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CHAPTER TWO (2)

INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNET

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Learning Objectives
After

completing this chapter you will be able to:-

Introduce the concept of the Internet


Describe the internet components
Describe WWW and its use.
Introduce to Internet Navigator
Explain the usage of Electronic Mail
Describe the File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

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Chapter Outline

Introduction
Brief History of the internet
The use of internet
Discovery
Communication
Collaboration

Internet terms
www, web publishing, homepage, web browser, search engine
Protocol, IP, DNS, HTTP, URL, HTML, ISP
E-mail, Newsgroup, video conferencing, FTP, Telnet, Forum

Benefits using the internet


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Introduction
The

Internet or Net (network of networks)


is the largest computer network in the
world that connects billions of computer
users.
The word internet comes from combination
between interconnection and Network
Generally nobody own internet.

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Who manage the internet?


Because

the individual networks that


participate in the Internet are owned by
different entities, the Internet would cease to
function without some sort of organization.
Several nonprofit organizations and user
groups, each with a specialize purpose, are
responsible for its management.

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Who manage the internet?


Major

organizations in Internet
governance and development.

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Brief History
Internet

evolved from an early US


government-funded internetworking project
called the Advanced Research Projects
Agency Network (ARPANET) in 1969.
Purpose: to connect researchers from 4
universities in USA.( Stanford Research
Institute, UCLA, UC Santa Barbara and
University of Utah
In 1980s the actual internet was born when
other networks connected with ARPANET.
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Brief History (cont)


In

1982 the word internet started.


1986: First freenet created in Case Western
Reserve University
1991: US government allowed business
agencies to connect to internet.
Now all peoples can connect to internet and
improve their life and work quality.
The internet support various aspects in our life.
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The use of Internet


Internet

for discovery
Internet for communication
Internet for Collaboration

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Internet For Discovery

Allowed user (people) to access information in


database in difference locations. e.g. information
from virtual library and information centre such as
tourist development centre of Malaysia (TDC).
The ability and facility of education, government
service, trading and business world can be improved.
Discovery: By explore and navigate million web
pages in internet
Surfing process by using web browser (Internet
explore, Netscape Navigator, opera, etc)

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Internet For Communication

Communication is a process transmitting and receiving


symbol, data, image, text, document, graphic etc by using
various computer devices. (hardware and software)
Through communication people can share and exchange
information. Also influencing and understanding each
others.
Communication including the process of collecting,
processing, distributing, sharing, retrieving, transferring and
storing the information
Internet now being a main communication tool. Using video
conferencing, internet phone, ICQ, Messenger, email etc.

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Internet For Collaboration

Workers in business organization now can collaborating each


other in handling works, meetings, discussion and information
sharing.
Collaboration is about sharing works between 2 or more
individuals or groups in finding the solution or task performing.
Collaboration include not only workers in organization but
including external parties like customer, supplier, competitor,
stakeholder to increase productivity and competitiveness
Collaboration using computer application like groupware, lotus
notes, screen sharing and others communication application.

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Internet Terms
WWW

URL

Webpage

HTML

/ Homepage
Web Publishing
Web browser
Search Engine
Protocol
Internet protocol
DNS
HTTP
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ISP
E-mail
Newsgroup
Video

conferencing

FTP
Telnet
Forum

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WWW

The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly


known as the Web, is a system of interlinked
hypertext/hypermedia documents accessed via the Internet.
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer or other
electronic device with references (hyperlinks) to other text
that the reader can immediately access, usually by a mouse
click or keypress sequence.
Hypermedia is used as a logical extension of the term
hypertext in which graphics, audio, video, plain text and
hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear
medium of information.
Creator: Timm Berners-Lee, 1989.

