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Battery

Overview
By Tony Green
Email: tony@tonygreen.name
Homepage: http://www.tonygreen.name
What is a battery?

A system which converts


chemical energy to
electrical energy(electro
chemical cell)

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© Tony Green 2010
How is energy converted
from chemical to electrical?

By the reaction flow of


electrons

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© Tony Green 2010
More on Reactions

Oxidation half – species which is


donating (or losing) the electrons

Reduction half - species which is


receiving (or gaining)the electrons

Net reaction (Overall) –


balanced sum of the two (oxidation
and reduction) half reactions
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© Tony Green 2010
LEO the lion says
www.freelionpictures.com

GER”

Remember: Loss of Electrons is


Oxidation and
Gain of Electrons is Reduction
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© Tony Green 2010
What are the parts of a battery?

Anode – The place where


oxidation(Loss) of electrons
takes place

Cathode – The place where


reduction(Gain)of electrons
takes place
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© Tony Green 2010
What are the parts of a battery?
(Continued)
Electrolyte - Acts like a bridge
between the electrodes allowing the
positive and negative ions to flow
back and forth

Separator - The separator provides a


reservoir for the electrolyte and
electrically isolates the anode and
the cathode preventing the reaction
from occurring in one swoop
http://www.tonygreen.name
© Tony Green 2010
Types of Batteries with Examples

 Primary (not rechargeable)


Dry Cell - D,C,AA, AAA
 Secondary (rechargeable)
Lead Acid Battery in an car, Lithium -Ion
,Nickel Cadmium
 Why ? If the products of the reaction are
solid the battery can be recharged. These
solid materials are sticky and cling to the
innards of the battery(Electrode). If current
is applied the reaction can be driven
backwards. Else wise not re-chargeable.
http://www.tonygreen.name
© Tony Green 2010
What is actually happening…..

 Under a load the anode loses electrons


while the cathode gains them. The
movement of electrons provides current,
this uses the energy that was stored in
the battery.
 On the other hand if current is applied
the opposite occurs and the reaction
reversed and the current is stored as
chemical energy.
 This can go back(charge) and forth
(discharge)
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© Tony Green 2010
Current Flow during Charging
Charging

Current
Charger
Separator
Anode (-)
Cathode (+)

Ions

Electrolyte

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© Tony Green 2010
Current Flow during Discharging
Discharging
Current
Load

Separator

Anode (-) Cathode (+)

Ions

Electrolyte
Electrolyte
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© Tony Green 2010
Types of Batteries

 Alkaline (Dry Cell)

 Lead acid

 Nickel Cadmium

 Lithium Ion(Li Ion)

 Nickel Metal Hydride(Ni MH)


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© Tony Green 2010
What is the difference - Types of Batteries
 The voltages
 The Reaction
Rechargeable/non-rechargeable
 The package
 Material of the component
 Anode
 Cathode
 Separator
 Electrolyte
http://www.tonygreen.name
© Tony Green 2010
Thank you for your time!

If you would like to know more about the


author please check out his website at
http://www.tonygreen.name
or his blog at
http://www.markanthonygreen.blogspot.com
http://www.tonygreen.name
© Tony Green 2010