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LTE eRAN6.

0 Handove
r Feature

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Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

Describe the type of handover in LTE


Describe the feature and parameters for intra-frequency han
dover
Describe the feature and parameters for inter-frequency han
dover
Describe the feature and parameters for inter-RAT handover
List relevant counters for handover

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Page3

Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Technical Description
Intra-frequency Handover
Inter-frequency Handover
Inter-RAT Handover

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Page4

Mobility Management Overview


Mobility Management

Idle State

Cell Reselection

Intra-frequency

Connected State

Handover

Inter-frequency

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Page5

Redirection

Inter-RAT

Redirection Introduction

Redirection is the substitute solution for handover ,used in


the following scenario:

UE or network doesnt support handover


There is no neighbor relation

When redirection is triggered, eNodeB sends the UE an RR


C Connection Release message which contains informatio
n about a neighboring frequency in the LTE system or in an
other RAT system.

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Page6

Handover Procedure & Entities


UE Capability

UE Measurement

UE Capability Handling
Gap pattern control
Xxx Based Trigger

Measurement Handling

MRO

Blind Handover

Candidate Cell Filter

Handover Decision

Handover Execution
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Page7

Neighbor Cell
Management
eNodeB
Handover
Entities

Handover Trigger Scenarios


Handover Type

Measurement Trigger

Intra-frequency

The measurement configuration is performed when the


UE establishes a radio bearer. The UE performs intrafrequency measurements by default.

Coverage
based

Inter-frequency
Inter-RAT

The eNodeB delivers the measurement configuration to


the UE when the signal quality in the serving cell is lower
than the associated threshold.

Load
based

Inter-frequency
Inter-RAT

The measurements are triggered by the Mobility Load


Balancing (MLB) algorithm.

Frequenc
y-prioritybased

Inter-frequency

The measurements are triggered by A1 event

Service
based

Inter-RAT
Inter-frequency

The eNodeB triggers the measurements after it finds that


only the voice service is running on the UE.

UL
service
quality
Based

Inter-RAT
Inter-frequency

The eNodeB triggers the measurement after it detects UL


power insufficient at the UE

Distance
based

Inter
frequency
Inter -RAT

The measurements are triggered by distance if it is more


than the specific threshold

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Page8

Measurement Control Information


RRC Reconfiguration Message

eNodeB should deliver all the measurement control param


eters to UE via RRC reconfiguration, including measuremen
t object, report configuration, measurement ID and filter co
nfiguration .

Besides, for inter-frequency/inter-RAT measurement, it also


includes gap configuration for gap-assisted measurement.

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Page9

Measurement Object Frequency


Parameters
DlEarfcn

Description
Indicates the DL EARFCN of the inter-frequency EUTRAN cell

MeasBandWidt Indicates the measurement bandwidth for


h
inter/intra-frequency neighboring cells
QoffsetFreq

Indicates the frequency offset of the interfrequency neighboring cell

neighCellConfi
g

Indicate whether all the neighbor have the same


configuration or not

PresenceAnten Indicates whether all of the inter-frequency


naPort1
neighboring cells are configured with the doubleTX antenna.
High priority
neighbor cell
list (Optional)

If we configure some specific neighbors as high


measurement priority, then eNodeB will deliver
these cells information as well .(New introduced in
eRAN6.0)

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Page10

Event Triggered Report


Events

Threshold

Action

A1

Signal quality in the serving cell is higher


than a specified threshold

The eNodeB stops interfrequency or inter-RAT


measurements.

A2

Signal quality in the serving cell is lower than


a specified threshold

The eNodeB starts interfrequency or inter-RAT


measurements

A3

Signal quality in at least one intrafrequency/inter-frequency neighboring cell is


higher than that in the serving cell

Source eNodeB sends an intrafrequency/inter-frequency


handover request.

A4

Signal quality is higher than a specified


threshold in at least one inter-frequency
neighboring cell

Source eNodeB sends an interfrequency handover request.