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Web Page
A web

page or webpage is a document or


resource of information that is suitable for the
World Wide Web and can be accessed
through a web browser and displayed on a
monitor or mobile device.
This information is usually in HTML or XHTML
format, and may provide navigation to other
webpages via hypertext links.
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Elements of Web Page

A webpage can contain numerous types of information, which is able to be seen, heard or interact by the end user:
Perceived (rendered) information:

Textual information

Non-textual information:
Static images on raster graphics, typically GIF, JPEG or PNG; or vector formats as SVG or Flash.
Animated images typically Animated GIF and SVG, but also may be Flash, Shockwave, or Java applet.
Audio, typically MIDI or WAV formats or Java applets.
Video, WMV (Windows), RM (Real Media), FLV (Flash Video), MPG, MOV (QuickTime)

Interactive information: more complex, glued to interface.


For "on page" interaction:
Interactive text.
Interactive illustrations: ranging from "click to play" image to games, typically using script, Flash, Java applets, SVG, or Shockwave.
Buttons: forms providing alternative interface
For "between pages" interaction:
Hyperlinks: standard "change page" reactivity.
Forms: providing more interaction with the server and server-side databases.
Internal (hidden) information:

Comments

Linked Files through Hyperlink (Like DOC,XLS,PDF,etc).

Metadata with semantic meta-information, Charset information, Document Type Definition (DTD), etc.

Diagramation and style information: information about rendered items (like image size attributes) and visual specifications, as Cascading Style
Sheets (CSS).

Scripts, usually JavaScript, complement interactivity and functionality.

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Home Page
Home

page is a main page or first page


view to internet users after they type the
personal or organization internet
address.
E.g. user type URL (Uniform Resources
Locator) address :www.uum.edu.my.
Users can explore other web pages
through home page.
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Home Page

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URL (Uniform Resources


Locator)
A URL is

a websites address.
Compose of several parts that help identify
the web document.
1st part indicated the protocol (set of rules)
used to retrieve the specified document.
The protocol is generally followed by a colon,
two forward slashes, and the domain name
(host name).
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URL

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Protocol

A set of guidelines or rules.


Communications protocol is a formal description of
message formats and the rules for exchanging those
messages.
Format that agreed to transfer data between two devices.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Internet Protocol (IP)
File transfer protocol (FTP)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Post Office Protocol (POP)
Networks News File Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP); Normally use together with IP

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HTTP
HTTP

stand for HyperText Transfer


Protocol.
HTTP is the protocol (set of rules) that
allows files to be transferred from a
computer that hosts the website (web
server) so that we can see the website
on the computer using a browser.
E.g. http://www.uum.edu.my
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Domain Name System (DNS)

Domain Name Identifies the sites host based on the Domain


Name System (DNS).
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming
system for computers, services, or any resource connected to
the Internet or a private network.
DNS makes it possible to assign domain names to groups of
Internet users in a meaningful way.
It translates human-friendly computer hostnames into IP
addresses (provides mapping between IP addresses and Host
names).
Internet domain names are easier to remember than IP
addresses
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Domain Name
For

example, www.example.com (domain name


translates to 192.0.32.10
The suffix after the dot (such as .com or .edu) is
called the top-level domain.
This suffix indicates the kind of organization to which
the host belongs.
Example of top-level domain:
.com
.edu
.org
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commercial sites
education
organizations
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Top-level Domains

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Examples of country codes

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Internet Protocol (IP)

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating


data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet
Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.
The first major version of addressing structure in IP, now
referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and the latest is
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).
Each computer connected to internet will has a unique address
known as internet number or Internet IP address
User do not need to remember the number because IP number
represented by Domain Name System (DNS).

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IP Address

Each time we connect to the internet, the computer is assigned


a unique identification number.
This number, called an Internet Protocol address (IP address),
is a set of four numbers separated by periods and is commonly
known as dotted decimal or dotted quad.
E.g. 123.45.245.91
IP addresses are the means by which all computers connected
to the Internet identify each other.
Each website is assigned an IP address that uniquely identifies
it.

