

TR - 000 T

TR

100

0
Scale in Yards

100

200

Advance and Transfer Table

Angle of
Turn
Advance
Transfer
15
180
18
30
230
30
45
270
60
60
310
110
75
330
170
For a 50 degree turn:
Advance = 283 yds

Transfer =

T
-0
50
TR

90

77yds

TR

TR - 000 T

100

0
Scale in Yards

100

200

T
-0
50
TR
B

TR

TB

270

Steadyin
g Point

Yds
281

TR - 000 T

Turn
Point

100

0
Scale in Yards

100

200

T
-0
50
TR

TR

TR - 000 T

TB

270

90

100

0
Scale in Yards

100

200

005

Lt Ho

Actual Track - 1
070

Actual Track - 2

WO
A

Pick a turn
bearing
navaid close
to the beam.

005

Lt Ho

Actual Track - 1
070

Actual Track - 2

WO
A

Pick a turn
bearing
navaid
parallel to
new course
automatic
adjustment
to back on
track

Establishing Position
- Many means are provided to help keep a
ship
on track (i.e., specially constructed
ranges,
direction lights,etc.).

is

- However, should nothing be provided


specifically designed for the purpose, it

010

020

010

020