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# Draft, Performance indicators,

## efficiency evaluation of furnaces

and boilers

Draft
Draft at any point inside furnace is the difference in
energy between column of hot gas and the
atmosphere outside furnace
Volume of gases increases with temperature and the
weight per unit volume becomes less
If the hot gas is confined in a column of suitable
height, the buoyancy of the gas as contained in
column is capable of creating draft or less than
atmospheric pressure required to cause atmospheric
air to be drawn into furnace.

Minimum Draft
Draft to overcome the pressure drop of combustion
gases in their flow from furnace proper to the point of
entry to stack (plus minus 0.03 inch WC)
Increase in temperature increase draft
Draft varies (-) 0.1 inch per 10 feet height in furnace
If the draft at arc is -0.01 inch WC at arc the draft at
below 10 feet would be -0.13 inch WC

## Natural draft furnace

Draft at convectional
outlet -0.53 inch WC
Convection bank Pr drop
-0.5 inch WC
Convection tube
Shock tubes

## Prime rule of furnace

operation is such that
there should never be
positive pressure at any
point within furnace
structure
4

Draft
Where to control?
How to assess the profile of draft in case of
pressurization of boiler / furnaces?
Case on draft survey in Russian Boilers
Case on VBU furnace

Performance indicators
The performance indicators of furnaces and
boilers are:
Excess Air
Temperature of flue gas to stack

## Optimising Excess Air

In practice Excess Air over Stoichiometric air is
needed for complete combustion
Less Air Incomplete combustion & Smoke
More Air Heat loss through stack

%

% O2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Excess Air %
10
16
22
29
37
46
57
69
83

10 %
reduction
in excess
air can
increase
efficiency
by 1 %
8

## How to find Excess Air?

O2 in flue gas from analyzer or portable
instrument
Excess air = (O2 %)* 100 / (21- O2 %)
Excess air in flue gas having 3 % O2 in flue
gas = (3*100)/(21-3)=16.6 say 17%

10

## How to find Excess Air?

ORSAT analysis of flue gas and read excess
air from BETZ chart using data on O2 and
CO2

11

## Where to measure Excess Air?

For combustion control measure O2 at ARCH for
furnaces and at the inlet of super heater for boilers
i.e. at end of fire box.

## For effectiveness on air tightness track O2

content in flue gas at convection outlet and at
APH outlet
It is true that none of the furnaces nor boilers
are air tight !

12

## How to control Excess Air?

Combustion Control
Minimize Air ingress
Operate and maintain APH to avoid air leak

13

## How to control Excess Air?

Combustion Control
Better atomization of oil (right temp of oil, dry
superheated atomizing steam)
Delta P (Steam Oil)
Supply of quality fuel oil as per design condition
of burners
Preparation of fuel oil tank (BS&W and foreign
materials in oil)
Right quantity of combustion air

14

## How to control Excess Air?

Air ingress
Ensure tight closing of peep holes / igniter
points
Seal all openings in convection banks i.e.
return bend covers
Ensure no leak in APH
Apply castables at joints of return bend
covers

15

## Flue Gas Sampling points

At ARCH for combustion control (continuous)
At APH inlet for detecting air ingress in
convection bank
At APH out let for assessing leaks if any
Ensure proper sample points (like that in
DHDT)

16

Draft

17

Efficiency evaluation of
FURNACE & BOILER

18

Boiler System

Boiler

Economiser

APH

Damper

Oil

FD fan

Induced Draft
Fan

19

EFFICIENCY =

## USEFUL ENERGY OUTPUT

--------------------------------------ENERGY INPUT

ACCURACY DEPENDS UPON MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY
UTILIZED & FUEL CONSUMPTION
FOR 90 % OPERATING EFFICIENCY FURNACE 1% ERROR
IN ESTIMATION RESULTS IN SIGNIFICANT VARIATION
90 +/- 0.9 = 89.1 TO 90.9 %
IT DOES NOT INDICATES CLUES TO OPERATING
PERSONNEL

20

EFFICIENCY =

## USEFUL ENERGY OUTPUT - LOSSES

----------------------------------------------------ENERGY INPUT

LOSSES ARE ESTIMATED AND DEDUCTED FROM 100
IMPACT OF 1 % VARIATION ON EFFICIENCY IS
100 (10 +/- 0.1) = 90 +/- 0.1 = 89.9 TO 90.1 %
IT INDICATES CLUES TO OPERATING PERSONNEL

