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Chapter

Organizational
Behavior
15th Global
Robbins
and Judge
Edition
Diversity in Organizations

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

2-1

Chapter 2 Learning Objectives


After studying this chapter you should be able to:
Describe the two major forms of workforce diversity
Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are

relevant to OB
Recognize stereotypes and understand how they function in organizational

settings
Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB
Contrast intellectual from physical ability
Describe how organizations manage diversity effectively

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LO 1

Describe the Two Major Forms


of Workforce Diversity
Diversity Management

Surface-Level Diversity
Deep-Level Diversity
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2-3

LO 1

Describe the Two Major Forms


of Workforce Diversity

Insert Exhibit
2.1

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Biographical Characteristics
and How Are They Relevant to OB

LO 2

Those readily available in a


personnel file
Age

Belief is widespread that job

performance declines with


increasing age.
The workforce is aging.
U.S. legislation that, for all intents
and purposes, outlaws mandatory
retirement.
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LO 2

Biographical Characteristics
and How Are They Relevant to OB

Those readily available in a


personnel file
Sex

Few issues initiate more debates, misconceptions, and

unsupported opinions than whether women perform as


well on jobs as men do.
Few, if any, important differences between men and
women affect job performance.
Psychological studies have found women are more
agreeable and willing to conform to authority, whereas
men are more aggressive and more likely to have
expectations of success, but those differences are minor.
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LO 2

Biographical Characteristics
and How Are They Relevant to OB

Those readily available in a


personnel file
Race and Ethnicity

Employees tend to favor colleagues for their own race in

performance evaluations, promotion decisions, pay raises.


Different attitudes on affirmative action with AfricanAmericans preferring such programs than do whites.
African-Americans generally do worse than whites in
employment decisions.
No statistical difference between Whites and AfricanAmericans in observed absence rates, applied social skills at
work, or accident rates.
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LO 2

Biographical Characteristics
and How Are They Relevant to OB

Those readily available in a


personnel file
Disability

A person is disabled who has any physical or mental

impairment that substantially limits one or more major life


activities.
The reasonable accommodation is problematic for
employers.
Strong biases exist against those with mental
impairment.

Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

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LO 2

Biographical Characteristics
and How Are They Relevant to OB

Those readily available in a


personnel file
Tenure

The issue of the impact of job seniority on job

performance has been subject to


misconceptions and speculations.

Religion
Although employees are protected by U.S.

federal law regarding their religion, it is still an


issue in the workplace.
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LO 2

Biographical Characteristics
and How Are They Relevant to OB

Those not readily available in a


personnel file
Sexual orientation
Federal law does not protect employees against

discrimination based on sexual orientation.

Gender identity
Often referred to as transgender employees, this topic

encompasses those individuals who change genders.

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LO 3

Stereotypes and How They


Function in Organizational Settings

Discrimination is to note a difference between

things.
Unfair discrimination is assuming stereotypes about

groups and refusing to recognize differences.

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2-11

LO 4

Define Intellectual Abilityand


Demonstrate Its Relevance to OB

Ability is an individuals current


capacity to perform various tasks
in a job
Two types
Intellectual abilities
Physical abilities

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LO 4

Define Intellectual Abilityand


Demonstrate Its Relevance to OB

Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform

mental activitiesthinking, reasoning, and problem


solving.
Most societies place a high value on intelligence,

and for good reason.

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LO 4

Define Intellectual Abilityand


Demonstrate Its Relevance to OB
Numbe
r
Aptitud
e

Memor
y

Spatial
Visualiza
tion

Exhibit 2.2

Verbal
Comprehensio
n

Intellect
ual
Ability
Deduct
ive
Reason
ing

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Percep
tual
Speed

Inducti
ve
Reason
ing
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LO 5

Contrast Intellectual
from Physical Ability

Physical Abilities
The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina,

dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.


The three main categories of physical ability

are
Strength
Flexibility
And Other characteristics

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Contrast Intellectual
from Physical Ability

LO 5

Insert Exhibit
2.3

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LO 5

Contrast Intellectual
from Physical Ability

Importance of ability at work increases difficulty in

formulating workplace policies that recognize


disabilities.
Recognizing that individuals have different abilities

that can be taken into account when making hiring


decisions is not problematic.
It is also possible to make accommodations for

disabilities.
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LO 6

Describe How Organizations


Manage Diversity Effectively

Attracting, Selecting,
Developing, and
Retaining Diverse
Employees

Diversity in
Groups
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Effective Diversity
Programs

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LO 6

Describe How Organizations


Manage Diversity Effectively

Effective Diversity
Programs
Teach Legal
Framework

Foster the
Skills and
Abilities of All
Workers

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Teach the
Market
Advantages

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Managerial Implications and Summary


This chapter looked at diversity from
many perspectives paying particular
attention to three variables
biographical characteristics,
ability, and
diversity programs.

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Managerial Implications and Summary


Diversity programs
Selection
An effective selection process will improve
the fit between employees and job
requirements.

Diversity Management
Diversity management must be an
ongoing commitment that crosses all
levels of the organization.
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2-21

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Copyright 2013 Pearson Education

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