A5

A2 + A4 (New events in eRAN3.0)

Source eNodeB sends an interfrequency handover request.

B1

Signal quality is higher than a specified


threshold in at least one inter-RAT
neighboring cell

source eNodeB sends an interRAT handover request.

B2

A2 + B1

source eNodeB sends an interRAT handover request.

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Page11

Measurement Gap Configuration

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Page12

Measurement Filleting Operation

A: Measurement value at the physical layer

B: Measurement value obtained after L1 filtering.

C :Measurement value obtained after L3 filtering.

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Page13

eNodeB Neighbor Management


Intra-frequency
neighbor

cdma2000

UMTS

Neighbor
Black Cell

Neighbor
Management

Inter-frequency
neighbor
Inter-RAT
neighbor

LTE2.6G

GSM

Neighbor Black
cell
LTE2.6G
LTE 800M
Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Page14

Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Technical Description
Intra-frequency Handover
Inter-frequency Handover
Inter-RAT Handover

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Page16

Intra-frequency Handover Procedure


Measurement Triggers

eNodeB Makes Decision

(Coverage Based)
Measurement Configuration
message
Measurement RSRP/RSRQ
Event A3
Black cell list
If criteria is matched, UE sends
measurement report.

Measurement
Phase

eNodeB Performs
Handover

Event Triggered Periodical


Reporting
Intra-eNodeB cell has higher

Admission Procedure
Signaling Procedure Execution
Retry Mechanism (attempt to

priority to reduce Inter-

next target cell in

eNodeB signaling or data

measurement report list)

forwarding.
Via S1 or X2

Decision
Phase

Execution
Handover

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Page17

Intra-Frequency Measurement Trigge


r

After UE attachment, eNodeB sends RRC reconfiguration m


essage which includes intra-frequency measurement contr
ol info which assist UE to perform intra-frequency measure
ment
It contains all the intrafrequency measurement and
report configuration, including
A1(optional), A2(optional)
and A3(mandatory) event.

Trace from eNodeB


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Page18

Element Introduction Measurement


Object

Optional part

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Page19

Element Introduction Report Config


uration

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Page20

Element Introduction Measurement I


D

Based on the object and report configuration, eNodeB crea


tes one or more measurement ID linked with object ID and
report ID. And this ID should be also included in the UE rep
ort, so eNodeB can differentiate each reports

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Page21

Element Introduction Filter Configuratio


n

This filtering is performed by RRC, smoothing measurement t


o resist fast fading effect. A larger value of this parameter ind
icates a stronger smoothing effect and higher resistance to f
ast fading, but it may weaken the tracing capability towards v
arying signals

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Page22

Event A3 Measurement Report

Intra-frequency handover is triggered by event A3, which is


reported in event-triggered periodical reporting mode.

Enter condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn Hys > Ms + Ofs + Ocs + A3O


ff
Leave condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn + Hys < Ms + Ofs + Ocs + A3
Off

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Page23

Measurement Report

How to differentiate each measurement report??

In the measurement report, it shows the ID to indicate the


type of report

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Page24

Handover Decision Filtering List


Obtain candidate list

Measurement Report
Decide target cell

After receive measurement report, eNodeB makes candidat


e list after filtering the following

Neighboring cells that have a different PLMN from the serving


cell if the inter-PLMN
Neighboring cells with a handover prohibition flag

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Page25

Handover Decision Target Decision

After get candidate list, eNodeB will rank the list with the fo
llowing priority:

The best RSRP/RSRQ neighbor cell


Intra-eNodeB neighbor cell if reported result is the same
Inter-eNdoeB neighbor cell with X2 interface if reported resul
t is the same.

The eNodeB then sends a handover request to the target c


ell at the top of the candidate cell list.If the handover reque
st fails, the eNodeB sends the handover request to the next
target cell.

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Page26

Handover Execution S1/X2 Adaption

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Page27

Retry and Penalty

If admission failure with target eNodeB, source eNodeB will t


ry the next target until it gets succeed feedback from it. If all
the target are failed for handover preparation, source eNode
B will wait for the next UE report.