21

## Define : Losses during Furnace Operation

FURNACE EFFICIENCY IS ALWAYS LESS THAN ONE DUE TO
FOLLOWING LOSSES:
SENSIBLE HEAT LOSS ALONG WITH DRY FLUE GAS
LATENT HEAT LOSS DUE TO PRESENCE OF H2 IN FUEL
LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN FUEL
LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR
LOSS DUE TO INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

22

## Calculation of Furnace efficiency

Indirect Method
Fuel fired : Only IFO
Fuel Composition: C=87 %, H2= 12 %, S =
0.7 %, Water = 0.2 %, Ash = 0.1 %
GCV = 10400 Kcal /kg
CO2 content in flue gas: 10.8 %
O2 content in flue gas: 5 %
Stack Temp : 170 C
Ambient Temp : 30 C
23

## Calculation of Furnace efficiency

Indirect Method
Theoretical Air required per kg of fuel:
{11.6 C + 34.8 (H2-O2/8)+ 4.35 S}
100
= (11*87)+(34.8 * 12) + (4.35*0.4)
100
= 14.30 kg of air per kg of fuel
Excess Air = 5 * 100 = 31.25 %
(21-5)

24

## Calculation of Furnace efficiency

Indirect Method
Actual Air supplied = 1.3125 * 14.3 = 18.77 kg of air
per kg of fuel
Mass of flue gas : Mass of CO2 + Mass of N2+
Mass of SO2+Mass of oxygen in flue gas
= 0.87 * (44/12) + 18.77 * 0.77 + 0.007 * 2 + (18.77
14.30) * 0.23
= 3.19 + 14.45 + 0.014 + 1.028
= 18.68 kg of flue gas per kg of fuel

25

## Calculation of Furnace efficiency

Indirect Method
L1 : Heat loss to dry flue gas
M * cp * (Tf - Ta ) * 100
GCV
= 18.68 * 0.23 * (170 30) * 100
10400

= 5.78 %

## L2 : Loss due to hydrogen in fuel

9H2 {584 + 0.45 (Tf Ta)} * 100
10400
= 6.72 %
26

## Calculation of Furnace efficiency

Indirect Method
L3 : Loss due to moisture in fuel
M { 584 + 0.45 (Tf Ta)} * 100
GCV
= 0.002 { 584 + 0.45 (170 30)}* 100
10400

= 0.01 %

## L4 : Loss due to moisture content in air

AAS * (Kg moisture per kg air) * 0.45 * (Tf Ta)* 100
GCV
= 18.77 * 0.025 * 0.45 * (170 30 ) * 100
10400
= 0.28 %

27

## Calculation of Furnace efficiency

Indirect Method
L5 : Heat loss due to partial combustion (formation
of CO) = 0.02%
L6: Radiation and Convection Loss = 2.09%
Total Loss = (L1+L2+L3+L4+L5+l6)
= ( 5.78+6.72+0.01+0.28+0.02+2.09) = 14.91%
Efficiency = 100 14.91 = 85.09%

28

## Calculation of Furnace efficiency

Indirect Method
20 C drop in stack temperature increases
efficiency from 85.09% to 86.05%
Drop in excess air from 31% to 20% increases
efficiency from 86.05% to 86.5%
10 degree C drop in surface temperature
increases efficiency from 86.5 % to 86.59%

29

## Success Factors of Boilers Efficiency

Stack temperature and oxygen content in flue
gas leaving the stack are the results of:
Combustion Efficiency
Design of system
Operational Efficiency
Maintenance Effectiveness
Monitoring & Control

30

## Performance indicators of Boilers

Flue gas temperature to stack
Level of excess air in flue gas
Reality byte:
The temperature of flu gas leaving stack remains
higher than desired
Excess air level remains more than requirement

31

## Estimation of Stack Losses

Stack losses can be estimated with the help of flue
gas temperature to stack and flue gas analysis

## Monographs like BETZ energy chart can be used

for assessing stack losses and furnace efficiency

32

## Furnace efficiency AU-4

Basis
Throughput : 7600 MT per day, % SRF 1.14%
Stack temperature 265 C = 509 F
Ambient temperature = 30 C = 86 F
Flue gas analysis : CO2 9.5%, O2 6%
APH under maintenance

