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The natural ecological

environmental protection and


management of mines

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foreword

the natural ecological environment protection and management of


mines
2.
the natural ecological environment protection and management
project
.
The effect evaluation of mine environment
4.
recovery scheme of the natural ecological environment
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protection and management

Mineral resources is a very important part of land and


resources. Mining as one basic industry for national economy.
Hence, natural ecological environment of mines as a very
important
content of land renovation and environment
construction. Like people said good ecological lead to civilized
blossom, bad ecological lead civilization down, mineral
resources development and its utilization made great
contribution for human civilization while made destructions and
influences for natural ecological environment as well. so that,
how to avoid disadvantages and create mines cycle economy,

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Mine natural
ecological environment protection and
management as the leading project of mine natural
ecological protection and significant measure of each level
government for processing environment protection and
management. So that, more
scientific protection and
construction are required for promoting civilization and
implementing sustainable strategy.
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mine environment
disaster
1)
Mining activities occupied and broke
numerous land resources.

(2) Mining caused geological disaster.


(3) It produce all kinds of environmental
issues.
(4) It produced amount of waste gas,
slag and water
(5) Water and Soil erosion, land
desertification
(6) Other disasters

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About mine environment


management
1 solid waste recycling
A. tailings
B. Barren rock
2 land reclamation
3 harmless mine waste water

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1
The natural ecological environmental
protection and management of mines
1 1
1 2
several concepts with mine natural ecological
environment

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The meaning of
environment protection and
management, it is a very important part in the whole
environment system so that strengthening protection
and management has become necessarily for promoting
resources reasonable utilization
and ecological
protection, as well as ecological construction ,meanwhile
its also as a important measure of land and resources
department for realize sustainable development .
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Mine natural ecological environment protection and


management need to insist sustainable development
,couldnt stay in old concepts then set up unity
concept. Finally create new mechanism and make new
ways in order to create new situation and burst new
energy for entire land and resources management.
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Hence, mine natural ecological environment protection and


management must according to scientific
development
perspective, further exchange perspective, mind, function and
style. Under the recondition of ecological recovery and
protection for omni-bearing development, strive to keep balance
between protection and develop economy, management and
expend space, vitalize reserves and build increases. Finally,
wholly
create a new situation for mine natural ecological
environment protection and management, actively strive to
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more
spaces
for
protecting
ecology
and
guarantee

1 1

1.1.2
the meaning of mine natural ecological environment
protection and management
20

in the late 20
century, with the global
population
increased ,shortage of
resources, environment pollution and ecology deteriorate. After
deepen thinking about traditional developing mode people started
to explore sustainable ways
that coordinate among economy
society, resources and environment. In our country, we see the
sustainable development as fundamental policy.

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Mine ecological environment as a part of the whole


environment system, it more or less exerts
influence to the environment system and further
influence the realized extent of sustainable
development
strategy,
therefore,
from
macroscopic view, we realized that mine natural
ecological
environment
protection
and
management have a very significant meaning .
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1.It is the desire for


promoting ecological civilized
construction
good ecological lead to civilization blossom, worse ecological lead
civilization down, so that promoting ecological civilized construction is
the need for protection and developing productivity, to the benefit of
adjust
economy
and optimize industry
distribution, decrease
environment pollution and ecology break in order to supply
productivities for development. In other side, it is the signal of social
civilization improvement which good for
people change their
producing methods, life style, expense perspective, strengthening
perspective about ecological environment protection, hardly
developing ecological civilization. It is also good for construct a
comfortable living environment, produce safety green product, realize
natural resources sustainable utilization then efficient improve living
standard. To be brief, the protection and management of ecological
environment as a significant part for entire ecological system has play
a very important role for promoting civilized construction.
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2.It is the desire for promoting sustainable development


Ecological environment is the foundation of economic society
development, the modern society development should focus on
comprehensive development and harmonious development on
space, sustainable development of time. If we dont change the
economic growth mode radically, the high growth will result in
resources consume and pollutant emissions increasing, give rise to
serious
environmental
problems
and
limited
sustainable
development for economic society.

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Promoting mine ecological environment construction walk the mining


economic development way of Science and technology straight-pilot,
ecological protection, cycling economy. Not only to be benefit of
promoting mineral resources sustainable utilization, realized substance,
energy, information in multi-level classification cycling and change the
limitation of low mineral resources commitment and small environment
capacity presently. But also, more important radically integrated limited
mineral resources and optimize mineral resources distribution,
reasonable adjust mining structure, keeping improve industrial level and
economy quantity further realize mining sustainable development.

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3. It is the desire for comprehensive construct


modern society
For comprehensive construct modern society need we
insist sustainable development ,change ecological
environment ,effectively
utilize resources, promote
harmony of human and nature in order to promote the
entire society go to the way of
wealthy life, good
ecological civilization development .

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main problems of mine natural


ecological environment protection
Water pollution
Air pollution

Land destruction and natural ecological


environment damage
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The pivotal of promote mine ecological construction


need to abide by ecological principle, system
engineering method, sustainable mineral resources and
mine ecological environment. Give the harmonious
homeland to citizen, leave green environment for their
descendants.

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1 1 3

1500 1411
154 2000

mineral resources means mineralization has made the


underlying minerals and distributed useful elements obtain
industrial utilization value which mineral elements content to
a certain degree. There are 1500 minerals has been found
over the world among 1411 minerals can use for industry.
There are 154 mineral resources which been prospected and
have mining value in China, distributing in nearly 2000 cities.