The eNodeB imposes a penalty on a cell where a non-resourc


e-induced admission failure has occurred. In a handover atte
mpt, the eNodeB does not send a handover request to such
a cell. This increases the handover success rate and reduces
the number ofdropped calls caused by handover failures.

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Page28

Measurement Report

This command is used to modify the parameters for measu


rement report

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Page29

A3 Event Parameters Cell Offset

Evaluate neighbor
cell measurement

Evaluate serving
cell measurement

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Page30

A3 Event Parameters Service Based

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Page31

Typical Handover Flow

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Page32

RRC Reestablishment Procedure

Handover
Failure

Cell search

Random
access

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Page34

RRC
reestablishment

Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Technical Description
Intra-frequency Handover
Inter-frequency Handover
Inter-RAT Handover

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Page35

Classification of Inter-frequency Han


dover
Measurement report (A2)
Inter-frequency measurement activate
Measurement report (A4)

Measurement report (A2)


Handover command

Handover command

Measurement based HO

Blind Ho

Measurement based handover: HO must be trigged by inte


r-frequency measurement report

Blind handover: Skip inter-frequency measurement, directl


y execute HO based on priority configuration

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Page36

Inter-frequency Handover Procedur


e

Measurement Triggers
(Coverage Based)
UE Reporting Event A2 to
trigger inter-frequency
measurement based on

Measurement

GAP-Assisted Measurement
Event Triggered Periodical
Reporting A3/A4/A5

coverage
Single or both of

eNodeB Makes

eNodeB Performs

Decision

Handover

Event Triggered Periodical


Reporting

Admission Procedure

Single or both of RSRP /


RSRQ considered to make
decision

RSRP/RSRQ monitored to

Execution
Retry Mechanism (attempt to
next target cell in
measurement report list) If
Admission or Handover

Via S1 or X2

trigger IF measurement

Failure

Stop measuring when Event


A1 is met

Measurement
Trigger

Measurement
Phase

Decision
Phase

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Execution
Handover

Measurement Trigger

Coverage-based handover

Measurement trigger : A2 event

Measurement stop: A1 event

Load- based handover

The triggering and stopping of inter-frequency measurements for lo


ad-based handover are determined by the MLB algorithm. When th
e load of the serving cell reaches the threshold for inter-frequency l
oad balancing, the MLB algorithm selects a number of UEs based o
n the frequency capabilities of the UEs, ARPs, and resource usage a
nd then instructs the UEs to perform gap-assisted inter-frequency
measurements for load-based handovers or blind handover.

Frequency priority based handover

Measurement trigger: A1 event

Measurement stop: A2 event

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Page38

Measurement Trigger (Con.)

Service based

UL quality based

The eNodeB triggers the measurements after identifying the


UE having certain service characteristics.
The eNodeB triggers the measurements after it detects unsati
sfactory UL quality for the UE.

Distance-based

The eNodeB triggers the measurements after it detects that t


he reported TA exceeds a threshold

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Page39

Measurement Object Configuration

Measurement object

The information on a measurement object includes the frequ


ency, measurement bandwidth , and frequency-specific offset

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Page40

Coverage Based Measurement Trigge


r
Moves to
neighbor LTE
cell

Moves out
of LTE
coverage

LTE
GSM/UMTS
Coverage

Intra-LTE

Inter-RAT

According to radio link condition (LTE: RSRP/RSRQ)

Enter condition: Ms + Hys < Specific A2 Threshold

Leave condition: Ms Hys > Specific A2 Threshold

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Page41

Coverage Based Measurement Stop

Enter condition: Ms Hys > Specific A1 Threshold

Leave condition: Ms + Hys > Specific A1 Threshold

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Page42

Enhanced A2 Event for FDD/TDD (eRA


N6.0)
Operator A A2_FDD threshold:
Trigger Operator As UE FDD Inter-Freq Measure
Operator B A2_FDD threshold:
Trigger Operator Bs UE FDD Inter-Freq Measure
Operator A A2_TDD threshold:
Trigger Operator As UE TDD Inter-Freq Measure
Operator B A2_TDD threshold:
Trigger Operator Bs UE TDD Inter-Freq Measure

