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Categorization of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols

Table Driven Routing Protocol

Each node maintains one or more tables
containing routing information to every other
node in the network.
Tables need to be consistent and up-to-date
view of the network.

Updates propagate through the network

Source Initiated On demand routing protocol

on-demand style: create routes only when it is
desired by the source node
When a node requires a route to a destination,
it initiates a route discovery process
Route is maintained until destination becomes
unreachable, or source no longer is interested
in destination.

Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol


Basic Routing Protocol

Based on Bellman ford routing algorithm with some


Each node maintains a list of all destinations and

number of hops to each destination.

Each entry is marked with a sequence number.

Periodically send table to all neighbors to maintain

Two ways to update neighbors:

Full dump
Incremental update

Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing

Similar to DSDV
Based on concept of clusters and cluster heads
Routing is done via the cluster heads and
A routing table among cluster heads are

Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing

Pure on-demand protocol
Node does not need to maintain knowledge of another
node unless it communicates with it
AODV includes route discovery and route maintenance.
AODV minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating
routes on-demand
AODV uses only symmetric links because the route reply
packet follows the reverse path of route request packet
AODV uses hello messages to know its neighbors and
to ensure symmetric links

Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

A node maintains route cache containing the
routes it knows
Two main phases
Route discovery
Route maintenance

Basic Operation is similar to AODV.

Main difference
To use routing cache for link failure.
When route discovery phase, node send route
request message with its own address.

Zone Routing Protocol

Hybrid of table-driven and on-demand!!
From each node, there is a concept of zone.
Within each zone, the routing is performed in a
table-driven manner (proactive).
However, a node does not try to keep global
routing information.

For inter-zone routing, on-demand routing is



On Demand

Table Driven

Availability of routing

Available when

Always available regardless

of need

Routing philosophy


Mostly flat, except for


Periodic route updates

Not required


Coping with mobility

Use localized route


Inform other nodes to

achieve a consistent

Signaling traffic generated

Grows with
increasing mobility

Greater than that of on

demand routing