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The quantities, mining conditions and geographic positions


directly influence utilized value of mineral resources. Its regional
characteristics influence
region economic development and
industrial distributed structure. Mineral resources utilization have
a very close relationships with industrial value, productivities
development, techniques and economy. With the improvement of
geological prospecting ,mining processing technology so that the
mineral resources utilization would be deepen and expanded
constantly.

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Nevertheless, people always ignored mining ecological environment


protection and management in mining or processing result some
serious pollution of atmosphere, water and land also destructed
vegetation and natural landscape result in Secondary geological
hazards, such as subsidence, collapse, debris flow which caused
serious damage and loss to peoples life and properties. Those
unreasonable mineral exploitation give rise to regional ecological
environment problems focus on three aspects, as follow:
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1.water pollution
Because of those mining and ore dressing activities caused surface
water and underground water shown acidity and contained heavy metals
and toxic elements. This discharge of polluted water could endanger
those surrounding watercourse or land even damage the whole water
system, affect the domestic water and industrial and agricultural water.
When toxic elements or heavy metals intrude into food chain will cause
serious damage and underlying threat for human survive and health.

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15423

air pollution

Because of drill and dynamite activities under Open-cast


mining and underground mining, others like oxidized dust
and hillock which produces in transport process, a large
number of natural released harmful gas, Waste rock
weathering formation of fine grained material and dust,
tailings, mine dust storms were caused by dry weather and
wind. All those reasons should cause regional environment
atmosphere pollution.
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3.Land destruction and natural ecological environment damage

mining, especially open-cast mining result in some problems


like land destruction, wasted material occupation and surface
subsidence, thereby cause ecological problems including soil
and vegetation been destroyed, intensified soil and water lost,
natural landscape damage. Hence, take concentrate on land
reclamation, recovery vegetation, defense land and water lost,
change ecological environment and decrease land resources
consume.

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1 2
Relevant theories of mine natural
ecological environment

Ecologic
al
econom
y

GDP
Green Cycling
GDP
econo
my
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1 2 1 ecological
economy

Ecological is an economic activity which means


combined economic development and ecological
environment protection in order to mutual promotion. It
is the inevitable product of productivities continuous
development and limited activity for resources and
environment capacity, it is also specific form of
sustainable development .
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Ecological economy emphasize ecological assets should


invested benefit in economic construction. Ecological
environment either carrier for economic activities or
produce elements, construction and protect ecological
environment also means development productivities.
Ecological economy emphasize
keep balance with
ecological construction and utilization while manage
environment protection.
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1 2 2 GDP
GDP
GDP

Green GDP refer to measure countries total calculation of new


create national wealth after deduct natural capital loss. To be
brief, it means in the present method of statistics, deduct
economy cost loss which caused by environment pollution,
natural resources degeneration, lag behind education, population
out of control and poor management, consequently get the real
GDP.

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GDP

Green GDP is a newly calculate system due to it reasonable


deducted real externalized cost, efficiently defense waste,
low efficient and increasingly accumulated damage to the
environment on resources exploitation and utilization
process, then it could internal react the quantity of human
society development in order to become the significant
calculation indicator for realize sustainable development.

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GDP
GDP

GDP GDP

The development of human economy and the improvement


of society not only react the level of economy growth but also
show sustainable extent between economy growth and
natural environment protection. The higher the green GDP
are, the higher the positive effect of human economy growth is.

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1 2 3 cycling economy

definitions of cycling economy as a core for high efficiency resources utilization,


take reduction, recycling for the principle, with the low consumption, low
emission, high efficiency as basic characteristics, it is also a economic
developing mode to make use of things and radically renovation for traditional
growth mode of A large number of production, consumption, a large number of
abandoned .It emphasize that the essence focus on harmonize society and
natural development, make it most to save resources. Essentially ,cycling
economy is one kind ecological economy, it ask for apply ecological regular not
the Mechanistic law to guide the economic activities of human society.

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3R Reduce
Re-use Recycle

The development of circular economy is an important approach to


solve the shortage of resources in China, the realistic choice of
realizing economic sustainable development strategic goal, is an
effective way of transformation of the mode of economic growth, is
one of the important measures to take a new way to industrialization.
The three principle of circular economy also called 3R which are
reduce, re-use,and recycle each of the principle is very necessary
for implement.

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1 2 3
:
Reduce principle:

The principle aim to input terminal ask for less material and energy that
in order to attained assured produce and consumption purposes ,its
purpose on decrease the substance and energy flow which in the process
of production and consumption. In other word, mesurement for avoid
produce waste should through prevent rather than terminal management.

Re-use principle: This is against the principle of process, to prolong the time
products and packaging container strength requirements, that is to say,
to use items as many as possible or variety of ways as possible
meanwhile avoid goods become disposable products.
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recycling principle : This is for the output principle to


produce goods in completed its use function can become
available again after resources rather than useless junk,
in order to reduce the final process, it is what we always
talk about waste recycling and comprehensive utilization
.

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3R
3R

3Rprinciple formed basic principle of cycling economy,


thereinto, reduce principle as the first principle of
economy.the 3R principle ask for reduce resource usage
of Economic source and pollution discharge. For source
cannot cut pollutants and after consumer use of packaging
waste, junk etc to be recycled to make them return to in the
economic cycle.
Only when avoid and recycling cannot
achieve, harmless disposal of waste will be allowed .