Application scenario: Used for RAN sharing

Benefit: Flexible policy configure for MOCN(Multiple Operator Core Netw


ork) operator

Prior to Inter-Freq FDD or TDD cell


Every operator can set different event A2 threshold

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Page43

Blind HO A2 Event (eRAN6.0 Enhance


ment)
A2_measure threshold: Trigger Inter-Freq Measure

A2_Blind threshold: Trigger Blind Redirection

In coverage based inter-frequency handover, eNdoeB will deli


ver another A1/A2 threshold to trigger or stop blind handover.

In the following case, eNodeB only deliver blind handover A1/


A2 threshold, not normal A1/A2 threshold

UE doesnt support inter-frequency or inter-RAT measurement

Normal A2 threshold is less than blind handover A2 threshold

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Page44

Load Based Management Trigger


It is typically used for co-site
scenario

The procedure of
HO Execute is
same as coverage
based HO

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Page45

Frequency Priority Based Measureme


nt Trigger
High Priority
LTE 2600MHz

LTE 900MHz
Low Priority

A1 Event

Meeting radio
threshold

Enter condition: Ms Hys > Specific A1 Threshold

Leave condition: Ms + Hys < Specific A1 Threshold

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Page46

Service Based Measurement Trigger


Handover voice service when E-RAB established to
UE

Inter-freq

To improve efficiency and capacity of whole system

To save the investment at the beginning of LTE

eNB

UE initiate service
E-RAB Initial

Only VoIP
E-RAB

Handover to
dedicate frequency
according to
service

HO
Measurement
Measurement
Configuration

F1

Event A4
Measure Report

F2

HO Decision
HO Execute

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Page47

Distance Based Measurement Trigger

Note: The neighbor distance with exceed a threshold is considered as


abnormal neighbor which can not be configured in NRT
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Page49

UL Quality Based Measurement Trigger


F1

1. MCS < MCS_threshold (5QPSK 1/3)


IBLER > IBLER threshold (20%)

2. Sends target cell and


instructs UE to initiate
GAP measurement

3. Sends GAP measurement


F2
report to the eNodeB

4. Instruct UE to HO

1. eNodeB evaluates MCS and IBLER of uplink

2. eNdodeB triggers inter-frequency measurement

3. UE report inter-frequency measurement result

4. HO is trigged by eNodeB

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Page50

Measurement Activation/Deactivation

Measurement Activate

Measurement Deactivate

After eNodeB receive the report of A2/A1, it will activate or


stop inter-frequency measurement via another RRC reconfi
guration message.

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Page51

Inter-frequency Handover Report Eve


nt

For coverage based scenario:

For the other scenario:

A3/A4/A5 can be used to trigger inter-frequency HO, decided


by InterFreqHoEventType parameter

Only A4 event can be used

A5 event is recommend to prevent pingpong handover

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Page52

Event A3

Event A3 in inter-frequency handovers uses the same set of


parameters with that in intra-frequency handovers, except
the offset and frequency-specific offset.

Enter condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn Hys > Ms + Ofs + Ocs + A3O


ff
Leave condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn + Hys < Ms + Ofs + Ocs + A3
Off

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Page53

Event A4/A5

A4 enter condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn Hys > Specific A4 Threshold

A4 leave condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn + Hys < Specific A4 Threshold

A5 enter condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn Hys > Specific A4 Threshold and Ms +


Ofs + Ocs + Hys < Specific A2 Threshold

A5 leave condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn Hys < Specific A4 Threshold or Ms + Of


s + Ocs + Hys > Specific A1Threshold

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Page54

Relevant Configuration Common Pa


rameters

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Page55

Relevant Configuration QCI Based T


hreshold
A1/A2
parameters

A4 parameters

Frequency
based A1/A2
configuration

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Page56

Relevant Configuration Special A1A2


Threshold
Special A2
threshold for
FDD/TDD
target

Special A1/A2
threshold for
coverage based
blind handover

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Page57

Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.