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Web Browser

A software application for retrieving, presenting, and


traversing information resources on the World Wide
Web.
It allows to locate, view, and navigate the web.
It can have a Graphical User Interface, meaning they
can display pictures (graphics) in addition to text and
other forms of multimedia such as sound and video like
Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome and Opera, or
can be text-based, like Lynx or Links.
First web browser was develop in 1991: Mosaic develop
by Marc Andreessen.

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Example of Web Browser


Google chrome
The newest
browser on the
market,
distributed by
google.
Unique features
include
thumbnail
access to the
most recently
visited sites
from the home
page.

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Example of Web Browser


Neo

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Planet & Opera

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Web Search Engine


A searching facility designed to search for
information on the World Wide Web.
It help user to get information with fast and easy.
The search results are usually presented in a list of
results and are commonly called hits.
The information may consist of web pages, images,
information and other types of files.
Example of popular search engine: Google, Yahoo,
Hotbot, Ecite, lycos, ask.com, live search, etc.

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Search Engine
Popular

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search engines

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Web Publishing

Web publishing is a software to help user to develop web page, edit


and publish to internet and intranet.
They are edited using four broad categories of software:
Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are
manipulated directly within the editor program
WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver
(previously Macromedia Dreamweaver), with which the site is edited using a GUI
interface and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor
software.
WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web
pages, widgets, intro, blogs, and other documents.
Template-based editors, such as Rapidweaver and iWeb, which allow users to
quickly create and upload web pages to a web server without detailed HTML
knowledge, as they pick a suitable template from a palette and add pictures and
text to it in a desktop publishing fashion without direct manipulation of HTML code.

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HTML
Stand

for Hypertext Markup Language.


HTML is a markup language (sets of rules for
marking up blocks of text) so that a browser
knows how to display them.
It uses to develop hypertext document in
WWW or intranet.
This language will determine connection
between web pages and view form of a web
page.
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HTML
E.g. Hypertext Markup Language Document

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HTML Coding

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File Transfer Protocol (FTP)


FTP

is a facility to transfer files between computers


which connected to internet.
It is used to upload and download files from one
computer to another.
FTP files use an FTP file server, whereas HTTP files
use a Web Server.
To upload and download files from FTP sites, we
can use file transfer software such as WS-FTP,
Fetch, or CuteFTP or a Web browser such as at

ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/
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File Transfer Protocol


FTP

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directory using Netscape Navigator

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Telnet
Both a protocol for connecting to a remote computer and a TCP/IP
service that runs on a remote computer to make it accessible to other
computers.
A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP network
Allows real time connection between user and remote computer.

Telnet is used to connect to mainframe computers or servers from the PC.


Telnet client application which runs on your PC, connects to the Telnet server
application which runs on a remote computer.
Telnet enables to take control of a remote computer (the server) with your PC (the
client) and manipulate files and data on the servers as if the server were your own PC.

User who wants login to remote computer need a host account (domain
name or IP address of the computer to be connected using Telnet).
Logon information (login name or ID and password) is generally
required.

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Telnet
Telnet

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to access PSB UUM

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Communication Through the


Internet

E-mail is fast becoming the main form of


communication in the 21st century, and it is the
primary use of the web.
However, e-mail is not the only type of Internet-based
communication.
We can use instant messaging, blogs, podcasts,
social networks, chat rooms, newsgroups, or more
for communicating via the internet.
We can even talk over the phone through the internet
with Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).

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Electronic Mail

A written message that is sent and received over the Internet.


The message can be formatted and enhanced with graphics and
may also include other files as attachments.
Like ordinary mail, email have address, E.g.
s12345@e-web.uum.edu.my
An e-mail address identifies an e-mail box to which e-mail
messages may be delivered.
Most e-mail on the Internet uses the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP).
E-mail addresses have two parts:
The part before the @ sign is the local-part of the address, often the username of
the recipient
the part after the @ sign is the domain to which the e-mail message will be sent

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Electronic Mail

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SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for


electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP)
networks.
SMTP is specified for outgoing mail transport and uses TCP port 25.
While electronic mail servers and other mail transfer agents use
SMTP to send and receive mail messages,
User-level client mail applications typically only use SMTP for
sending messages to a mail server for relaying.
For receiving messages, client applications usually use either the
Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol
(IMAP) or a proprietary system (such as Microsoft Exchange or
Lotus Notes/Domino) to access their mail box accounts on a mail
server .