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2 1

2 1 1

2 1 2

2 1 3

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2.1 mine natural ecological


environment protection and
management

2.1.1 the meaning of mine natural ecological


environment protection and management
2.1.2
the characteristics of mine natural
ecological
environment
protection
and
management planning
2.1.2
the layer system of mine natural
ecological
environment
protection
and
management planning
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2 1 1

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2.1.1 the meaning of mine natural ecological


environment protection and management
Mine ecological environment protection and management
planning is point to in a certain area, according to the national
economic and social development demand for mineral
resources, as well as the mineral resources development and
utilization activities on the influence degree of the natural
ecological environment in mines, from the overall and longterm interests, to the area within the scope of mine ecological
environment protection and management and so on carries on
the overall arrangement of the strategic planning. The purpose
is to strengthen the mine ecological environment protection
and management work, promote the rational exploitation and
utilization of mineral resources, provide the basis for the whole
entire mineral resources management.
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Relevant planning mainly concluding mining, separating


which changed and broke mine natural environment cover
on geological damage, hidden danger, vegetation
destruction, soil erosion, waste residue and tailings
etc.
Planning means according to the mining natural ecological
environment protect and management standard .it also
provide a very important gist for government and land and
resources department in each level. Edit the project has
become one core concept of land and resources work.

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2 1 2

mine natural ecological protection and management


planning as core work for environment protect, its also a
specialized planning in order to help government in
dealing with environment protect and control. It has
three basic characteristics which include totality, long
evity and overall control.
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Totality
was
shown
in
three
aspects:1.the planning project must be
in a certain regional scope rather than
only planning somewhere, a overall
and
comprehensive
ecological
environment
protection
and
management should be implemented.
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The planning should focus on mine ecological


environment ,overall consideration about
mineral resources exploration and utilization in
thoughtful way instead of simply utilization
and exploitation, management and protection.
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The planning goal not means only promoted the


benefits of ecological environment protection in
somewhere, particular concentrate on overall
benefits in regional area and require the efficiency of
environment
protection and management while
obtain comprehensive benefits for ecology, economy
and society.

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Mine natural ecological environment is a


long-term plan in order to prevent or
remedy big mistakes has been found in
utilized process. it must be forecast
relevant activities of mineral resources
exploration and utilization and further
established a long-term plans or policies.

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Because of those mining activities which in social


producing process have such a long term and gradually
influence, therefore adjust the structure of mining
resources utilization, direction of use and distribution
of mines, realize mine ecological environment
protection, make sure to the accomplishment of
expected goal and it will not been achieved in a short
time .Due to realize efficient protection and gradually
eliminate negative effects of mineral resources
exploration in the past, hence, establish a certain mine
natural ecological environment protection and
management panning become necessarily .
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Entirely control
Entirely controlled: mine natural ecological environment and
management on basis of ecological economy and sustainable
development, base on long-term and overall benefits. Give full
consideration to the development and utilization of mineral
resources and the integrity of the mine ecological environment
protection and emphasis on mining activities should comply
with its overall control. The specific operation on the one hand
is to mine distribution, structural adjustment to guide and
control the user according to the planning idea of mineral
resources to use mineral resources, ultimately achieve the goal
of planning.

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On the other hand, it is through certain control measures to


ensure the realization of planning objectives. Mine ecological
environment protection, therefore, the quantitative indicators,
positioning of mine exploitation and utilization of the layout
and the qualitative measures to control rules, the quantitative
index of ecological environment protection in mines,
positioning of mine exploitation and utilization of the layout
and the qualitative measures to control rules, it is mine natural
ecological environment protection and management planning
play the mine ecological environment protection management
"leading" and the "core" of the important means.

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At present, the planning of mine ecological environment protection and management
work is not yet widely across the country, its hierarchy is not obvious, as well as other
planning partition. But the mine ecological environment protection and management
planning is a special planning of mineral resources to facilitate the interface with all
levels of the mineral resources planning, here will be mine natural ecological
environment protection and treatment planning in accordance with the administrative
area classification is divided into the national level, provincial, municipal and county
(city) level and so on four levels. The national level, provincial and municipal level
planning, belong to the instructional planning because of the large range county (city)
level planning focuses on planning and implementation of maneuverability,
microscopic planning have certain properties. Hierarchy planning needs strengthening
coordination and cohesion, at the next higher level planning is under the guidance of
primary basis for the planning, the next level planning is the basis of planning at the
next higher level and implement.

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Mine ecological environment protection and treatment


planning is to further implement the mineral resources
at the same level planning related goal, task, a special
planning, therefore in the field of mine ecological
environment protection and management, planning to
undertake especial task, basically has the following
four aspects:
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2
3
4
1.In accordance with the mineral resources panning to further
clear the mine ecological environment protection task.
2. Highlight the focus of mine ecological environment protection
and management
3. Reasonable division of mine ecological environment
protection and management area.
4. To carry out the mine ecological environment comprehensive
management.
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2 2

1
According to the mineral resources planning, further defined the mine ecological
environment protection tasks.
2

From the fundamental point of view, the program is to more effectively from the source to
ensure the mine ecological environment protection. Even though the mineral resources
planning is involved to the content of the mine ecological environment protection, but
more macroscopic due to mineral resources planning, how to specific implementation of
the mine ecological environment protection couldnt make in detail it need further specified
in the mine ecological environment protection and management plan.

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To some degree to say the mine ecological environment protection


and management planning is the field of extension and refinement
in mine ecological environment protection. Mine ecological
environment protection, therefore, in accordance with the relevant
laws and regulations, with governance planning in earnest analysis
planning area of natural geography and social economic development
level, mining natural ecological environment present situation, main
problems of ecological environment protection in mines, on the basis
of background conditions, such as the planning objectives, including
the general objective and recent and long-term goals. Planning
objectives should not only reflect a high starting point, high standard,
and should pay attention to the scientific nature and operability.

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Highlight the focus of mine ecological environment


protection and management.

