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A Review Material for

2015 Licensure Examination for Teachers
By Dr. Augusto Rodriguez Dela


Arrive at meanings of words using context clues,
structural analysis and other word formation techniques
Note details to discover the central theme of a passage
Point out the organization structure of a passage and
determine how the parts are related to the whole
Draw inferences and implications on reading texts
Distinguish the different parts of speech in English their
meanings, forms, order, and functions
Analyze sentences in terms of their constituents
Identify the rules of grammatical usage

Vocabulary knowledge implies a rich understanding of the word. It means
knowing a word by definition and associating experiences with that word.

1.Structural Analysis. Words are made up of the smallest

meaningful units called morphemes. The visual scrutiny of unfamiliar words
to identify morphemes is called structural analysis. Knowing the roots,
prefixes, and suffixes of words helps reveal the meaning of the total word
a) Root words are words from which other words are formed by adding a
beginning part (prefix) or an ending part (suffix)
active (move)
porter (carry)
contradiction (to speak)
b) Prefixes are word parts added to the beginning of a word
benevolent (good)
decline (from)
nonsense (not)
c) Suffixes are syllables added at the end of a word to form a new word
with a different meaning
Biology (study of)
homeless (without)
scientist (one who does)

2.Word Formation. Words undergo changes. The following are
five processes of word formation:
a) Clipping means to cut off the beginning or the end of the word. It
may mean cutting from both ends, leaving a part to stand for the
b) Blending is formed by fusing or putting two words together. Usually
the first part of one word is blended or fused with the last part of
another. The blended word then gets its meaning from the two
words put together.
smog telecast
c) Compounding uses two or three words put together to make a full
form. Most often the meaning of the word is different from its parts.
Sometimes it is the meaning of the two words put together.
first aid

d) Acronymy is the use of initial letter or syllables of several words in succession.




e) Reduplication- full or partial repetition of a free morpheme; sometimes with variation

with variation
hotch potch
hodge podge
In Filipino
Bili (BUY) bibili (WILL BUY)
Kain (to eat) Kakain (WILL EAT)
Pasok (to go) papasok (WILL GO)
f) Coining (Coinage): Creating a completely new free morpheme, which is unrelated to any
existing morphemes; a rare thing
g) Folk or Popular Etymology results from changing a word in part or in whole to make it more
like a familiar word.
bachelor barbeque caesarian

3. Context Clues. The meaning of a word may be determined by its
environment the words that surround it, either coming before or after it in the
sentence of in the paragraph.

a) Definition is considered the simplest and most obvious way by which the
meaning of a word is revealed. The be verb is used to equate the term to
be defined to the familiar word in the sentence.
Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis,
treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
b) Restatement may be in the form of synonyms, examples, elaboration by
the use of modifiers, and pairing closely related words. It is usually
introduced by signal words: that is, for example, such as, like, in the way,
that, in other words, what this means, etc. It may also be signaled by the
dash and the parentheses.
He was a true peripatetic, like the walking philosophers who followed
Aristotle and the wandering Jews of Israel.

3. Context Clues. The meaning of a word may be determined by its
environment the words that surround it, either coming before or after it in the
sentence of in the paragraph.
c) Synonym is a word that means essentially the same thing as another

word. It is usually preceded by the function word or. Sometimes the

synonym may be found in another sentence within the paragraph.
God is omniscient, or all-knowing.

d) Antonym is the opposite or contrasting word that may serve as a clue to

the unfamiliar word.
Julias remarks are generally not nebulous, but clear.
e) Inference requires reading between lines to see connections and
relationships not explicitly stated in a particular passage.
The practicing physician as a rule is completely unskilled in obstetrics.
His preliminary training contains little or nothing concerning the details of
pregnancy and childbirth.

3. Context Clues. The meaning of a word may be determined by its environment the words that
surround it, either coming before or after it in the sentence of in the paragraph.

f) Homophones & Words with Multiple Meanings indicate several

meanings that a word has in English.
Susan bought a bar of soap.
The soldiers tried to bar the enemies.
The brilliant student passed the bar examination.

g) Words of Various Disciplines are the basic meaning of specialized

vocabulary in a particular subject area.
The capital of the Philippines is Metro Manila. (Social Science)
His capital for the new business is one million pesos. (Math)
h) Multiple Context make the meaning of unfamiliar words clearer and
easily understood.
Butterflies fly from flower to flower.
How high did the boy fly his kite?
Airplanes fly regularly from Manila to Hongkong.



An idiom is an expression peculiar to a language. It usually has several associated meanings

which are not readily understandable from its grammatical construction and cannot be derived from the meaning
of its separate elements.

cross to bear endure a kind of burden

close-fisted a miser
cold-reception unfriendly
broad daylight open, full daylight
blackmail money extorted by threat of intimidation
Argus-eyed jealously watchful
what not -etcetera
blue-blood noble blood
chicken-hearted a timid, cowardly fellow
absent-minded to be inattentive of what is going on
fair weather friend a friend who deserts you in time of difficulties
henpecked husband a submissive husband
laughing stock object of ridicule
greenhorn an inexperienced person
by heart from memory
burn the midnight oil study or work far into the night
bundle from heaven new-born baby
belle of the ball most popular girl
blanket authority complete right or privilege
behind the times unprogressive
came to terms deal with misunderstanding

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are
used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by
comparing or identifying one thing with another that has
meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.
a) Simile a comparison between two unlike objects by using
like or as
His mind is like a sponge.
b) Metaphor an indirect comparison of unlike objects
She is a phantom of delight
c) Personification the giving of human characteristics &
capabilities to nonhuman things such as inanimate objects,
abstract ideas, or animals
The clouds cried a torrent of tears.


Figures of Speech.


These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.

Apostrophe an address to the absent as if present or to the inanimate as if

O wind, if winter comes, can spring be far behind?
e) Allusion is a reference in a work of literature to another work of literature, or to a
well-known person, place or event outside of literature
i.Mythological Allusion: Magnus is the Adonis of the class.
ii.Literary Allusion: Political Pied Pipers try everything.
iii.Historical Allusion: Some call Marcos a modern day Hitler.
iv.Biblical Allusion:
I took my power in my hand
And went against the world
Twas not as much as David had,
But I was twice as bold.
I aimed my pebble, but myself
Was all the one that fell
Was it Goliath was too large,
Or only I too small
- The Duel by Emily Dickinson

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.

f) Antonomasia is a special type of allusion which makes use of a title or an

epithet (a descriptive word or phrase) instead of a proper name. It uses a
proper name to convey an idea. Often these names are taken from
history, myths, legends and the Bible.
1. Abraham father of his people
2. Achilles heel flaw or weakness
3. Apollo manliness
4.Cain murderer of his brother
5.David and Jonathan friendship
6. Juliet young, tragic love
7. Napoleon strategy in war
8. Penelope faithful wife
9. Salome temptation
10. Solomon wisdom
11.Thomas doubt
12. Waterloo cause of defeat/ weakness

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.

g) Hyperbole the use of excessive exaggeration for effect
Waves mountain high broke over the reef.
I think of you every minute of the day.
h) Litotes makes a deliberate understatement used to affirm by negating
its opposite
Regine Velasquez is not a bad singer.
Edgar Allan Poe is no mean writer.
i) Meiosis is a positive understatement intended to suggest a strong
I am a bit worried because I am falling in almost all of my subjects.
We were a little disappointed to learn that the guest of honor could
not come.
j) Repetition is repeating words, phrases, or whole construction in order to
intensify feeling or meaning.
Never give in. Never give in. Never, never, never, never yield to
force.- Winston Churchill

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.

k) Irony is the use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning.
Youre so beautiful; you look like a Christmas tree!
You gave ma a good plan. Its only problem is that it can never be
l) Antithesis a contrast of words or ideas
She looks like an innocent flower but watch out for the serpent under
m) Oxymoron the combining of contraries to portray a particular image or
to produce a striking effect
Parting is such sweet sorrow.
He is an honest liar.