33

## Furnace efficiency AU-4

Connect 9.5 % on CO2 scale with 6 % on O2 scale
Read gas loss = 2.51% per 100 F of difference between
stack and ambient
Sensible heat loss = 2.51 * (509 86) / 100 = 10.62%
Read latent heat loss from scale 2 = 8%
Stack loss = 10.62 + 8 = 18.62 %
Setting loss say 2 %
Efficiency = (100 18.62 2) x 100 / (100 8) = 86.29%

34

## Current efficiency = 86.29%

Achievable efficiency = 90%
Deviation in efficiency = - 3.71%
Additional Fuel consumption = 3.59 MT per day
= 3.59 x 18,000
= Rs. 64,557/- per day

35

## Boiler efficiency B-4

Basis
Stack temperature 180 C = 360 F
Ambient temperature = 30 C = 86 F
O2 analyzer : 4%

36

## Boiler efficiency B-4

Connect 12 % on CO2 scale with 4 % on O2 scale
Read gas loss = 2.3% per 100 F of difference
between stack and ambient
Sensible heat loss = 2.3 * (360 86) / 100 = 6.29%
Read latent heat loss from scale 2 = 6.5%
Stack loss = 6.29 + 6.5 = 12.79 %
Setting loss say 2 %
Efficiency = (100 12.79 2) x 100 / (100 6.5) =
91.1% (erroneous as temperature and O2 are not
at same point)

37

## Boiler efficiency B-4

Connect 8 % on CO2 scale with 7 % on O2 scale
Read gas loss = 2.61% per 100 F of difference
between stack and ambient
Sensible heat loss = 2.61 * (360 86) / 100 =
7.14%
Read latent heat loss from scale 2 = 9%
Stack loss = 7.14+9 = 16.14 %
Setting loss say 2 %
Efficiency = (100 16.14 2) x 100 / (100 9) =
89.9%

38

## Case study on Furnace

Type of furnace: Forced Draft, Vertical cylindrical
Impact of variation in stack temperature at
constant oxygen level of 6 %
Impact of variation in O2 content in flue gas at
constant stack temperature of 325 o C

39

## Case study - Impact of stack temperature

at constant oxygen level of 6 %
STACK TEMP (o C ) vs EFFICIENCY
85
84.27

EFFICIENCY (%)

84.5
84
83.5
83

84.03

83.79
83.31

83.55

82.5
82
325

320

315

310

305

STACK TEMP ( C)

40

## Case study - Impact of variation in O2 content

in flue gas at constant stack temp of 325 o C

EFFICIENCY (% )

88
87
86
85
84
83
82

86.29
85.73

84.88
83.84

83.31
6

OXYGEN (% )

## 1% drop in O2 content in flue gas reduces fuel

consumption by 0.5 to 1 %
41

## Case study - Combined effect of variation in O2

content in flue gas & stack temp
Increase in stack temp with decrease in oxygen level
With decrease in supply rate of air to furnace at high firing
rate, the oxygen level in flue gas comes down but stack
temperature increases marginally.
This effect is mainly due to un-cleaned surface in convection
bank.
Observation based on furnace where fuel fired is 80 % oil
and 20 % gas
This also occurs where area in convection section is less

42

## Case study - Combined effect of variation in O2

content in flue gas & stack temp
Decrease in stack temp with decrease in oxygen level
This phenomena observed in the furnace of Delayed Coking
Unit
Whenever air supply is controlled at high firing rate, stack
temperature drops and skin temperature of coils in radiation
section increases
The fact More heat is available for absorption
90 % fuel fired in this furnace is refinery fuel gas
Cleaner heating surface due to type of fuel used
43

## Case study - Combined effect of variation in O2

content in flue gas & stack temp
Decrease in stack temp with increase in supply of air (increase
of oxygen level in flue gas)
Stack temperature drops due to heat absorbed by additional
quantity of air.
Less heat is available for process
Skin temperature drops with high level of excess air

