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Liquid Crystal Display

 Introduction
 Working Modes
 Working Principle
 Working
 Application
 Advantages
 Disadvantages
 LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. lse
 Liquid crystals were discovered in 1888 by an Austrian
botanist named Freidrich Renitzer.
 A German physicist named Otto Lehmann first used the
phrase liquid crystal.
 LCD cannot produce light so a background light is used
to make the image visible.
 It is used as a display device in different electronic
Working Modes

 Twisted nematic (TN)

 In-plane switching (IPS)
 Advanced fringe field switching (AFFS)
 Multi-domain Vertical alignment (VA)
 Blue Phase mode
– The twisted nematic is the most common technique which is
used in monochromatic and color displays.
Working Principle
 Polarizing of light.
 (Crystal molecules) through which we can
manipulate the path of light, by applying the voltage
to it.
 Reflection of light.
 Deflection of light.
Polarizing of light
Crystal molecules
 Can be used to display the functions controls and
 Good use in IT because of the flat panel screen
taking up very little space with low power
 Sharpness
– Image is perfectly sharp at the native resolution of the
 Geometric Distortion
– Zero geometric distortion at the native resolution of the
 Brightness
– High peak intensity produces very bright images.
 Screen Shape
– Screens are perfectly flat.
 Physical
– Thin, with a small footprint.
 Resolution
– Each panel has a fixed pixel resolution format determined at the time of
manufacture that can not be changed.
 Interference
– LCDs using an analog input require careful adjustment of
pixel tracking/phase.
 Viewing Angle
– Limited viewing angle.
 Black-Level, Contrast and Color Saturation
– LCDs have difficulty producing black and very dark grays.
 White Saturation
– The bright-end of the LCD intensity scale is easily
 Color and Gray-Scale Accuracy
– The internal Gamma and gray-scale of an LCD is very
 Bad Pixels and Screen Uniformity
– LCDs can have many weak or stuck pixels, which are
permanently on or off.
 Motion Artifacts
– Slow response times and scan rate conversion result in
severe motion artifacts.
 Aspect Ratio
– LCDs have a fixed resolution and aspect ratio.
 Cost
– Considerably more expensive than comparable CRTs