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.


n) Paradox uses a phrase or statement that on surface seems

contradictory, but makes some kind of emotional sense. It is a seemingly,
contradictory but true example
Let us go to war for peace.
There is a grief in happiness.
o) Chiasmus is parallelism in sentence element of similar or contrasting
ideas, so arranged that the parallel elements of the second part of the
structure are in inverted order.
He was slow in resolution, in performance quick.

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.

p) Metonymy substitutes a word that closely relates to a person or thing
Have you no respect for gray hairs?
The pen and plume can be used to represent a writer.
q) Periphrasis is the substitution of a descriptive phrase for a name or viceversa
The sleeping giant has broken ties with its neighbors.
r) Synecdoche uses a part to represent the whole
Give us this day our daily bread.
Life is so hard when you have eight hungry stomachs to feed.
Ten brilliant minds instead of ten intelligent people

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.


6. Climax is the arrangement of words or ideas according to

their degree of importance; thus, the last set appears most
I came, I saw, I conquered. Julius Caesar
7. Anti-climax is abruptly ending a climax build-up with an
insignificant item.
I die. I faint. I fail.

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.


8. Onomatopoeia is a use of words that imitate the sounds associated with
the object or actions they refer to
The cat meows in the dark.
9. Pun is a play on words with humorous, witty effects
The Tooth, the Whole Tooth and Nothing but the Tooth.- An essay
by Robert Benchley
10. Euphemism is the substitution of an in offensive term for one considered
offensively explicit.
Senior citizens for old people / Passed away for dead
Say He didnt make it. instead of He lost the game.
11. Rhetorical Devices. These are sound devices used to convey meaning
through rhyme and rhythm.
a) Onomatopoeia uses a word having a sound that imitates what it
hiss, bang, buzz, hush , swoosh

5. Figures of Speech. These forms of expressions are used to convey meaning or heighten effect, often by comparing or
identifying one thing with another that has meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener.


11. Rhetorical Devices
b) Alliteration involves the repetition of initial consonant sounds
wicked and wan, threatening throngs
c) Assonance uses repetition of vowels without repetition of consonants,
also called a vowel rhyme
alone, alone, all, all, alone
d) Consonance repeats the final consonant sounds, also called a slant
dreary and weary; odds and ends
e) Rhyme employs identical sounds from the vowel of the accented
syllables to the end
hold, told, mold, gold; die, sky, my, fly, pie
f) Anaphora repeats a word or words at the beginning of two or more
successive clauses or verses
Cannons to the right of them/Cannons to the left of them

A. Verb Errors
1. Verb Tense. Check if the correct verb tense has been used in
the sentence.
When I came home, the children still didnt finish dinner.
When I came home, the children still hadnt finished dinner.
In reported speech, check that the rule of sequence of tenses has
been observed.
She promised she will come.
She promised she would come.
2.Tense Formation. Know the past participle of irregular verbs.
He throwed it out the window.
He threw it out the window.
3. Subject-Verb Agreement. Check if the verb agrees with the
subject in number.
There is many reasons why I cant help you.
There are many reasons why I cant help you.

Present Progressive:
Past Progressive:
Future Progressive:
Present Perfect:
Past Perfect:
Future Perfect:

I dance.
I danced.
I will dance.
I am dancing.
I was dancing all afternoon yesterday.
I will be dancing next week.
I have danced.
I had danced before I sang.
I will have danced before I sing.
Present Perfect Progressive: I have been dancing since then.
Past Perfect Progressive: I had been dancing when the bomb exploded.
Future Perfect Progressive: I will have been dancing when the party ends.

Subject - Verb Agreement Rules

1. Subjects and verbs must agree in
number. This is the cornerstone rule that
forms the background of the concept.
The dog growls when he is angry.
The dogs growl when they are angry.

2. Dont get confused by the words that

come between the subject and verb; they
do not affect agreement.
The dog, who is chewing on my jeans, is
usually very good.

Subject - Verb Agreement Rules

3. Prepositional phrases between the subject and
verb usually do not affect agreement.
The colors of the rainbow are beautiful.

4. When sentences start with there or here, the

subject will always be placed after the verb, so care
needs to be taken to identify it correctly.
There is a problem with the balance sheet.Here are
the papers you requested.

5. Subjects don't always come before verbs in

questions. Make sure you accurately identify the
subject before deciding on the proper verb form to
Does Lefty usually eat grass? Where are the pieces of
this puzzle.

Subject - Verb Agreement Rules

6. If two subjects are joined by and, they
typically require a plural verb form.
The cow and the pig are jumping over the

7. The verb is singular if the two subjects

separated by and refer to the same
person or thing.
Red beans and rice is my mom's favorite dish.

8. If the words each, every, or no come

before the subject, the verb is singular.
No smoking and drinking is allowed.Every
man and woman is required to check in.

Subject - Verb Agreement Rules

9. If the subjects are both singular and are connected by
the words or, nor, neither/nor, either/or, and not only/but
also the verb is singular.
Jessica or Christian is to blame for the accident.

10. The only time when the object of the preposition

factors into the decision of plural or singular verb forms
is when noun and pronoun subjects like some, half,
none, more, all, etc. are followed by a prepositional
phrase. In these sentences, the object of the preposition
determines the form of the verb.
All of the chicken is gone.All of the chickens are gone.

11. The singular verb form is usually used for units of

Four quarts of oil was required to get the car running.

Subject - Verb Agreement Rules

12. If the subjects are both plural and are connected by
the words or, nor, neither/nor, either/or, and not only/but
also, the verb is plural.
Dogs and cats are both available at the pound.

13. If one subject is singular and one plural and the

words are connected by the words or, nor, neither/nor,
either/or, and not only/but also, you use the verb form of
the subject that is nearest the verb.
Alvins sisters or his girlfriend wants pizza.

14. Indefinite pronouns typically take singular verbs.

Everybody wants to be loved.

15. * Except for the pronouns (few, many, several, both)

that always take the plural form.
Few were left alive after the flood.

Subject - Verb Agreement Rules

16. If two infinitives are separated by and they
take the plural form of the verb.
To walk and to chew gum require great skill.

17. When gerunds are used as the subject of a

sentence they take the singular verb form of the
verb, but when they are linked by and they take
the plural form.
Standing in the water was a bad idea.Swimming in
the ocean and playing drums are my hobbies.

18. Collective nouns like herd, senate, class,

crowd, etc. usually take a singular verb form.
The herd is stampeding.

Subject - Verb Agreement Rules

19. Titles of books, movies, novels, etc.
are treated as singular and take a singular
The Burbs is a movie starring Tom Hanks.

20. Final

Rule Remember, only

the subject affects the verb!