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Instant Messaging (IM)

IM services are programs that enable people to


communicate in real time with others who are online.
A form of real-time direct text-based communication
between two or more people using personal computers
or other devices, along with shared software clients.
More advanced instant messaging software clients
also allow enhanced modes of communication, such as
live voice or video calling.
E.g. AOLs AIM, ICQ, Yahoo!, Google, Windows live
messenger, Pidgin, Meebo.

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Instant Messaging (IM)

E.g. AOL IM enable people to have real-time online


conversation with friends and family

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Blogs

A weblog or blog, is a personal log or journal posted


on the Web.
Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with
regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events,
or other material such as graphics or video.
Video log (vlog) is a personal journal that uses video
as the primary content.
It may contain text, images, and audio.
E.g: blogger.com, livejournal.com

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Podcast

Combination of broadcasting and iPods


A clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over
the Internet using compressed audio and video files
such as MP3s and MP4s.
The content might include radio shows, audiobooks,
magazines, and educational programs.
What makes podcasting different from just listening to
an audio file on the computer or a portable media
player like iPod?

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Social Networking

A means by which people use the Internet to


communicate and share information among their
immediate friends, and meet and connect with others
through common interests, experiences, and friends.
E.g. Facebook.com, myspace.com, ning.com

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Newsgroup

A usenet newsgroup is a repository for messages posted


from many users in different locations.
It is usually a discussion group, can be made globally.
Users can change information, experience and opinion and
can discuss various topics such as politic, sport, education,
science etc.
USENET Newsgroups: First newsgroup introduced by Tom
Truscott and Jim Ellis
Use the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) ~ an
Internet application protocol used for transporting Usenet
news articles (netnews) between news servers and for
reading and posting articles by end user client applications.

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Newsgroup
E.g.

Newsgroup provided by UUM


web-mail

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Video Conferencing

Videoteleconference or visual collaboration is a set of


interactive telecommunication technologies which
allow two or more locations to interact via two-way
video and audio transmissions simultaneously.
It allows more than two people meet face to face
virtually at different location without reality attendance
Benefit: to long distance communication
Chance to wide communication between business,
academicians, students etc

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Video Conferencing
NetMeeting

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from Microsoft

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Internet Forum

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online


discussion site.
It originated as the modern equivalent of a traditional
bulletin board
It is a web application and collaboration application
managing user-generated content.
Use for discussion between two and more users
based on interests.
List of internet forum e.g. Gaia Online (games &
animation, RuneScape (videogame), 4chan (various).

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Internet Service Provider (ISP)


ISP

refer to a company who provides


internet facilities.
Users need to open an account to
access internet.
E.g. ISP in Malaysia: TMNet, Jaring,
Maxisnet.

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What You Need to Use Internet at


Home?
Personal

Computers
Modem- Internal and external model/
Wireless (dial-up connection)
Fixed line telephone (DSL ~ the
standard broadband technologies in
most areas)
Internet Account with ISP
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Benefits Using Internet

Send and receive documents, texts, image, graphic


world wide with low cost, fast and almost real time
As platform to change idea, information and opinion.
Also download various documents and softwares.
Participate in electronic commerce
Conduct research collaboration between different
nation.
As information, document, graphic and photo
resources.

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Review

Introduction
Brief History of the internet
The use of internet
Discovery
Communication
Collaboration

Internet terms
www, web publishing, homepage, web browser, search engine
Protocol, IP, DNS, HTTP, URL, HTML, ISP
E-mail, Newsgroup, video conferencing, FTP, Telnet, Forum

Benefits using the internet


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