Mine ecological environment protection not only involved


environmental problems of productive mine and under construct
mine, but also concern historical problems of dumped mine which
are comprehensive system problems. Hence, in planning the
layout of the requirements of existing mines adjustment problems
for further clear, such as according to the requirements of
ecological vision, strictly control new mines, increase control
efforts in the visible range of cities, states, high ways. At the same
time, supervise production in mines, mine under construction to
carry out the development and utilization of mineral resources
plan, ecological environment protection and management of
related measures to prevent environmental pollution, soil erosion,
etc. In addition, planning to have abandoned mine how to control
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and management to planning the deployment of the time limit
, try

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Reasonable division of mine ecological


environment protection and
Planningmanagement
according to the geological
area.environment in mines and topographical

features, mining scale and the degree of concentration, the types of mine
ecological environment destruction, etc., shall be in general land use
planning and ecological planning, reasonable dividing partition for mine
ecological environment protection and management. Planning can be divided
into two major areas, namely the major control and general control, to adjust
measures to local conditions, classification guide the mine ecological
environment protection and treatment work provided the scientific basis.
Major control is mainly refers to mining quantity, scale, high concentration
and potential safety hazard, poor ecological environment, to a greater
influence on the regional ecological environment of the area. General control
mainly refers to the number of mines, relative dispersion, less security hidden
danger is not too serious, ecological environment is poorer, less impact on
the regional ecological environment of the area.

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Implement mine natural ecological


environment comprehensive
Planningmanagement
to mine types in accordance with the planning
division and put forward the corresponding scheme of
mine ecological environment protection and governance
and the target, the mine ecological environment protection
and management work, to conduct a comprehensive
planning and deployment of different types of mine
management of natural ecological environment protection
and proposes the corresponding management plan, to
focus on mine ecological environment protection and
management work to make specific arrangements, and
plan implementation safeguard measures, etc.
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Planning to build a relevant system, define the relevant units


responsibilities and tasks, implementation and governance
obligations; According to the actual situation, adjust measures to
local conditions, because of the ore, providing the implementation
of the mine ecological environment comprehensive treatment
work. As can be combined with the development of land
consolidation reclamation, construction land use and mine
ecological recovery, etc., to carry out the comprehensive
improvement of abandoned mine work, reasonable exploitation
and utilization of abandoned mines, improve land comprehensive
utilization and recovery of mine ecological environment.

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2 3
mine ecological protection
and management basic principle

In order to promoted scientificity of planning,


improved cohesion, realize the planning. in
the
preparation
of
mine
ecological
environment protection and management
planning, must insist the following principles:
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1.It should insist the main principle that exploitation from the protection, protection
form exploitation, To properly handle the development and utilization of mineral
resources and mine ecological environment protection in the process of
relationship.
2.It should insist that ecological environment protection are adhere to ecological
environment construction. In the process of development and utilization of mineral
resources and insist the principle of "who develop who protect, who destroy, who
management, who benefit, who compensated", must be clear the obligations and
responsibilities of natural ecological environment protection and management.

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2 3
mine natural ecological
environment protection and
manage planning principle

The protection should insist on the principle of overall


planning, prevention first, protection as priority. Firstly
we need highlight protection and see prevention as a
prior task. Secondly, we
should ensure that
management
are doing good and comprehensive
governance those broken mines in order to recovery
mine natural ecological environment.
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4.highlight the key point, implement in different period.


Because of all mine in different geographical conditions
and its degree of ecological destruction are not the
same, therefore, we must embody key points then
implement in each period. to ensure the protection and
management in an orderly way .

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2 3

5.Rely on scientific and technological improvement. We


should take new technology, new methods, improved
scientific content of mine natural ecological environment
protection and management, choose optimal projects.
Finally realizes the protection, management and other
ecological effect and win-win situation of the economic
and social benefit.

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6.Insist local conditions to adjust measures, give different


guidance to different classification
On the basis of investigated research, From the mine ecological
environment situation and the local economic development
level ,respectively ask for some requirements of abandoned
mines, mine production and construction, put forward the
requirements of environmental protection and management
in mines, make the planning more maneuverability.

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2 3

It is a principle that we should insist on persist to governments


guidance, depends on marketing operation.
Government
should completely
utilize marketing
mechanism ,at the same time create good policy environment
for
mine natural ecological environment protection and
management, Exert
its positivity of
company and social
organization then establish diversified investment mechanism
and
efficient
compensation
mechanism
of
ecological
environment and management.
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the mine environmental
impact assessment

. working process
. mine environment survey
. mine environment impact
assessment
. assessment methods of
environment impact
. environmental
impact elements and assessment indicator
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Working procedures
programmed to accept commission
overall collect resources & to do site survey
Mines environmental survey
Mine environmental influence survey
Assessment of mine environmental problems
Mine environmental analysis
principle, target, mission for
protection and management
Programmed projects of mine environment and management
Send expert to examine
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.
1

Before programmed project should entirely collected resources of mine


company , surrounding natural environment and economic society,
agriculture and forestry ;also need know the distribution of regional
productivity, cities or towns, important engineering and especial protection
area.
2

Find out there conditions of Meteorological hydrology, topography, stratum


lithology, geological structure, neotectonics and hydrogeology, engineering
geology, enironmental geology .

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3
Find out ore body occurrence characteristic , mining exploit methods,
mining depth, thickness and the range of influence.
4

Find out forming conditions, regularities of distribution, influencing factors,


developing degrees and developing tendency for mine environmental
problems and geological disasters. Forecast those impacts on mining
activities and reason why main environment al problems and disasters
have been caused or aggravated .

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. mine environmental
survey
5
find out the bellowed mine environmental problems
5.1

The soil, vegetation resources been occupied and


destroyed, the soil utilization changed conditions lead
to landscape destroyed, water and soil loss, land
desertification, salinization and soil pollution.