A. Verb Errors

4. Conditional Sentences. The word if will NEVER be followed by the

words will or would.
If I would have known, I wouldnt have gone.
If I had known, I wouldnt have gone.
5. Expressions of Desire. Unfulfilled desires are expressed by the form
had hoped that ________ would (or could, or might) do ________.
I wish I heard that story about him before I met him.
I wish I had heard (or could have heard or would have heard) that
story about him before I met him.
6.Verbs Followed by Verb Words. A verb word is the infinitive without the
She ignored the doctors recommendation that she stops smoking.
She ignored the doctors recommendation that she stop smoking.

A. Verb Errors

7.Tag Endings. Check for three things in tag endings: a) Does the ending
use the same person as the sentence verb? b) Does the ending use the
same tense as the sentence verb? c) If the sentence verb is positive, is the
ending negative; if the sentence verb is negative, is the ending positive?
Shes been there before, isnt she?
Shes been there before, hasnt she?
8. Negative Imperatives. There are two forms for negative imperatives.
Would you please dont smoke here.
Please dont smoke here. orWould you please not smoke here.
9. Affirmative and Negative Agreement of Verbs. There are two correct
forms for both the affirmative and negative agreements.
I havent seen the film and hasnt either.
I havent seen the film and she hasnt either.
I havent seen the film and neither has she.

A. Verb Errors

10. Infinitives of Gerunds in the Complement of Verbs. Some verbs may be followed by
either an infinitive or a gerund. Others may require either one or the other for idiomatic

I intend learning French next semester.

I intend to learn French next semester.

11.Verbs Requiring How in the Complement. The verbs KNOW, TEACH, LEARN, and
SHOW require the word how before an infinitive in the complement.

She knows to drive.

She knows how to drive.
12. Idiomatic Verbs Expressions. There are a few commonly used idiomatic verb
a.must have (done) it is a logical conclusion
Theyre late. They must have missed the bus.

b.had better (do) it is advisable

Its getting cold. You had better take your coat.

c.used to (do) was in the habit of doing in the past

I used to smoke a pack of cigarettes a day, but I stopped.

d.to be used to to be accustomed to

The noise doesnt bother me; Im used to studying with the radio on.

e.make someone do force someone to do

My mother made me take my little sister with me to the movies.

f.would rather would prefer

I would rather you didnt speak to her.

B. Pronoun Errors
1. Pronoun Subject-Object. Check if a pronoun is the
SUBJECT or the OBJECT of a verb or preposition.
All of us Fred, Jane, Alice, and me were late.
All of us Fred, Jane, Alice, and I were late.
2. Who and Whom. When in doubt about the correctness of
WHO/WHOM, try substituting the subject/object of a simpler
pronoun to clarify the meaning.
I dont know who Sarah meant.
I dont know whom Sarah meant.
3. Pronoun Subject- Verb Agreement. Check if the pronoun
and its verb agree in number.
Jessa is absent, but a few of the class is here.
Jessa is absent, but a few of the class are here.

B. Pronoun Errors
4. Possessive Pronoun Agreement. Check if possessive pronouns agree in person
and number.
If anyone calls, take their name.
If anyone calls, take his name.
5. Pronouns After the Verb To Be. TO BE is an intransitive verb and will always be
followed by a subject pronoun.
It must have been her at the door.
It must have been she at the door.
6. Position of Relative Pronouns. A relative pronoun refers to the word preceding
it. If the meaning is unclear, the pronoun is in the wrong position.
He could park right in front of the door, which was very convenient.
His being allowed to park right in front of the door was very convenient.
7. Parallelism of Impersonal Pronouns. In forms using impersonal pronouns, use
either one ones/his or her or you your.
One should take your duties seriously.
One should take ones/his or her duties seriously.
or You should take your duties seriously.

C. Adjective and Adverb Errors
1.Use of Adjectives and Adverbs. Check if a word modifier is an adjective or an
adverb and make sure the correct form is used.
I sure wish I were rich!
I surely wish I were rich!
2. Adjectives with Verbs of Sense. Intransitive verbs are described by adjectives
while transitive verbs are modified with adverbs.
She looked very well.
She looked very good!
3. Comparatives. In using adjectives of one or two syllables ending in y, add er.
Other words of more than one syllable use more. Adverbs of one syllable add
er; longer adverbs use more.
This exercise is harder then the last one
This exercise is harder than the last one.

C. Adjective and Adverb Errors
4. Parallel Comparisons. Check if the correct form is used in parallel
The more you practice, you will get better.
The more you practice, the better you will get.
5. Illogical Comparatives. Check comparisons to make sure they make
Texas is bigger than any state in the United States.
Texas is bigger than any other state in the United States.
6. Identical Comparisons. Something can be the same as or like
something else. Do not mix up the two forms.
Your dress is the same like mine.
Your dress is like mine. or Your dress is the same as mine.

C. Adjective and Adverb Errors
7. Idioms Using Comparative Structures. Some idiomatic terms are
formed like comparatives although they are not true comparisons.
You may have to spend so much as two hours waiting.
You may have to spend as much as two hours waiting.
8. Noun Adjectives. When a noun is used as an adjective, treat it as an
adjective. Do not pluralize or add s.
Youre talking like a two-years-old child!
Youre talking like a two-year-old child!
9. Ordinal and Cardinal Numbers. Ordinal numbers (first, second, third,
etc.) are preceded by the. Cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) are
We missed first act.
We missed the first act.
10. Modifying Countable and Non-countable Nouns. If a noun can be
preceded by a number, it is a countable noun; if not it is uncountable.
I was surprised by the large amount of people who came.
I was surprised by the large number of people who came.

A. Errors in Usage
1. Connectors. Do not mix different forms in connecting ideas.
She speaks not only Spanish but French as well.
She speaks Spanish and French.
She speaks Spanish. She also speaks French.
She speaks Spanish and French too.
She speaks not only Spanish but also French.
She speaks both Spanish and French.
She speaks Spanish as well as French.
2. Question Word Connectors. When a question word such as
when or what is used as a connector, the clause that follows is
not a question. Do not use the interrogative form.
Do you know when does the movie start?
Do you know when the movie starts?

A. Errors in Usage
3. Because. It is incorrect to say: The reason is because Use: The reason is
The reason he was rejected was because he was too young.
The reason he was rejected was that he was too young.
He was rejected because of his young age.
He was rejected because he was too young.
4. Dangling Modifier - absence of the word being modified
Ex: Inside the store, shoes must be worn.
(Who must wear shoes?)
Customers must wear shoes inside the store.
5. Misplaced modifier - the modifier modifies the wrong word.
Ex: Turning green, I watched the lights.
Correct: I watched the lights turning green.

A. Errors in Usage
6. Parallel Construction. In sentences containing a series of two or more items,
check to see if the same form has been used for all the items in the series. Do
not mix infinitives with gerunds, adjectives with participial phrases or verbs with
The film was interesting, exciting, and it was made well.
The film was interesting, exciting, and well-made.
7. Unnecessary Modifiers. In general, the more simply an idea is stated, the better
it is.
That depends on the state of the general condition of the situation.
That depends on the situation.
8.Commonly Confused Words. Be aware of the commonly misused words in
He was laying in bed all day yesterday.
He was lying in bed all day yesterday.
9.Misused Words and Prepositional Idioms. Take note of the prepositions in
common idioms.
They came despite of the rain.
They came in spite of the rain or
They came despite the rain.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and
expressions are not so much bad English as bad style, the
commonplaces of careless writing.