44

## Case studies on combined effect of

variation in O2 content in flue gas &
stack temp

45

## EFFICIENCY OF FURNACE IN DCU

Target
4.0%

Actual
7.9%

Excess Air

23%

55.3%

Stack Temp o C

165

215

Furnace Efficiency

90%

86.53%

## Fuel saving Potential (MT/Day)

Saving potential , Rs per Day

1.69
23660

46

## ACTION FOR IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF

FURNACE IN DCU
Closing of stack damper
Control of excess air
Sealing of openings in return bend covers of convection
bank
Provision of sample points at convection outlet, APH inlet
and APH outlet for monitoring of O2 profile in flue gas
along the path of flue gas
The sample point as above shall be used for leak test of
APH
Provision of draft gauge at APH inlet / outlet for assessing
pressure drop
47

Target
4.0%

Actual
7.6%

Excess Air

23%

53.3%

## Flue gas Temp at ID suction o C

150

193

Stack Temp o C

150

172

Furnace Efficiency

92%

88.38%

## Fuel saving Potential (MT/Day)

Saving potential , Rs per Day

1.17
16405

48

## ACTION FOR IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF

FURNACE IN CDU
Hot water washing of APH / Revamp of APH
Control of excess air
Stack temperature is indicating lower due to air ingress from
flange just below the thermocouple point in stack
Sealing of openings in return bend covers of convection bank
Provision of sample points at convection outlet, APH inlet for
monitoring of O2 profile in flue gas along the path of flue gas
The sample point as above shall be used for leak test of APH
Provision of draft gauge at APH inlet / outlet for assessing
pressure drop
49

## Factors of stack losses

1. Incomplete combustion
Incomplete combustion leads to formation of CO & soot.
Insufficient Turbulence : Non-uniformity in distribution of air
for furnace with forced draft fan.
Insufficient air supply may be due to malfunctioning of air
dampers
Lower Temperature of fuel oil and lower viscosity at burner tip
Presence of water in fuel / atomizing steam results in poor
atomization of fuel, formation of small fire balls which leads to
formation of soot and increased stack temperature
Formation of coke / clinker at burner tip affects combustion
50

## Factors of stack losses

2. Soot blowing system
Improper soot blowing system results in increased stack
temperature and loss of fuel
Positioning of soot blowers and supply of steam quality
affects soot blowing
3. Firing rate
Increase in firing rate increase stack temperature
4. Position of main stack damper
Design of main stack damper affects stack loss
Position of main stack damper also has direct impact on stack
loss
51

## Factors of stack losses

5. Excess Air
fuel consumption.
6. Mechanical effectiveness / Air Ingress
Fire box and flue gas side remains under negative pressure
Any loose fittings results in air ingress and loss of heat through
stack
7. Peep holes
Improper closing of peep holes leads to air ingress and stack loss.
8. Malfunctioning of monitoring instruments
Oxygen analyzers are installed with good intention. But these
instruments fail very often which affects control of excess air.
52

## Opportunities for minimizing stack losses

Uniform air distribution to burners
The oil must be heated to desired temperature at burner tip
Water free oil to burner
Regular cleaning of burners to minimize clinker formation
Use of dry superheated steam for atomization
Use of castables for sealing openings in convection bank of
furnaces
Installation of glass window peep holes in place of door type peep
holes
Survey of APH for leak
Use of portable oxygen analyzers for monitoring of oxygen profile
in flue gas.
53

## REVAMP OF FURNACE IN CRUDE

DISTILLATION UNIT

convection

APH
Furnace
ID
54

## Issue of Monitoring and control of stack gas

temperature and oxygen in flue gas
Questions are:
a. Where should you measure the stack gas temperature
and why do you recommend this location?
b. Which is the best solution to measure either O2 or CO2
in stack gas and why is it the best solution?
c. Where should you place the oxygen sensor and why do
you select this location?

55

## Issue of Monitoring and control of stack gas

temperature and oxygen in flue gas
Question:
a. Where should you measure the stack gas temperature
and why do you recommend this location?

## Measure stack temperature at final exit point of boiler

i.e. at APH outlet of ID suction.

## For balanced draft furnace measure flue gas

temperature at final stack

56

## Issue of Monitoring and control of stack gas

temperature and oxygen in flue gas
Question:
a. Which is the best solution to measure either O2 or CO2
in stack gas and why is it the best solution?
Best solution is to measure oxygen in flue gas.

57

## Issue of Monitoring and control of stack gas

temperature and oxygen in flue gas
Question:
a.Where should you place the oxygen sensor and why do you
select this location?