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a.

a. Occupied stope, industrial ground, mining wastes, tailings


pond, living facilities and damage soil and vegetation
resources
b.
Land, vegetation and geomorphologic landscape were
damaged by mine geological disaster.
c.
Wasted emission discharge and accumulated leachate
polluted soil and caused water and soil loss.
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5.2
a.

b.

Water imbalance and water pollution in the mining area


a. Water busted and discharged that formed
groundwater depression cone then caused rocks crushed, fractured
and settling, furthermore it also cut through each water-bearing
stratum lead to underwater imbalanced.
b. Waste liquid, waste residue and accumulated leachate polluted
underwater and surface water and damaged water environment

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1.1

1 2

1.3
General acquirements
1.1Newly built mines need focus on environmental forecast, for those mines which have been put into
production should proceeded
status evaluation, forecasting evaluation and comprehensive
evaluation.
1.2 gradually to do mines environmental impact assessment, according to complex of mines geological
degree and characteristics of mines exploitation 1.3 combined qualitative and quantitative, give
priority to quantitative to assess mine environmental impacts.

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.
2
Types of mine environmental impact assessment
2.1

Mines environmental impact assessment should on the basis of


analysis regional environmental status and exploitation status
,combined characteristics of mining activities according to
mineral resources utilized and exploiting plans. Make a
conditional and predictable assessment within the possible scope
of mine construction and producing activity.
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2.2

Status assessment refer to evaluate mine environment, exist environmental


problems and geological disaster. main content for status assessment are
analysis characteristics of mine environmental background , status of mine
environmental quality, social humanity condition and impacts for mining
activities.aim at existing mine environmental problems, geological disasters,
harmful object, influence and damage degree to proceed assessment. In the
process of assessment should make deepen analysis to influences and factors
which could effect on environment, moreover, analysis its property, harm
and loss.

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.
2.3

Forecast assessment refer to mining activities which could cause or


intensified mine environmental problems and geological disaster.
according to mine types, scale , mining methods, characteristics of
mine environment and mine environmental problems and geological
disasters to forecast mine environmental tendency etc.
2.4
Comprehensive assessment means on the basis of status
evaluation and forecast assessment to evaluate different impact .
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Environmental impact assessment


According to the bellowed four factors, the assessment
could classified into different level.
Confirming
factors
comprehensive
assessment

Geological
disaster risks

Water resources
and water
environment
impact level

Landscape
impact level

Serious

Large

Serious

Serious

medium

medium

General

general

normal

small

Little

Little

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Proper degree classified table


proper degree

Classification

proper

Mine ecological environment conditions are simple, few


damage influence to geology environment , little
possibility for hazard which may be caused by mining
opration, easy to prevent and to do ecological
restoration.

generally
suitable

Complex Mine ecological environment conditions ,a little


damage influence to geology environment, mining
activities could make it worse. Hard to prevent and
restoration.

bad

Complex Mine ecological environment conditions ,badly


damage influence to geology environment, mining
activities could make it worse. Hard to prevent and
restoration.

Not suitable

Confirm to relevant conditions of Overall National


mineral resources planning , provincial mineral
resources planning

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.
Mine environmental influence assessment refer to fully use those resources about
remote-sensing image, regional geology , mineral geology, hydrogeology,
engineering geology, environmental geology, Meteorological hydrology, mine
exploit project, economy of mining area, humanity, historical sites, ecological
environment to proceed surface comprehensive survey , depends on different
situation to doing drilling , geophysical prospecting, probing and sampling test.
2

On the basis of qualitative analysis for doing mine environmental assessment,


generally adopt single elements assessment, multi- factors assessment like
analytic hierarchy process or fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and
engineering geologic analogy method.
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1

1. Evaluate mines environmental quality factors should pay attention to


landform, water resources situation, land vegetation, water-soil loss situation ,
human engineering activities and polluted resources distribution and geological
disaster developing situation.
2 .

2. basically analysis mines environment characteristics, mining methods, mining


intensity and existing ore potential environmental problems and realize mining
impacts, go through with comparison and sift then confirm evaluation indicator.
After evaluated further forecast evaluation and comprehensive evaluation
indicator.

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.
3

3.Water resources and water environment impact indicator: mines and


surrounding groundwater level, water yield changes, surface water body
changes and resources impact degree or the range of wave pollution.
4

Evaluate land resource and ground environmental impact evaluating


indicator, like stope, waste yard and tailing pond; surface deformation
impacts and types and area of damaged soil , polluted rock degree .

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mines natural ecological environmental protection and
management recovery project
4.1
Key points of mines natural ecological environmental protection
4.2
Content of mines natural ecological environmental and
management recovery
4.3
texture and content of mines natural ecological
environmental protection and management recovery scheme
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According to result of mine environmental impact assessment which combined


mine service limit and mining plan. Insist on the principle of prevent first,
combined circumvention and management, overall planning and highlight
importance. Wholly planning environmental and comprehensive management
project about the whole process of from capital construction to closed pits.
2
Clear and definite the direction
3
according to the regulations, policies proposed different management
target.

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On the basis of hazard object by mining opration, degree and management difficulty,
divided into key areas, secondary areas, and general control area. Compile
partition project should first choose key area and key project to prevent.
5 5

when compile treatment scheme, according to different period could divided into
recent period , medium-term and long-term. In principle every five years as one
period. for those short term service enterprise should proper decrease time limit in
each period.