1. ACCEPT -to receive

Example: He accepts defeat well.
EXCEPT -to take or leave out
Example: Please take all the books off the shelf except for the red one.
2. ACCESS - availability
Example: The lawyer was given access to the grand jury records.
EXCESS - too much
Example: His expenses are for the past three months are far in excess of income.
3. ADAPT - to change
Example: She adapted the piano piece to make it more appropriate for the
childrens concert.
ADOPT - to take as ones own
Example: The impressionable young man adopted his heros style of dress.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions

are not so much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

4. ADVICE- a noun meaning opinion

Example: I asked my guidance counselor for advice about what courses to take next
ADVISE- a verb meaning to give an opinion to
Example: My guidance counselor advised me to take a science course and a foreign
5. AFFECT-to influence
Example: Lack of sleep affects the quality of your work.
EFFECT -n., result, v., to accomplish
The subtle effect of the lighting made the room look ominous.
Can the university effect such a change without disrupting classes?
6. AINT originally a contraction of am not. It is not considered standard English.
Nonstandard: John aint ready yet.
John isnt ready yet.
7. ALLUSION-an indirect reference
The professor made an allusion to Virginia Woolf's work.
ILLUSION -a false perception of reality
They saw a mirage: that is a type of illusion one sees in the desert.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions

are not so much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

8. ALL READY-prepared
Example: Dinner was all ready when the guests arrived.
ALREADY -by this time
Example: The turkey was already burned when the guests arrived.
9. ALTERNATE- means every other one in a series or a substitute
Example: When the experiment failed, they tried the alternate method.
ALTERNATIVE- one of the two possibilities
Example: She always reminds everyone that failing is not an alternative to passing.
10. ALTOGETHER -entirely
Example: Altogether, I thought that the student's presentation was well-planned.
ALL TOGETHER -gathered, with everything in one place
Example: We were all together at the family reunion last spring.
11. AMONG - a preposition that implies three or more.
Example: The dog sat down among the tulips.
BETWEEN -is generally used with two.
Example: Please sit between your mom and me.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions

are not so much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

12. ANYONE- all or everyone

Example: Anyone can do what I have done.
ANY ONE- a particular person or thing
Example: I do not like any one of the proposed programs.
13. APART-to be separated
Example: The chain-link fence kept the angry dogs apart. or My old car fell
apart before we reached California.
A PART-to be joined with
Example: The new course was a part of the new field of study at the university. OR A
part of this plan involves getting started at dawn.
14. ASCENT- climb
Example: The plane's ascent made my ears pop.
Example: The martian assented to undergo experiments.
15. AWHILE-an adverb which means for a while.
Example: Lie down awhile and rest. (Adverb)
A WHILE-an article and a noun usually used after the preposition for
Example: For a while he lay still without moving. (Noun)

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions

are not so much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

16. BESIDE-means at the side of or close to.

Example: The garden is beside the house.
BESIDES-means in addition to
Example: Who is going to the concert besides me?
17. BETTER-means recovering.
Example: He is better now than he was a week ago.
WELL- means completely recovered
Example: In a few more weeks, he will be well.
18. BIANNUAL- means twice a year
Example: The organizers meet biannually.
BIENNIAL-means done every two years or lasting for two years.
Example: The members pay biennial institutional fee.
19. BREATH-noun, air inhaled or exhaled
Example: You could see his breath in the cold air.
BREATHE-verb, to inhale or exhale
Example: If you don't breathe, then you are dead.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

20. BRING- means to carry from a distant place to a nearer one

Example: Bring those books here, please.
TAKE- means to carry from a nearer place to a more distant one
Example: Take these forms to the principals office.
21. CANVAS- a kind of cloth
Example: The actors need a canvas for their stage play.
CANVASS- a survey of opinions
Example: He canvassed the whole studentry re RH Bill.
22. CAPITAL-seat of government. It also financial resources.
Examples: The capital of Virginia is Richmond.
The firm had enough capital to build the new plant.
CAPITOL-the actual building in which the legislative body meets
Example: The governor announced his resignation in a speech given at the capitol today.
23. CITE-to quote or document
Example: I cited ten quotes from the same author in my paper.
Example: The sight of the American flag arouses different emotions in different parts of
the world.
SITE-position or place
Example: The new office building was built on the site of a cemetery.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

24. COARSE- means vulgar or harsh

Example: He was reprimanded because of his coarse behavior
COURSE-a path or a study
Example: What course are you taking?
25. COMPLEMENT-noun, something that completes; verb, to complete
Example: A nice dry white wine complements a seafood entree.
COMPLIMENT-noun, praise; verb, to praise
Example: The professor complimented Betty on her proper use of a comma.
26. CONSCIENCE-sense of right and wrong
Example: The student's conscience kept him from cheating on the exam.
Example: I was conscious when the burglar entered the house.
27. CONTINUAL- means close occurrence, with interval
Example: Their class has continual discussion on moral issues.
CONTINUOUS- uninterrupted occurrence
Example: Continuous rains last week caused flashfloods.
28. COUNCIL-a group that consults or advises
Example: The men and women on the council voted in favor of an outdoor concert in their
COUNSEL-to advise
Example: The parole officer counseled the convict before he was released.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

29. ELICIT-to draw or bring out

Example: The teacher elicited the correct response from the student.
Example: The Columbian drug lord was arrested for his illicit activities.
30. EMERGE- to rise out of
Example: The swimmer emerged from the pool.
IMMERGE- to plunge into
Example: The student immerged himself in his studies.
31. EMINENT-famous, respected
Example: The eminent podiatrist won the Physician of the Year award.
IMMANENT-inherent or intrinsic
Example: The meaning of the poem was immanent, and not easily recognized.
IMMINENT-ready to take place
Example: A fight between my sister and me is imminent from the moment I enter my house.
32. FARTHER- refers to distance
Example: My house is farther away than yours.
FURTHER- means additional or to a greater degree or extent
Example: I need further advice

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

33. FEWER- is used for things that can be counted.

Example: fewer calories, fewer assignments
LESS- is used for quantities that can be counted.
34. FORMER- the first of two
Example: The former half of the book was in prose.
LATTER- the second of two
Example: The latter half of the book was in poetry.
35. GRATEFUL- means thankful
Example: We are all grateful for your support.
GRATIFIED- means satisfied
Example: The lady was gratified that her action was commended.
36. HANGED- is used in reference to a person
Example: The prisoner was hanged at dawn.
HUNG- is used in reference to a thing
Example: The picture was hung above the fireplace.
37. HEALTHFUL-is used for things
Example: Fresh green salads are healthful.
HEALTHY-is used for people
Example: She is fit and healthy.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

38. IN-refers to position

Example: The plates are in the cabinet.
INTO-suggests motion
Example: Lets go into the next room.
39. INGENIOUS- having special skill to discover
Example: His ideas were all ingenious.
INGENUOUS- means having a childhood simplicity
Example: Her reaction to what was they said was ingenuous.
40. ITS-of or belonging to it
Example: The baby will scream as soon as its mother walks out of the room.
IT'S-contraction for it is
Example: It's a beautiful day in the neighborhood.
41. LEAD-noun, a type of metal
Example: Is that pipe made of lead?
LED-verb, past tense of the verb "to lead"
Example: She led the campers on an over-night hike.
42. LEARN-means to receive knowledge
Example: I learned a new word today.
TEACH- means to give knowledge.
Example: Sir Ralph taught us that new word.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

