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C LANGUAGE

MADHUVAN TECHNOLOGIES

WHAT IS COMPUTER LANGUAGE?


Theterm computerlanguage includes a wide
variety of languages used to communicate with
computers.
The way by which we pass the instruction to the
computer is called computer language
Computer languages can be divided into two groups:

High

Level

Procedure Oriented
Object Oriented

Low

Level

Machine Language
Assembly Language

WHAT IS PROGRAM ?

Program:
A

Computer program is a set of instructions that are


followed to solve some problem.

Instruction
A

single instruction to computer that directs computer to


perform a unique task is called Instruction.

Programming
The

action of writing computer program is called


programming.

PROCEDURE ORIENTED

Procedure orientedprogrammingbasically consists of writing


a list of instructions(or actions) for the computer to follow, and
organizing these instructions into groups known as functions.
In amulti-functionprogram, many important data items are
placed as global so that they may be accessed by all functions.
Global data are more vulnerable to an inadvertent change by a
function.
In a large program it is very difficult to identify what data is
used by which function.

OBJECT ORIENTED

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming


language model organized around "objects" rather than
"actions" and data rather than logic.

INTRODUCTION TO C LANGUAGE

C is a general purpose high level language that was originally


developed by Dennis M. Ritchie to develop the Unix operating
system at Bell Labs. C was originally first implemented on the
DEC PDP-11 computer in 1972.

The C has now become a widely used professional language for


various reasons

Easy to learn
Structured language
It produces efficient programs.
It can handle low-level activities.
It can be compiled on a variety of computer platforms.

WHY USE C?

C was initially used for system development work, in


particular the programs that make-up the operating system. C
was adopted as a system development language because it
produces code that runs nearly as fast as code written in
assembly language. Some examples of the use of C might be:

Operating Systems
Language Compilers
Assemblers
Text Editors
Print Spoolers
Network Drivers
Modern Programs
Data Bases
Language Interpreters
Utilities

DATA TYPES IN C

Data type specify the type of Data:

C has a rich set of data types as follows

VARIABLES IN C

A variable is nothing but a name given to a storage area that


our programs can manipulate.
Each variable in C has a specific type, which determines the
size and layout of the variable's memory;
The name of a variable can be composed of letters, digits, and
the underscore character.
Syntax

type variable_list;

Example

int i, j, k;
char c, ch;
float f, salary;
double d;

CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS

Decision making structures require that the programmer specify one


or more conditions to be evaluated or tested by the program,
Following is the general from of a typical decision making structure
found in most of the programming languages

CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS

LOOPING STATEMENTS

There may be a situation when you need to execute a block of code


several number of times.
A loop statement allows us to execute a statement or group of
statements multiple times and following is the general from of a loop
statement in most of the programming languages:

LOOPING STATEMENTS

C programming language provides following types of loop to handle


looping requirements

LOOPING STATEMENTS

C programming language provides following types of loop to handle


looping requirements.
Every C program has at least one function which ismain(), and all
the most trivial programs can define additional functions.
A function can be called many number of times.
Definition:
Return_type function_name( parameter list )
{
body of the function
}