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Partition table of Comprehensive environmental


protection and treatment
Partition

Hazard Objects

Hazard Degree

Treating difficulties

Emphasize
prevention area

Village, town, important


arterial traffic, engineering
facilities and especial
protecting area

Serious

Hard to treat and


recovery

Obvious prevention
area

Village, general arterial


traffic , engineering
facilities and resources
environment function
planning area is required to
be higher

General

Not very hard to treat


and recovery.

Normal area

Village, town and lower


requirement area.

little

Easy

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4.1
4.1.1
1 Mining
development should pay equal attention to the implementation of the mineral resources development,
environmental protection, the principle of comprehensive treatment and environmental protection
simultaneously.
2

Mining right shall rely on scientific and technological progress, strictly control the mineral resources
development of mine environment disturbance and destruction, minimize or avoid mineral development
cause of mine environmental problems.
3
Mineral resources development should promote circular economy "pollutant reduction, resource reuse and
recycling" principles of technology

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4.1
key points for environmental
protection
4.1.2 total requirement
1 ,

Scientific and reasonable use, maintain environment bearing capacity.


should strictly disturbance destruction and discharge, strengthen
source prevention and wholly control in the process of design,
construction, production, closed down of mines.

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2 , ,
,
Based on the mine environmental impact assessment, combining the reality
of mine, the mine environmental protection to make overall
arrangement and deployment of space and time, strict enforcement on
mineral resources development planning.
3
For those important geological relics and historical sites, effective
measures should be taken to protect.

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4.1.2
4
Take reasonable measurement to maximum reduce or avoid mine
environmental problems occurred or developed.
a.

For solid waste produced by mining activities, should use the special place
piled up, and take effective measures to prevent the secondary pollution
of the environment and induce geological disasters.
b.

Should be based on the nature of the mining solid waste, the storage place of
engineering geology, the perfect seepage and water drainage measures,
prevent leaching water pollution of surface water and groundwater
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c.

Choosing water covering method, wetland method, alkaline material


backfill method to prevent and reduce the acid wastewater pollution of
waste rock field.
d.

Take effective measures to improve the level of comprehensive utilization


and disposal of the wastes, adopt effective methods to prevent the tailings
flying sand and dust
e.

Take measures of underground waterproof , surface seepage, wastewater


treatment to guard against or reduce damage for water resources and
water environment.
f.
Take engineering measure and biological measure to control or
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prevent mine geological disaster .

4.1.3
Key points for newly built mine ecological environmental protection
1

Following the principle of human oriented, according to the mine regional condition and
environment that located in to confirm target and mission for mine exploitation and
protection. Also need to optimize mine engineering distribution, scientific utilize mine
environment, further to be ensure the safety of human settlement, prove the quality of
human settlement.
2

According to suitability of mining activities and bearing capacity to adopt scientific reasonable
method and producing techniques, In accordance with the technical specifications
prescribed by the state development and utilization plan or design, to develop preventive
environmental protection measures, implementation of protective development.

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the environmental protection problems which were caused by waste


discharge and cumulated waste should take measures to prevent
environmental problems.
4
Strictly enforce the national environmental quality standards and pollutant
discharge standards.
5
Formulate mine environmental problems supervising plan , to implement
dynamic monitoring for mine environmental problems.

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4.1.4
1

Productive mine should translate the mode from extensive, traditional into
intensive and ecological which refer to circular economy protecting and
exploiting mode, make overall plan and coordinate mine environmental
protection.
2 - - -
For the opencast working should adopt the integrated technology which are
including inside discharge , stripping , soil discharge ,land restoration and
reclamation.
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4.1.4
3

open mining should in accordance with geological conditions of


stope, choose reasonable slope angle to avoid collapse, slide,
ground fracture.
4

Underground mining should reserved thickness of jamb,


ore wall, ledge of overlying strata or could use filling method to
backfill solid waste, adopt alleviating subsidence by injecting
serosity to avoid or reduce empty mining subsidence, ground
fracture and surface subsidence.
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For bearing karst water or pore water filling should adopt curtain grouting
and filling method to control water inflow of pit, avert to damage
groundwater balance , protect and reasonable use groundwater resources.
6
When doing Ground liquid mining should confirm its authorized mining
quantity. It is means that the hot ore water couldn't exceed recharge
quantity.
7

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4.2
1

in the process of mining, either need to propose controlling plan for known
environmental problems, or in accordance with predicted problems proposed
prevention measures.
2
Newly built mines should
clear-out the environmental protection plan, emphasize stripping layer
reserves, the ore-bearing soil ,non ore rocks utilization and transfer, slag sand
stack and tailing discharge.
3
Loosing covering layer of mines should make overall arrangement on stack
sand ,reserve ,reclamation and reuse.
4
The wasted ore slag, coal gangue and surrounding rocks should
make utilized plan about store, dispose and reuse of solid waste.
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4.2

5
The tailing slag and ore slurry in the process of mining should be reasonable
discharged and in store.
6
Stable slide protection and trimming of stope and stepped slide.
7
The prevention and treatment of geological disasters and potential geological
disasters which were caused by mining activities.
8
Recover groundwater balance and prevent and cure water pollution.
9 Store, dispose and reuse wasted water.
10 Mining area reclamation and vegetation rebuild.
11 The construction of mine geological park
12 Other treatment of mine environmental
problems.
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4.1
4.1.5 for intending closed pit
1

for those pits, wells or tunnels in the process of mine


exploitation which should made filling plans in advance
before close pit.
2

for environmental problems which may have some existing


lagged hidden danger should design a supervising plan,
through analysis and predict its changing tendency to
adopt relevant controlling methods on time.