43. LIE-to lie down (a person or animal. hint: people can tell lies)
Example: I have a headache, so I'm going to lie down for a while.
The dog has lain in the shade all day.
Yesterday, the dog lay there for twelve hours.
LAY-to lay an object down.
Example: The town lay at the foot of the mountain.
At that point, Pappy laid the shotgun on the ground.
44. LOSE--verb, to misplace or not win
Example: Mom glared at Mikey: "If you lose that new lunchbox, don't even
think of coming home!"
LOOSE--adjective, to not be tight; verb (rarely used)--to release
Example: The burglar's pants were so loose that he was sure to lose the
race with the cop chasing him.
45. PASSED- verb, past tense of "to pass," to have moved
Example: The tornado passed through the city quickly, but it caused great damage.
PAST-belonging to a former time or place
Example: Go past the fire station and turn right.
46. PRECEDE-to come before
Example: Pre-writing precedes the rough draft of good papers.
PROCEED-to go forward
Example: He proceeded to pass back the failing grades on the exam.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

47. PRINCIPAL-adjective, most important; noun, a person who has authority

Examples: The principal ingredient in chocolate chip cookies is chocolate chips.
The principal of the school does the announcements each morning.
PRINCIPLE-a general or fundamental truth
Example: The study was based on the principle of gravity.
48. QUOTE-verb, to cite
Example: I would like to quote Dickens in my next paper.
QUOTATION-noun, the act of citing
Example: The book of famous quotations inspired us all.
49. RELUCTANT-to hesitate or feel unwilling
Example: We became reluctant to drive further and eventually turned back
when the road became icy.
RETICENT- to be reluctant to speak; to be reserved in a manner. Note that The American Heritage
Dictionary lists "reluctant" as a synonym for "reticent," as the third definition. For nuance and variety, we
recommend "reticent" for reluctance when speaking or showing emotion (after all, even extroverts can
become reluctant).
Example: They called him reticent, because he rarely spoke. But he listened
carefully and only spoke when he had something important to say.
50. RAISE-usually takes a direct object
Example: Our landlady raises the tent on our apartment every year at this time.
RISE- never takes a direct object
Example: The hot air balloons rise above the treetops.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

51. RESPECTIVELY- in the same order as the people or things already mentioned.
Lisa visited Paris and Vatican respectively.
RESPECTFULLY- means in a respectful manner
She greets her teachers respectfully.
52. SET- means to put something in a certain place
Set the plates on the table.
SIT- means to be seated
I will sit in his placer tonight.
53. STATIONARY-standing still
The accident was my fault because I ran into a stationary object.
STATIONERY-writing paper
My mother bought me stationery that was on recycled paper.
54. SOME TIME- a portion of time
I will need some time to make a decision.
SOMETIME- at an indefinite time in the future
Let us meet sometime after 12 noon.
SOMETIMES- adverb, means occasionally
Sometimes it is better to hesitate before signing a contract.
55. THAN-use with comparisons
I would rather go out to eat than eat at the dining hall.
THEN-at that time, or next
I studied for my exam for seven hours, and then I went to bed.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

56. THEIR-possessive form of they

Example: Their house is at the end of the block.
THERE-indicates location (hint: think of "here and there")
Example: There goes my chance of winning the lottery!
THEY'RE-contraction for "they are"
Example: They're in Europe for the summer--again!
57. THROUGH-by means of; finished; into or out of
Example: He plowed right through the other team's defensive line.
THREW-past tense of throw
Example: She threw away his love letters.
THOROUGH-careful or complete
Example: John thoroughly cleaned his room; there was not even a speck of
dust when he finished.
THOUGH-however; nevertheless
Example: He's really a sweetheart though he looks tough on the outside.
THRU-abbreviated slang for through; not appropriate in standard writing
Example: We're thru for the day.

Words and Expressions Commonly Misused. Many words and expressions are not so
much bad English as bad style, the commonplaces of careless writing.

58. TO-toward
Example: I went to the University of Richmond.
TOO-also, or excessively
Example: He drank too many screwdrivers and was unable to drive home.
TWO-a number
Example: Only two students did not turn in the assignment.
59. WHO-pronoun, referring to a person or persons
Example: Jane wondered how Jack, who is so smart, could be having difficulties in Calculus.
WHICH-pronoun, replacing a singular or plural thing(s); not used to refer to persons
Example: Which section of history did you get into?
THAT-used to refer to things or a group or class of people
Example: I lost the book that I bought last week.
60. WHO-used as a subject or as a subject complement
Example: John is the man who can get the job done.
WHOM-used as an object
Example: Whom did Sarah choose as her replacement?

Reading comprehension questions usually fall into several

general categories.
1. Main Idea. This usually refers to the passage as a whole, not to
some segment or part of the passage. Questions are usually about
the main idea or theme of the passage, about a possible title, or
about the authors primary objective. The main idea is typically (but
not always) found in the first paragraph. It is the statement that
gives the overall theme of the passage. In many cases, it is in the
form of an argument, including a premise and conclusion.
World War II brought new demands and needs to the nation in
the 1940s. Financing the war meant additional taxes and changes
to payroll processing. An armed force with millions of people
produced new challenges in administration and record keeping.
New weapons required countless calculations and tests. Defense
research demanded the development of large-scale computing

Reading comprehension questions usually fall into several general categories.

2. Supporting Ideas. This is about the idea expressed in one part of the
passage rather than about the passage as a whole. This type of question is
to distinguish between the main idea and those themes that support it, some
of which may be implicit or implied rather than explicitly stated.
Males and females are each associated with different kinds of
behavior, and what is considered masculine and feminine differs from
society to society. These concepts of masculinity and femininity extend to
how people walk, sit, talk, and dress. In our society, as in all others, men
walk and talk in certain ways and until very recently dressed very differently
from women. In some societies, different spatial areas are associated with
males and females women in many Middle Eastern societies are restricted
to certain parts of the house and may only come into contact with the males
who are members of their family. In such societies, the coffee house and
the market are defined as male domains. In contrast, in some African
societies, women predominate in the marketplace.

Reading comprehension questions usually fall into several general categories.

3. Drawing Inferences. This asks about ideas that are not explicitly stated
in a passage. The question refers meanings implied by the author based on
information given in the passage.
The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange the items
into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient depending on
how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of
facilities that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is
important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at
once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but
complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first,
the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become
just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for
this task in the immediate future, but then, one never can tell. After the
procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups
again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they
will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated.
However, that is part of life.


1. Skimming and Scanning. Skimming is the selective reading of

material to survey the purpose and the general idea. Scanning, on
the other hand, is a quick search for a specific information in the
2. Finding the Topic Sentence. The topic sentence gives the key
to an entire paragraph. It is usually found in the beginning of a
paragraph. However, there is no absolute rule. Some paragraphs
build up to a conclusion hence the key sentence is at the end.
3. Finding the General Theme. A more advanced skill is the ability
to read several paragraphs and relate them to one general theme or
main idea. This involves careful reading of the entire passage and
deciding which idea is the central or main one. The general theme
is usually most frequent or most important and every sentence
relates to it. In order to find the general theme:

Read at normal speed.

