Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 37




Mechanical working process also known as metal
forming processes, are primary shaping processes in
which a mass of a metal or alloy is subjected to
mechanical force.
Under the shape of such forces, the shape and size
of metal piece undergo a change.
By mechanical processes, the given shape and size
of a machine part can be achieved with great
economy in material and time.
Metal forming is possible in case of such metals or
alloys are sufficiently malleable and ductile.
Frequently, work piece of material is not sufficiently
malleable and ductile ordinary at the room
temperature , but may become so when heated.
Thus we have both hot and cold metal forming

antages of Mechanical Working Processes

Apart from higher productivity, mechanical working
processes have certain other advantages over other
manufacturing processes. These are enumerated
improves the mechanical properties of material like
ultimate tensile strength, wear resistance, hardness
and yield point while its lowers ductility.
Grain flow lines being developed in the part being
mechanically worked. The grain flow improves the
strength against fracture when the part is in actual
use. For example is crankshaft.

Comparison of grain flow

Difference Between Cold and Hot Working

Cold working may be defined as plastic deformation
of metals and alloys at a temperature below the
recrystallization temperature for that metal and alloy.
When this happens, then the strain hardening which
occurs as a result of mechanical working does not get
relieved. In fact as the metal or alloy get progressively
strain hardened, more force is required to cause further
plastic deformation. After sometime, if the effect of
strain hardening is not removed, the forces applied to
cause plastic deformation may in fact cause cracking
and failure of material.
Hot working can be explained as plastic deformation
of metals and alloys at such a temperature at which
recovery and recrystallization take place
simultaneously with the strain hardening. Such a

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cold and Hot

Working Processes
Since cold working is practically done at room
temperature, no oxidation or tarnishing of surface
takes place. No scale formation is there, hence there
is no material loss. Besides, hot working of steel also
results in partial decarburisation of the work piece
surface as carbon gets oxidised as CO2.

Cold working results in better dimensional accuracy

and a bright surface. Cold rolled steel bars are
therefore called bright bars, while those produced
by hot rolling process are called black bars (they
appear greyish black due to oxidation of surface).

In cold working heavy work hardening occurs which

Due to limited ductility at room temperature,

production of complex shapes is not possible by
cold working processes.
Severe internal stresses are induced in the metal
during cold working. If these stresses are not
relieved, the component manufactured may fail
prematurely in service. In hot working, there are no
residual internal stresses and the mechanically
worked structure is better than that produced by
cold working.
The strength of materials reduces at high
temperature. Its malleability and ductility improve
at high temperatures. Hence low capacity
equipment is required for hot working processes.
The forces on the working tools also reduce in case

Sometimes, blow holes and internal porosities are

removed by welding action at high temperatures
during hot working.
Non-metallic inclusions within the work piece are
broken up. Metallic and non-metallic segregations
are also reduced or eliminated in hot working as
diffusion is promoted at high temperatures making
the composition across the entire cross-section more

Cold Work
a) Rolling (Cold and Hot rolling)

Rolling Process
In this process, metals and alloys are plastically
deformed into semi finished and finished products
by being pressed between two rolls which are
The metal initially pushed into the space between
two rolls, there after once the roll takes a bite into
the edge of material, the material gets pulled in by

The material is subjected to high compressive forces

as it is squeeze (and pulled along) by the rolls.
This is the process to deal with material in bulk in
which the cross section of material is reduced and its
length increased.
Rolling is very convenient and economical.

Hot Rolling

Hot rolled steel products look an unattractive

greyish-black in colour. Non-ferrous materials also
develop a tarnished colouring due to oxidation of
outer surface.
The surface finish is rough and the finished sizes of
hot rolled products are far from satisfactory.
However hot rolling is very economical.
A great deal of hot rolled black bars and
sheets/plates of steel are used in construction

Cold Rolling

Thinner gauges, better surface finish, tighter size

control and bright surfaces are obtained in cold
rolling process.
These products also develop greater strength and
wear resistance due to strain hardening.

Rolling Deffect
Rolling defects divide in to classes:
a) Surface defects
b) Structural defects
) Types of surface defects:
a) Rusting and scaling
b) Surface scratches
c) Surface cracks
) Types of structural defects:
a) Wavy edges

b) Zipper cracks

c) Edge cracks

d) Center split

e) Alligatoring

b) Wire Drawing
) Wire drawing is a simple process
) In this process, rods made of steel and non-ferrous
metals and alloys are pulled through conical dies
having a hole in centre.
) The included angle of the cone is kept between 8 to
) As the material is pulled through the cone, it
undergoes plastic deformation and it gradually
undergoes a reduction in its diameter.
) At the same time, the length is increased

c) Tube Drawing
) The drawing process can also be used for tube
) Tube drawing does not mean manufacturing a tube
from solid raw material.
) It means lengthening a tube reducing its diameter.
) Various arrangements used for tube drawing are
shown in figure.

) Method (a) is the common used for tube drawing. A

conventional tube drawing bench is used.

Method (c) uses a long circular rod to control the

size of tube-bore.
Method (d) uses neither a mandrel nor a bar and
controlling size of bar is difficult.