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structure and content of the recovery
project

the task comes from


the gist of project organized
suitable limitation of project
basic inf
ormation of mine
location and economy profile of
mine
mining history and its current situation
overview of mine exploitation project
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4.3

background of mine geological environment


physical geography
landform
formation lithology and geological structure
hydrogeological conditions
engineering geology conditions
geological characteristics of ore body
mine and the other surrounding human
engineering activities
mine geological environmental evaluation
range and classification
current situation evaluate
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4.3

recovery partition
principle and methods of partition
comment
principle,
target and mission
principle
target and mission
recovery work deployment
treatment engineering
recovery and treatment
engineering
environment monitoring
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4.3

budget evaluation and scheduling

supporting measure and benefit analysis


supporting measure
organization
technical support
found support
benefit analysis
social benefit
environmental benefit
economy benefit
conclusion
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chapter 4

Mine geological environmental protection and management recovery


partition: according to mine ecological status analysis, environmental
impacts assessment. In fully consideration of geology impacts on human
living environment, industrial and agricultural production and regional
economy developing effect, dividing mine geological environmental
protection and management recovery into key prevention area, secondary
prevention area, normal prevention area.
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mine geological environment protection and
management recovery partition

Based on mineral resources exploitation plan , types of geological problems,


distribution characteristics and its harmful characteristic and geological
environmental impacts assessment to proceed geology environment protection and
management partition.

according to the sequence of key prevention , secondary prevention and normal


prevention area respectively illuminate prevention area. The types of region
existing geology problems , perniciousness and prevention measures should be
taken.
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prevention and treatment
project(landslide)
1

Mining landslide prevention measures according to the causes. Can be divided


into two categories: mining induced landslide and rainfall mining complex
landslides.
2
The specific requirements for prevention and control of engineering measure
technology should adjust measures to local conditions
a. b. c. d.
e. f.
A. Optimize mining scheme b. reduce slope height and angle
c.slide-resistant pile d. load shedding on main slide part e. build resistance
engineering on effective part f. design relevant water discharge
and

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According to the degree of danger of landslides and control target (safety


standards), landslides, scale, further determine the strength and volume, design
the anchoring engineering, anti-slide pile, drainage, anti-sliding retaining wall,
intercepting ditch, etc
4

In landslide control engineering scheme, should pay attention to avoid the


disturbance of construction, such as anti-sliding retaining wall construction in
the groove excavation.
5
Anti-sliding retaining wall with concrete structure, small in the treatment of the
landslide
6

The thickness of slide-resistant pile should make sure its thickness


design, the slide body should strong enough and deeply anchored, its height
and distance between each piles should according to the scale of the slide

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mining subsidence

The mining subsidence treatment should consider the internal relationships


between mining subsidence and land fracture
2

When abandoned ground pit appeared ground settling and land fracture, should
backfill waste slag to slow down the ground settling speed. For prevent
forming surface collapse could inject some tailing slurry into ground fracture
and accelerate solidification of injected wasted slag.
3
if the
Underground tunnel still in use , the ground settlement of ground fissure or
signs, shall be decisive for ground fissure development section grouting, dense
and other measures; Should be adopted in underground tunnel collapse
prevention measures.
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karst collapse
1

Before formulate karst collapse treatment planning must find out the causes of
formation and relationships with the water discharged of underground
mining tunnel.
2

Should adopt geophysical prospecting methods to verify the range, scale ,


underground formation ,depth of karst collapse.
3

In karst subsidence underground mining facilities (tunnels, slope, etc.), when
subsidence area which isnt as farmland and have great water stored
condition, can be used for developing Water aquaculture or agricultural
irrigation

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4
Subsidence area could use for arable land, rebuild vegetation system.
5

tunnel and other underground mining facilities in karst subsidence should be


adopted protection engineering measures in accordance with relevant
regulation to design special project management.
6

Karst collapse management, should give full consideration to combine mine


water supply and drainage with environmental protection,from the source
control the development of the collapse, rational utilization of water
resources, improve the mining area environment.

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1
Stripping waste rocks, waste slag which stacked out of order,
formed various loose material, finally doing treatment on unstable slide
a. 30 b.
c. d.
a. Reducing the height and degree of slide (less than 30degree)
b. Slope strengthening
c. Designed corresponding drainage and waterproof system.
2

Waste rocks and waste slag treatment could according to its types and grains
to put coarse grain or block ones at the bottom then gradually grind and to
do upward backfilling in each layer.
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Stacked undesirable components of rocks at the bottom, and prosper


quality soil layer on the top ,the rich soil layer should be arranged on
the top or surface of waste dump.
4

After renovate platform and slide should covered soil layer , fully use the
collected surface soil to cover the surface. When there are no prosper
surface soil to cover it, could use the other unpolluted material to
cover.
5

When doing coal gangue treatment should hardly pressed in layer. Then,
covered clay and quickly plant vegetation to prevent the oxidation of
the coal gangue spontaneous combustion.
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1
Demonstrate the impacts of mineral resources exploitation on groundwater
2
Ore pit drainage , mining waste water, living wastewater drainage possibly pollute
water resources, so that need to established sewage treatment engineering .
3
Sewage treatment engineering according to the mining area within the
emissions, combining with the surrounding community sewage treatment capacity,
overall consideration.
4
Wastewater treatment engineering of location, scale, technology should refer to the
relevant engineering design and construction specification.
5
Adopt grouting method to avoid or reduce destruction of mining options on
groundwater balance system
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unstable slide
1

Unstable slope governance include: within the scope of natural slope instability in
mines, the mountain the unstable rock slope.
2

protogenetic soil shown loose character, when the slope are steep and bigger than
safety slope angle should cut the slope make the slope keeping stable.
3

Structure the slope instability caused by broken rock strata, first should avoid and
evacuated all the staff ,moved away all the facilities, partition dangerous scope.
Secondly, Artificial blasting measures to remove dangerous rock, eliminate hidden
dangers.