Locate the topic sentence in each paragraph.
Note ideas that are frequent or emphasized.
Find the idea to which most of the passage is related.


4. Finding Logical Relationships. The best way to
fully understand the meaning of a passage is to look for
the general theme and then relate the ideas and
opinions found in the passage to this general theme. It
is important to determine not only what is important in
the passage but also how the ideas interrelate to form
the whole.
5.Making Inferences. An inference is not stated. It is
assumed by the reader from something said by the
writer. An inference is the likely or probable conclusion
rather than the direct, logical one. It usually involves an
opinion or viewpoint that the writer wants the reader to
follow or assume.


Literature is derived from the Latin word litera which means letter.
It refers to any printed matter written within a book or magazine.
It is a reproduction of mans manifold experiences blended into one
harmonious expression.
It relates to mans love, griefs, dreams, and aspirations coached in a
beautiful language.
It is a story of man.

Reasons for Studying literature

To better appreciate our literary heritage

To trace the rich heritage of ideas handed down to us by our forefathers
To understand the great and noble tradition of the different races of the world
As Filipinos, to take pride in our own culture and manifest deep concern for
our own literature.

The prose

The NOVEL is a long narrative divided into chapters. The events are taken from
the true-to-life stories and spans a long period of time.
SHORT STORY is a narrative involving one or more chapters, one plot and one
single impression.
PLAYS are presented on stage divided into acts and each act has many scenes.
LEGENDS are fictions, narratives and usually about origins.
FABLES are stories about animals and inanimate things that speak and act like
people and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold
their ways and attitudes.
ANECDOTES are products of the writers imagination and the main aim is to bring
out lessons to the reader.
ESSAY expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem
or event. Best example is an editorial.
BIOGRAPHY deals with the life of a person which may be about himself or that of



The poetry
EPIC is an extended narrative about heroic exploits often
under supernatural control.
Biag ni Lam-ang of Ilocos, Phl

Beowulf of England

Iliad and Odyssey of Greece

Ramayana and Mahabarata of India

TALES are stories about supernatural beings.
BALLADS are short poems, adapted for singing, simple
in plot and metrical structure.



The poetry

Lyric poetry expresses emotions and feelings of the poet. It is usually short, simple and easy to
Folksongs/Awiting Bayan are intended to be sung poems about love, despair, grief, doubt, joy,
hope and sorrow.
Sonnet is a 14-line poem dealing with emotions, feelings or ideas
Example: Sonnets of Shakespeare
Elegy is a poem for the dead.
Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe
Ode is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity on a certain thing/object.
Example: Ode to the West Wind
Psalms are songs praising God and containing a philosophy of God.
Example: Psalm of David
Awit is a realistic poem sung with 12 syllables per line.
Example: Florante at Laura
Corrido is an 8-syllable recital with element of fantasy.
Example: Ibong Adarna



The poetry

Dramatic Comedy
Tragedy involves the hero who struggles mighty against
dynamic forces until he meets death.
Example: Hamlet
Comedy comes from the Greek word komos meaning
festivity. Its purpose is to give amusement through s happy
Melodrama arouses immediate and intense emotion and is
usually sad but there is a happy ending for the principal
Force is an exaggerated comedy where the situations are too
ridiculous to be true.


Famous Works

THE ILIAD by Homer

This consists of 24 books covering the last 49 days of the 10th year of the
Trojan War. Most books give detailed accounts of the fierce battles waged
on the plains of Troy.


This consists of 24 books that represents the 10-year struggle of the Greek
Ulysses (Odysseus) to reach and save his own kingdom, Ithaca, after the
fall of Troy.

BEOWULF by Homer
This is the Englands oldest epic. It is about the heroic deeds Beowulf who
helps save the Kingdom of Heorot.

The SHAH NAMAH by Firdausi

A great epic of Persia meaning Singer of Paradise- the story tells about the
struggle of Persia to overthrow her enemies.


Famous Works


A great epic of France depicts the great struggle of Christian knights of France under
Charlemagne against the Moors of Mohammedans


A great folk-epic of Spain- tells the deeds of the great Cid or lord Rodrigo in his wars with the


A great folk-epic of Italy written by Dante- has three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso,
great purpose was the salvation of the soul.


A story of courage, loyalty and faith in God

THE CANTERBURY TALES by Geoffrey Chaucer- a large collection of isolated stories. It

features the different people of Medieval England

The DECAMERON by Giovanni Boccaccio- a collection of tales told by a group of young

people escaping the black death from the City

A DOLLS HOUSE by Henrik Ibsen- the husband in the story treats Nora, the wife, as a doll, a
plaything, a pet, instead as a person


Teaching Philippine Literature in English

The Pre-Spanish era

Own literature that reflects our own race

Shows our customs and tradition in everyday life
Own alphabet known as alibata
Records were written on leaves and bamboo cylinder, bark of trees and caves.
Beginning of legends, folktales, epics, folk songs, riddles, chants, proverbs and

The Spanish Period

Alibata was replaced by the Roman alphabet
Teachings of Christian Doctrine became the basis of religious practices.
Spanish language gave many of its words to our language.
European legends and traditions were assimilated in our songs, corridos and moro
Ancient literature was collected and translated to Tagalog and other dialects.
Grammar books were printed in Filipinos
Periodicals gained a religious tone.

Teaching Philippine Literature in English


DOCTRINA CHRISTIANA was the first book printed in the Philippines in 1593. It was written by Fr. Juan de
Placencia & Fr. Domingo Nieva.
BARLAAN at JOSEPHAT was the first Tagalog novel published in the Philippines.
PASION is about life and sufferings of Jesus Christ
URBANA at FELISA was written by Modesto de Castro (Father of Classic Prose in Tagalog) about the
letters of two sisters dealing with good behavior.
VOCABULARIO DELA LENGUA TAGALA was the first Tagalog dictionary by Fr. Pedro de San
NINAY was the first social novel in Spanish by Jose Panganiban.
Recreational plays
Tibag was a search of St. Helena for the cross on which Jesus died.
Cenaculo was a dramatic performance commemorating the passion and death of Jesus Christ.
Panunuluyan was a presentation of the search of Virgin Mary and St. Joseph for an inn to deliver the baby
Salubong is an Easter play that dramatizes the meeting of the risen Lord and His mother.
Zarzuela is the father of drama musical comedy/melodrama dealing with mans passion and emotion.
Moro-moro is a play about the fighting between Moros and Christians
Duplo/Karagatan is played during wakes for the dead. The princess who dropped her ring into the middle
of the sea.


Teaching Philippine Literature in English


The period where the Filipinos demanded changes in the government and in the
The Rise of Propaganda Movement
Jose Rizal Laong Laan & Dimasalang
Wrote: Noli and Fili
Marcelo H. Del Pilar Plaridel, Pupdoh, Piping Dilat, Dolores Manapat
Wrote: Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa, Dasalan at Tuksuhan
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Wrote: La Solidaridad (first magazine), Fray Botod


Teaching Philippine Literature in English


Reforms demanded by propagandists were not given attention.
There was no other way except to revolt.
Andres Bonifacio - the Father of Democracy, Father of KKK, and
Emilio Jacinto Brain of the Katipunan, wrote Liwanag at Dilim
Apolinario Mabini- Sublime Paralytic, Brains of the Revolution
Japanese literature
English newspapers were stopped by the Japanese.
LIWAYWAY was placed under strict surveillance.
Beginning of HAIKU and TANAGA
Movie houses showing American Films were closed
Jose Ma. Hernandez, Francisco Rodrigo, Liwayway Arceo, Carlos Romulo,
Carlos Bulosan


Teaching Philippine Literature in English

Rebirth of freedom

American returned in 1945.

