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Introduction

Pericardiumis the thin membrane surrounding the heart


Amphibian Ringers Solutionaqueous solution of the
chlorides of sodium, potassium, and calcium. It is isotonic
in animal tissue.
Heart Rate or Pulseheartbeats/minute

Definition of Terms
Systoleperiod when the heart , specifically the LEFT
VENTRICLE, is contracting.
Diastoleperiod of relaxation and dilatation (expansion)

Frog Heart vs. Human Heart

Criteria

FROG

HUMAN

Chamber

3 chambers
2 atria
1 ventricle

4 chambers
2 atria
2 ventricles

Heart Rate

Slower

Faster

Ventricle

Not separated

Fully separated
Presence of interventricular
septum

Aorta

2 arches

1 arch

Blood

Mixed blood

Oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood does
not mix

Size

Smaller

Larger

Rate of Heartbeat
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Procedure
1. Expose the heart of a pithed frog by incising midline of thorax
and abdomen.
2. Pinch the pericardium with a pair of forceps. Lift it carefully.
3. Keep the heart moist by dropping Amphibian Ringers
solution every 15 seconds. DO NOT expose the heart to air
currents nor flood with Ringers.
4. Take 3 measurements of the frog heartbeat/minute and
compute for the mean.
5. Do the same procedure in number 4 with your partner using
a stethoscope.

Results
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

MEAN

Frog

73

72

70

72

Human

86

77

70

78

1.1 Effect of Temperature


Materials
Cold and Warm Ringers Solution

Effect of Temperature
Procedure
1. Subject the heart to cold Ringers solution and take
the average 3 heartbeat measurements.
2. Normalize heart by applying Ringers at room
temperature for two minutes.
3. After it has normalized, apply warm Ringers and take
average of 3 heartbeat measurements.

Results
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

MEAN

COLD

63

65

64

64

WARM

56

59

58

57.67

DISCUSSION
Temperature and Heart rate is in DIRECT PROPORTION
with each other.
An increased body temperature increases the
permeability of the cardiac muscle membrane to ions,
resulting in acceleration of self-excitation of the cardiac
muscles.

1.2 Effect of Activity


Procedure
Take average pulse of your partner under the ff.
conditions:
1. Sitting quietly
2. After standing at attention for 2 minutes
3. After doing jumping jacks for two minutes

Results
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

MEAN

Sitting

77

110

80

89

Standing

122

130

91

115

Jumping Jacks

155

172

149

159

1.3 Effect of pH
Procedure
1. Place a drop of 1.0% acetic acid on the heart of a frog
and count number of beats/minute.
2. Was off acid with Ringers and count the beats again.
3. Average 3 heartbeat measurements.

Results
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

MEAN

Acidic

69

51

26

49

Normal

74

73

70

72

DISCUSSION
pH measurement and heartbeat measurement is in
DIRECT proportion with each other.
The normal pH of blood in which the heart is functioning
normally is 7.35 to 7.41, which is slightly alkaline. When
the heart plasma rises to an acidic pH of more than 7.35,
it gradually erodes the smooth muscles of the inner walls
of the arteries and veins, as well as the hearts. This
weakens the structure of the heart, arteries, and veins,
and consequently, their efficiency and function.

1.4 Effect of Selected Ions


Materials
0.6% Sodium chloride
0.15% Potassium chloride
0.012% Calcium chloride

Effect of Selected Ions


Procedure
1. With intense caution, lift the frogs heart well above
surrounding vessels. Sever attached vessels (truncus
arteriosus and caval veins)
2. Drop the excised heart into the 100 mL beaker of
Ringers and cleanse it.
3. Once clean, transfer to another beaker of fresh
Ringers and let heartbeat stabilize.

4. Pour 30 mL of each of the ff. solutions given (NaCl, KCl,


CaCl2)
5. Transfer the heart to the beaker of sodium chloride.
Count heartbeat/minute. Return to Ringers to normalize.
Repeat thrice and average rate measurement. Do the
same with the two solutions.

Results
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

MEAN

NaCl

86

96

91

91

CaCl2

80

74

64

72.67

KCl

80

69

61

70

DISCUSSION
In increasing NaCl and CaCl2 concentration, heart rate
INCREASES (Direct proportion)
In increasing KCl concentration, heart rate DECREASES
(Inverse proportion)

The excess of potassium ions in the extracellular fluids


causes heart to DILATE thus, the heart rate slows down
with elevating potassium concentration. Excess of
sodium and calcium ions elevates cardiac rhythm and
heart rate.

Blood Clotting
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Introduction
Blood clotting is vital in the prevention of excessive
bleeding once a blood vessel is injured. Platelets and
proteins in the plasma stop the bleeding by forming a
clot over the injury.

Haemostasis
Haemostasis or clot formation arrests bleeding when
blood vessels are damaged.

Procedure
1. Obtain a blood sample from a volunteers left index
finger using a capillary tube.
2. Once the tube is filled, keep it warm by holding it in
the palm of your hand.
3. After 2 minutes, break 5 mm off the tip of the tube.
Note any dried strand of blood that will appear.
4. If no strand appears, keep the tube warm again and
break off another piece after 30-second interval.

Result
A successful clotting time was achieved in 3 minutes.

Why is it necessary to keep the


capillary tube warm?
In order for the blood to clot faster.

DISCUSSION
Major Steps in Haemostasis
1. Vasoconstriction
2. Platelet Plug Formation
3. Blood Coagulation

Vasoconstriction
This is the immediate reflex that occurs when a vessel
is damaged. This is induced by the release of serotonin,
a potent vasodilator, by the platelets due to their
adhesion to collagen fibres. Vasoconstriction decreases
blood flow and pressure.

Platelet Plug Formation


Occurs due to adhesion of platelets to collagen fibres,
leading to release of ADP and PAF (platelet-activating
factor). These chemicals attract more platelets, initiating
pseudopod formation that will create a temporary plug.
This process is a positive feedback.

Blood Coagulation
Exposed collagen initiates this series of reactions (known
as coagulation cascade). Clotting factors released
activate prothrombin to become thrombin. Thrombin then
activates fibrinogen to become fibrin. Fibrin protein fibre
mesh stabilizes platelet plug. Red blood cells adhere to
this net, forming the clot.

Factors Affecting Blood Clotting


Process
Presence / Absence of Clotting Factors
Platelet amount
Temperature
Temperature
Rate of Blood Flow
Medications and other substances

Sources