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4
slope strengthening
a.
With a method to remove loose surface pumice, fractured rock mass of weak rock mass or
highly broken surface support.
b.
The deformation of slope caused by increasing the open type of rock fracture and weak
level, grouting reinforcement method can be used
c.
For geological conditions of the landslide sliding rock formations or small range of rock
mass, the anti-slide pile, dam method should be used in governance.
d. (10 100m)
Cracking in deep (10 ~ 100 m), larger volume of dangerous rock, appropriate uses
deep longhole pre-stressed anchor cable for reinforcement.

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5 20m 3m

When slope height over 20m, should set up a 3m benched platform, along the
steps set up transverse drainage ditch.
6
The table of the benched slope should inward incline In order to prevent
water slope erosion
7

Slope engineering should be combined with engineering geological and


hydrogeological conditions and rainfall conditions, surface drainage and
underground drainage or a combination of both.
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1
Mining area land reclamation process, including project management and biological
reclamation in two stages
2

Reclamation of land use direction: according to the surrounding environment and


their own conditions of mining area land, can choose reclamation into farmland,
forest land, residence and industrial land, fish farms and recreational purposes.
3
Biological reclamation techniques, including rapid soil
improvement, vegetation restoration, ecological engineering, cultivated land,
crops and tree species selection process.

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,
4.Soil improvement: Mining area soil fertilizer through various
fertilizer measures, accelerate the reclamation of the land of raw
soil maturation. The surface soil type of soil fertilizer, mainly
through organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer and planting
green plants, realize the improvement of soil fertilizer;

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1 vegetation choice
1

Vegetation rebuild Should adjust measures on local conditions and different ore .
Choosing trees species ,grass and techniques on mining should match the
geographic location, climate conditions and soil-rock environment to ensure the
vegetation rebuild efficiency
2 , ,

Widely resources investigation on suitable


vegetation variety , and choose the varieties with good feasibility, resistance to filter
in the laboratory; Selected plant species should have strong ability of nitrogen
fixation, developed root system, quick production, high yield, strong adaptability,
good resistance and barren resistance.
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2 slope planting
a. b. c.

Rocks slope: a. hanging network and spraying method and put straw bags on the root of the
slope. b. directly spreading c. soil and rocks mixed slope: grass stick technique, normal
spray-seeding and planting shrubs in the cave.
3 flat planting
a. 30mm
b.
a. Directly planting shrubs, keeping the covered soil layer no less than 30mm, planting
shrubs and herbage seed on the ground, let grassland matched up to the surrounding
ecology b. forest planting

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4 techniques for planting.


1
Planting shrubs and herbage plants on the slope which within a certain thickness.
2
Planting shrubs or vine should combined engineering measures along to the contour
line of the slope.
3

Normal spray: when slope surface became smooth should mixed the seed , fertilizer,
base material with water to a certain scale then spraying on the slope
4 hanging network spraying

Refer to use out-soil mixed


binder and anchoring methods, make out soil material close to the slope and
trough blending with organic material ,make solid phase ,liquid phase and gas
phase of soil came into balance .this technique used for Granite, sandstone, sandy
shale ,gneiss, phyllite, limestone and so on
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expenditure estimation

According to the mine geological environment protection and governance


restoration project deployment, quantities and engineering technology,
with reference to relevant standards, the budget estimate which are
including the mine geological environment protection, prevention,
management, monitoring and other direct costs and recovery for survey,
design, supervision and other indirect costs.

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benefit analysis
1 social benefit analysis

From the perspective of sociology analysis program to realize the national or local social
development goals of contribution and influence, as well as the project with the local
social environment influence each other, known as generalized social benefit
evaluation, Project for requirements for the application of this method, the first
social goals and project established the purpose of the analysis. And judging the
success or failure of the project standard, it is the realization of the goal or purpose.
This kind of social evaluation method has been adopted by most international
organizations, such as the world bank, Asian development bank, Britain's overseas
development, etc.

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2 economic benefit analysis


1 ,

Mine geological environment governance project is disaster prevention


engineering, disaster prevention engineering is to prevent and mitigate
various disasters is or may be as the main purpose of the engineering. The
economic benefits of disaster prevention project mainly consists of two
parts, disaster reduction and value-added benefits, and give priority to
with mitigation benefits, or only for disaster reduction without valueadded benefits.

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Disaster prevention engineering for disaster reduction efficiency refers to the


construction of disaster prevention engineering are likely to reduce disaster
losses. According to the principle of "with and without comparison", is no
disaster prevention disaster reduction benefits when disasters may caused
direct economic losses and disaster prevention project may cause the
difference between the direct economic losses.
3
,
.
Value-added benefits is to point to by the implementation of the mine
environmental governance project may increase the revenue. Such as:
mountain damaged, landform destruction of mining area, the geological
environmental governance process of ballast can obtain certain benefits.
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3 the benefit of eco-environment

Through to the mine geological environment governance, greatly improve the ecological
environment, the damaged mountain green, a beautiful environment, fresh air and of tourism
resources in the mining will be rare.

area ecological system will


gradually restore water conservation, conserving soil and water, adjust the function of climate
and purify the air, has enormous ecological environmental benefits.
Based on mine geology environment management and development and construction, will greatly
improve the mining area ecological environment. The lush, plant leaf can welcome, dust, toxic
substances, release the health benefits of antiseptic material, so as to purify the air. Developed
root system can be fixed sandy soil, reduce water loss and soil erosion, increase soil water storage
capacity.

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