Proliferation of newspapers such as FREE PRESS, MORNING SUN, MANILA
Famous work:
Kwento ni Mabuti by Genoveva Edroza- her first Palanca Award

Because of the ills of society, the youth moved to seek reforms.

Martial Law
Writings were rebellious.
Period of terror and wrath
Age of Ninoys martyrdom
People Power
Rebirth of newspapers and books


American Literature
Colonial Period:

1.William Bradford wrote Of Plymouth Plantation

2.Anne Bradstreet wrote The Tenth Muse lately Sprung Up in America
3.Edward Taylor
4.Jonathan Edwards wrote the powerful sermon Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

Period of Enlightenment

1.Benjamin Franklin
Wrote the Autobiography, a self-help book written to share pieces of advice to his son
An important figure in the 1787 Convention which drafted the US Constitution
Was President of the Anti-slavery Association
2.Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlet The Common Sense in which he wrote, The cause of
America is in great measure the cause of all mankind.
3.Philip Freneau the poet of the American Revolution
4.Washington Irving wrote Legend of the Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle
5.James Fennimore Cooper wrote The Leatherstocking Tales that feature the life of
frontiersman Natty Bumpo. His masterpiece is the Last of the Mohicans
6.Phyllis Wheatley was the second published African American poet whose writings helped
create the genre of African American literature

Chinese literature

Chinese literature is one of the major cultural heritage of the world.

Poetry was characterized by compactness and brevity.
Confucius or Kung Fu-tze was the first sage of China who wanted to make education
available to all men. He was the great teacher who founded Chinese literature.
SHIH CHING was the first anthology of Chinese poetry
Five Books of Confucius
YIKING (Book of Changes) divination
LIKING (Book of Ceremonies) etiquette
SHUKING (Book of Historical Documents) political ideals and good governance.
SHIKING (Book of Poetry) best poems
CHUN CHIU (Spring and Autumn) history of Confuciuss native province.
Teachings of Confucius
Principles of Courage and Prudence
Filial Duty
Selecting friends
Good human relations, good government, values education and self-criticism
ANALECTS are selections or parts of literary works.
I am not concerned that I am not known but I seek to be worthy to be known.
Give man a fish and you feed him for a day, teach man to fish and you feed him for a life.

Arabic literature

A Thousand and One Night was a collection of stories and folk tales compiled
in Arabic.
Alladin, Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, Sinbad, The Sailor
Kahlil Gibran great poet

Indian literature

The oldest sacred literature found in four VEDAS (knowledge)

Rigveda Veda of Praise (oldest)
Brahmanas rituals and prayers
Upanishads discourses between teachers and pupils
Puranas history of the Aryan race
Mahabharata Hindu epic the longest poem in the world about the bitter quarrel
of two brothers- Pandu and Kuru
Ramayana defects the duties of relationship portraying ideal characters like
the ideal servant, ideal brother, ideal wife and ideal king.
Kalidasa poet known for Sakantula/greatest Sanskrit playwright and poets
Rabindranath Tagore best known of all writers in India

Hebrew literature

Bible- book of all books with 39 Old Testament books and 27 New
Testaments. This is a literature that provokes another literature.
Japanese Literature
NOH DRAMA a dramatic dance with lyrical poetic texts and masked
HAIKU a 7-syllable poetic form usually about nature.
WAKA a 31-syllable classical poetry
KOJOKI (Record of Ancient Matters) earliest surviving work in Japan.

The Early Period (1900-1930)

coincided with the American occupation

English became the medium of instruction in 1900 in all public schools
first teachers were American soldiers
in 1901 the Thomasites arrived
numerous newspapers in English were published
PNS was founded in 1901; UP was founded in 1910
first Filipino novel in English was written by Zoilo Galang A Child of Sorrow (1921)

Characteristics of the Literature

formal and imitative

fiction is structurally simple
language is easy to understand
moralistic and quite didactic
sense of nationalism is evident
verbose and rhetorical
romantic and melancholic
grammatically uneven
tendency towards melodrama


Writers of the Early Period

Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion
Aurelio S. Alvero
Rafael Zulueta da Costa
Angela Manalang Gloria
Trinidad Tarrosa Subido
Vicente del Fierro
Luis Dato
Jose Garcia Villa

Zoilo M. Galang
Paz Marquez Benitez
Tarcila Malabanan Katigbak
Arturo B. Rotor
Amador T. Daguio
Paz Latorena
Loreto Paras Sulit
Sinai Hamada


Writers of the Early Period


Zoilo M. Galang
Francisco Benitez
Jorge Bocobo
Amador Daguio
Fernando Ma. Guerrero
I.V. Mallari
Claro M. Recto
Carlos P. Romulo
Camilo Osias


The Middle Period (1930-1960)

continued influence of romanticism and later realism from the United States
literary organizations were formed, e.g. Philippine Book Guild (1936), Philippine
Writers League (1939), The Veronicans
the Philippine Commonwealth Government was established on July 4, 1935
writers began to explore the idea of searching for a national identity
S.P. Lopez and J.G. Villa clashed over the social function of art and art for arts
sake function of art
the short story flourished
journalistic writing and literary criticism emerged
the first Commonwealth Literary Awards were given in 1940
Philippine Independence was proclaimed on July 4, 1946
the 1950s were a time of political unrest the govt vs. the Hukbalahap
Philippine literature in English greatly improved


The Middle Period (1930-1960)

Characteristics of the Literature

recurrent subject matter/themes rural life, love, self-sacrifice and suffering,
novelty of city life, value of education, struggle against poverty
recurrent setting the province, the barrio, the small town
use of local color
recurrent characters the barrio lass/lad, the first schooled/educated person in
the barrio, the teacher, hardworking farmer/fisherman, ardent lovers, the Filipino
expatriate educated in America

World War II/Japanese occupation

stylistic characteristics simple structure, simple plots, mild climaxes, explicit
symbols, slow pace or movement, abundant description of people and places
reflected Filipino customs, traditions, practices, traits
culture clashes American vs. Filipino
the first Palanca Memorial Awards were given in 1950; for English and the Tagalog
one-act play in 1954

The Contemporary Period (1970 to present)

Martial Law was lifted in 1981

Filipino novelists in English have come of age
themes have changed from sentimentalized romanticism to a more realistic and
naturalistic delineation
excellent mastery of the English language and literary forms is evident
1986 EDSA Revolution occurred
gay and lesbian literature came out
strong feminist tendencies are evident
more social problems are tackled
TV and films have become more popular
younger writers have entered the literary scene
more literary criticisms have been written
more writing workshops are held for budding writers
more writing contests (some with big prize money) are held
university presses have published collections and anthologies

The Contemporary Period (1970 to present)

Characteristics of the Literature

daring or controversial choice of subject matter

very innovative in structure and style
influence of different isms and literary trends from the West
characters have become more three-dimensional
characters, plot structure and narrative techniques are more complex

