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Technological

Environment

Relationship between business and technology


exist
J.K. Galbrath : Technology is systematic
application of scientific or other
organized knowledge to practical task.
1983- As yeas of Scientific Successes
Photography : 112 Yrs
Telephone : 85 Yrs
Steam engine : 42 Yrs
Radar : 18 Yrs
Transistor : 5 Yrs
Technology feed itself. Technology makes more
technology possible

Social Impact of Technology


1 Technology reaches people
through business
2 High expectation of consumer
3 System complexity
4 Social change
5 Technological Phases

Phase

Time period

Activity

Primary skill

Nomadic
Agarian

Untill 1650

Harvest

Manual

Agarian

1650-1900

Plant and
Harvest

Manual

Industrial

1900-1960

Material
Good

Manual &
Machine

Service

1960-75

Focused
Services

Machine &
Intellectual

Knowledge

1975-90

Abstractive
Work

Intellectual
and
Electronic

Technology and Economy


1. Increased Productivity

Technology

Productivity

Quality
and Quantity

2. Need to Spend on Research &


Development
3. Technology transfer
4. Jobs tend to become more intellectual
5 Problem of techno structure : ESOP
6 Need for multi professional
7 Increased regulation & stiff opposition
8 Rise and decline of product & organization
9 Insatiable demand of capital

Technology at plant level


1. Technology and organization
structure
2. Resistance to change
3 Problems for importing technology
4 Inability to absorb technology
5 T.Q.M. / B.P.R.E. / F.M.S.
6 Fear of risk

R & D Expenditure in India


India currently spends about 1% of
G.D.P. on R & D and
Science and technology policy
(January 2003) has the target
to raise to 2% by 2007.
Public Sector= 80%($ 3.2 billion)
In developed country 60-80% is by
private sector.

Global evidence suggest that


there are great advantage from
R&D activity in the long run. In
Finland total expenditure on R&D
as proportion of GDP rose from
1.5% in 1985 to 3.2% in 2001.
During this period ,its export/GDP
ratio doubled to 39%, the share of
high tech exports in total exports
rose from 6% in 1990 to 24% in
labour productivity 2001 rose from
40% to 100%

Various state agencies involved in the clearing Foreign


collaboration Agreement for technology

Agency

Main feature

FIPB

To increase F.D.I. through transparent and


effective policies

FIPC

To facilitate FDI & identify area of FDI

FIIA

To deal with the problems faced by foreign


investor in project implementation

(IP & ID)

To disseminate information about foreign


investment climate in country, to coordinate
and monitor project for FI

SIA

To guide the prospective entrepreneurs on


foreign collaboration and capital good import

RBI

To facilitate, promote, and clear FDI in


selected area of national importance

Business
Ombudsman

To deal with complains regarding delay in


The clearances in approval of projects.

Main problems and issues facing


technology environment and policy in
India

Heavy dominance of government in


technology dept.
Condition of stagnation in technology
research
Low rate of technology commercialiation
Weak intellectual regime
Limited import of technology due to
restriction
Inferior proposition of Indian partner
Import of outdated and inappropiate
technology
Little emphasis on technology assimilation
and absorption