Hot Working
a) Forge and Smith forge
) In forging, metals and alloys are deformed to the
specified shapes by application of repeated blows
from a hammer.
) It usually done hot; although sometimes cold forging
is also done.
) The raw material is usually a piece of a round or
square cross section slightly larger in volume than
the volume of the finished component.
) Shows the video:

c) Forward and inverted extrusion

) Extrusion is a process in which the metal is subjected
to plastic flow by enclosing the metal in a closed
chamber in which the only opening provided is
through a die.
) The material is usually treated so that it can undergo
plastic deformation at a sufficiently rapid rate and
may be squeezed out of the hole in the die.
) In the process the metal assumes the opening
provided in the die and comes out as a long strip with
the same cross-section as the die-opening.
) Incidentally, the metal strip produced will have a
longitudinal grain flow.
) The process of extrusion is most commonly used for
the manufacture of solid and hollow sections of
nonferrous metals and alloys e.g., aluminium,
aluminium-magnesium alloys, magnesium and its
alloys, copper, brass and bronze

Type of extrusions

Advantages of extrusion:
The complexity and range of parts which can
The extrusion process is complete in one pass only.
Large diameter, hollow products, thin walled tubes
are easily to produced.
Good surface finish and excellent dimensional and
geometrical accuracy.

Forward or direct extrusion process

In this process, the material to be extruded is in the
form of a block.
It is heated to requisite temperature and then it is
transferred inside a chamber as shown in figure.

In the front portion of the chamber, a die with an

opening in the shape of the cross-section of the
extruded product, is fitted.
The block of material is pressed from behind by
means of a ram and a follower pad.
Since the chamber is closed on all sides, the heated
material is forced to squeeze through the dieopening in the form of a long strip of the required
Backward or indirect extrusion
the block of heated metal is inserted into the

It is confined on all sides by the container walls

except in front; where a ram with the die presses
upon the material.
As the ram presses backwards, the material has to
flow forwards through the opening in the die.
The ram is made hollow so that the bar of extruded
metal may pass through it unhindered.
Different between forward and backward extrusion.

Manufacture of a machine part by heating a metal or
alloy above its melting point and pouring the liquid
metal/alloy in a cavity approximately of same shape
and size as the machine part is called casting
After the liquid metal cools and solidifies, it acquires
the shape and size of the cavity and resembles the
finished product required.
The manufacture of a casting requires:
(a) Preparation of a pattern,
(b) Preparation of a mould with the help of the
(c) Melting of metal or alloy in a furnace,
(d) Pouring of molten metal into mould cavity,
(e) Breaking the mould to retrieve the casting,
(f) Cleaning the casting and cutting off risers,

Cast are made in large number of metals and alloys,

both ferrous and non-ferrous.
Steel casting used for components subject to higher
Bronze and brass casting used in ship and marine
Aluminium and aluminium-magnesiumcasting used
in automobile
Stainless steel casting used for making cutlery items
Advantages 1) economical to produce component
2) improve properties in certain part
3) very little metal is wasted
Disadvantage less strong as compared the wrought

Types of casting process:

a) Sand casting
b) Lost wax/Investment casting


Of metal


Production steps in the sand casting production

Sand Casting Process

Schematic illustration of sand mold

Lost wax/investment casting process

c) Die casting
i. Hot die casting

ii. Cold die casting

Heat treatment is a combination of heating and
cooling operations, timed and applied to a metal or
alloy in the solid state in a way that will produce
desired properties
The first step in the heat treatment of steel is to heat
the material to some temperature in or above the
critical range in order to form austenite.
Highly stressed materials produced by cold work
should be heated more slowly than stress-free
materials to avoid distortion.
The types of heat treatment
a) full annealing
a) Stress relief annealing
b) Spheroidizing
c) Normalizing

a)Full Annealing
) heat treating process used to soften previously coldworked metal by allowing it to recrystallize.
) The term annealing refers to a heat treatment in
which a material is exposed to an elevated
temperature for an extended time period and then
slowly cooled. Ordinarily, annealing is carried out to:
(1) relieve stresses (often introduced when coldworking the part) (2) increase softness, ductility and
(3) produce a desired microstructure
() Any annealing process consists of three stages:
1. heating to the desired temperature
2. holding or soaking at that temperature
3. slowly cooling, usually to room temperature
() Time is the important parameter in these procedures.
Process annealing is a heat treatment that is used to
negate the effects of cold work that is to soften and

b) Stress Relief Annealing

) is an annealing process that is utilized when internal
residual stresses develop in metal pieces in
response to such things as cold working.
) Failure to remove these internal stresses may result
in distortion and warping.
) The internal stresses are relieved by bond relaxation
as a result of heating.
) A stress relief is carried out by heating the piece to
a recommended temperature, holding the work
piece at temperature long enough to attain a
uniform temperature throughout the part, and
finally cooling to room temperature in air.
) Stress relieving can eliminate some internal stresses
without significantly altering the structure of the

c) Spheroidizing
) An
microstructure of pearlite and a cementite network
will generally give poor machinability.
) Since cementite is hard and brittle, the cutting tool
cannot cut through these plates.
) A heat-treating process which will improve the
machinability is known as spheroidize annealing.
) This process will produce a spheroidal or globular
form of carbide in a ferritic matrix.
) Medium and high carbon steels having a
microstructure containing coarse pearlite may still be
too hard to conveniently machine or plastically
) These steels (and in fact, any steel) may be annealed
to develop the spheroidite structure.

d) Normalizing
) is an annealing heat treatment used to refine the
grains and produce a more uniform and desirable size
) Normalizing is accomplished by heating the material
to a temperature above its upper critical temperature
(e.g.: just above 1333F for most fastener-related
) After sufficient time has been allowed for the alloy to
completely transform to austenite, the metal is
allowed to cool in the air.