The Contemporary Period (1970 to present)

Writers of the Contemporary Period

Fatima Lim
Merlinda Bobis
Alfredo Navarra Salanga
Gemino Abad
Benilda Santos
Ophelia Dimalanta
Ma. Luisa Igloria
Danton Remoto
Paulino Lim, Jr.
Cristina Pantoja Hidalgo
Jessica Zafra
Isagani R. Cruz
Alfred Yuson
Charlson Ong
Arlene Chai
Cristina Manguerra Brainard
Rosario Cruz Lucero
Connie Jan Maraan

Development of English Literature
The Renaissance
The Golden Age of English literature 1485- 1660
Poets took up more secular views and writers wrote in praise of peace, of springtime, and of heavenly and earthly love. The sonnet, a
14-line iambic pentameter poem, became the most favorite poetic form.
Humanism was the predominant philosophical thought in 16th century England
EDMUND SPENSER - The Faerie Queen - an elaborate allegory built on the story of a 12-day feast honoring the Queen of Fairyland,
Queen Elizabeth I.
BEN JONSON - Song to Celia
Drink to me, only with thine eyes
And I will pledge with mine;
Or leave a kiss but in the cup,
And I'll not look for wine.
The thirst that from the soul doth rise
Doth ask a drink divine:
But might I of Jove's nectar sup
I would not change for thine.

1.wrote more than 35 plays as well as 154 sonnets and 2 narrative poems Venus and Adonis and The
Rape of Lucrece
2.His sonnets, also known as the Elizabethan sonnet, are composed of three quatrains and one heroic
couplet with the rhyme scheme - abab-cdcd-efef-gg.
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed: d
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.


The 17th Century

He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or
Of Marriage and Single Life

Christian writer and preacher famous for his Christian allegory Pilgrims Progress

Famous for his epic poem Paradise Lost and its sequel Paradise Regained.
On His Blindness
John Milton
When I consider how my light is spent
Ere half my days in this dark world and wide,
And that one talent which is death to hide,
Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent
To serve therewith my Maker, and present
My true account, lest He returning chide,
'Doth God exact day labor, light denied?
I fondly ask. But Patience to prevent
That murmur soon replies, 'God doth not need
Either man's work or his own gifts. Who best
Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best. His state
Is kingly: thousands at his bidding speed,
And post o'er land and ocean without rest;
They also serve who only stand and wait.'

The 18th Century
Romantic Movement

The Sick Rose
ROSE, thou art sick!
The invisible worm,
That flies in the night,
In the howling storm,
Has found out thy bed
Of crimson joy;
And his dark secret love
Does thy life destroy.

SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE - Rime of the Ancient Mariner

William Wordsworth (1770-1850), British poet, credited with ushering in the English Romantic Movement with
the publication of Lyrical Ballads (1798) in collaboration with Samuel Taylor Coleridge.


A thing of beauty is a joy forever:
Its loveliness increases; it will never
Pass into nothingness;


Shelley wrote the 'Adonais' elegy immediately after hearing about Keats's death. It was composed during the spring of
1821 and first published in July 1821.

How Do I Love Thee? (Sonnet 43)

by Elizabeth
How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.
I love thee to the depth and breadth and height
My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight
For the ends of Being and ideal Grace.
I love thee to the level of every day's
Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight.
I love thee freely, as men strive for Right;
I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.
I love thee with a passion put to use
In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith.
I love thee with a love I seemed to lose
With my lost saints, I love thee with the breath,
Smiles, tears, of all my life! and, if God choose,
I shall but love thee better after death.

Barrett Browning

Famous Literary Personalities (Summary)

Geoffrey Chaucer
: The Canterbury Tales
Dante Alighieri
: The Divine Comedy
Victor Hugo : Hunchback of Notre Dame/Les Miserables
Charles Dickens
: Tale of Two Cities
Virginia Wolf : Mrs. Dalloway
Grabrile Garcia Marquez: One Hundred Years of Solitude
William Shakespeare : Romeo and Juliet
Edith Wharton : The Age of Innocence
Robert Frost : The Road Not Taken
Jane Austen : Emma
Fyodor Dostoyevsky : Crime and Punishment
Rudyard Kipling
: The Jungle Book
William Golding
: Lord of the Flies
Goerge Orwell: Animal Farm
Edgar Allan Poe
: Annabel Lee
: Iliad and Odyssey
Plato : The Republic
Leo Tolstoy : God Sees the Truth but Waits
John Milton : The Paradise Lost
Jose Rizal
: Noli Me Tangere

ALLEGORY is a story or tale with two or more levels of meaning-literary level
one or more symbolic levels
ANECDOTE is a brief story about an interesting, amusing, or strange event
ANTAGONIST is a character or force in conflict with a main character.
BALLAD is a songlike poem that tells a story
CHARACTER is a person or animal who takes part in the action of a literary
CHARACTERIZATION is the act of creating and developing a character
CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER refers to the way that events follow each other
as they happen in time.
CONFLICT is a struggle between opposing forces.
CONNOTATION refers to the emotions and associations that a particular
word or phrase brings forth.
DENOTATION is the literal or dictionary definition of a word.
DRAMA is a story written to be performed by actors
ELEGY is a solemn and formal lyric poem about death

EPIGRAM is a brief, pointed statement, in prose or in verse, often characterized by
use of some rhetorical device or figure of speech.
FANTASY is a form of writing that is highly imaginative
FICTION is writing in which characters, plots, and settings are invented by the writer.
FLASHBACK is a section of literary work that interrupts the chronological presentation
of events to relate an event from an earlier.
FORESHADOWING is a writers use of hints and clues to indicate action that will
occur later in the narrative. It creates suspense and makes the reader eager to
find out what is going to happen next.
FREE VERSE is poetry that lacks a regular rhythmical pattern or meter
HERO/HEROINE is a character whose actions are inspiring or noble.
An IMAGE is a word or phrase that appeals to one or more of the five senses-sight,
sound, hearing, touch, taste, or smell.
IMAGERY is the descriptive or figurative language used in literature to create word
pictures for the reader.
INFERENCE is a reasonable conclusion drawn from clues provided by the writer.
LYRIC POEM is a melodic poem that expresses the observations and feelings of a
single speaker.

METER is the rhythmical pattern of a poem
MOTIVATION is a reason that explains a characters thoughts, feelings, actions or speech
NARRATIVE is a story in fiction, nonfiction, poetry or drama.
NARRATIVE POETRY tells a story.
NONFICTION is prose writing about real people, real places, real happenings.
PARODY is a humorous imitation of a literary work, one that exaggerates or distorts the
characteristic features of the original.
PLOT is the sequence of events in the story.
POINT OF VIEW is the perspective from which a story is told.
PROTAGONIST is the main character in a literary work.
REFRAIN is the repetition of a word, phrase, or line in a poem.
RHYME is a poetic technique that repeats syllable sounds at the end of the lines in a poetry
SETTING is the time and place of the action of a story.
SATIRE is writing that ridicules or criticizes individuals, ideas, institutions, or other works of art
or literature.
SURPRISE ENDING is a conclusion that violates the expectations of the reader.
SUSPENSE is the excitement a reader feels about the outcome, or solution to the problem the
writer has posed.
TONE is the attitude the writer takes toward a subject.