Technical Description
Intra-frequency Handover Description
Inter-frequency Handover Description
Inter-RAT Handover Description

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Page58

Inter-RAT Handover Procedure


Measurement Triggers
(Coverage Based)
UE Reporting Event A2 to
trigger inter-frequency
measurement based on
coverage

Measurement
GAP-Assisted Measurement
Event Triggered Periodical
Reporting B1/B2 (for
U/G/C)

Single or both of RSRP /

eNodeB Makes Decision


Event Triggered Periodical
Reporting
To be considered to make
decision:
RSCP or Ec/No for UMTS
Rx_Level for GSM
Pilot Strength for CDMA2000

eNodeB Performs
Handover
Admission Procedure
Signaling Procedure Execution
Retry Mechanism (attempt to
next target cell in
measurement report list) if

RSRQ monitored to trigger

admission or handover

IF measurement

failure

Stop measuring when Event


A1 is met

Measurement
Trigger

Measurement
Phase

Decision
Phase

Page59
Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Execution
Handover

Measurement Trigger

Coverage based:

Enhanced A1A2 threshold for UTRAN and GERAN (eRAN6.0 en


hancement)

Load based/Distance based/UL quality based

The same as inter-frequency handover, use event A2/A1

The same as inter-frequency handover

Service based

In a service-based handover, the eNodeB hands over a UE to


another system based on the type of the service running on t
he InterRatHoStateUE.
The applicability of handover is set through the parameter, w
hose values are MUST_HO, NO_HO, and PERMIT_HO.

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Page60

Service Based HO Configuration

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Page61

Measurement Object
System

Object
RSCP

UMTS

Parameters
InterRATHoUtranB1ThdRSCP for
coverage-based handovers
LdSvBasedHoUtranB1ThdRSCP for load
and service-based handovers

Ec/No

InterRATHoUtranB1ThdEcN0 for
coverage-based handovers
LdSvBasedHoUtranB1ThdECN0 for loadand service-based handovers
InterRATHoGeranB1Thd for coveragebased handovers

GERAN

RSSI

cdma200
0

Pilot
Strengt
h

LdSvBasedHoGeranB1Thd for load and


service-based handovers
InterRATHoCDMAB1ThdPS for coveragebased handovers

Copyright 2013 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Page62

Inter-RAT Handover Event

For coverage based scenario:

B1 and B2 can be used and decided by InterRatHoEventTyp


e

For the other scenario:

Only B1 is supported

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Page63

B1/B2 Event

B1 enter condition: Mn + Ofn Hys > Specific B1 Threshold

B1 leave condition: Mn + Ofn + Hys < Specific B1 Threshold

B2 enter condition: Mn + Ofn Hys > Specific B1 Threshold and Ms + Ofs + Ocs + Hys < Specific
A2 Threshold

B2 leave condition: Mn + Ofn Hys < Specific B1 Threshold or Ms + Ofs + Ocs + Hys > Specific A
2 Threshold

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Page64

Inter-RAT HO Common Configuration

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Page65

Report Configuration Common A1A


2

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Page66

Report Configuration Dedicated A2


For RAT

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Page67

Report Configuration GSM & UMTS


GSM

UMTS

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Page68

Handover Execution

LTE PS

2G(GPRS)/3G PS LTE VOIP

PS handover

2G/3G CS LTE PS
SRVCC

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Page69

GSM PS

CCO/NACC

E-UTRAN to UTRAN CS/PS Steering

Application scenarios: Multiple frequencies are deployed in UT


RAN to separate CS/PS traffic. The function will be applied duri
ng inter_RAT handover to UTRAN and CSFB to UTRAN scenario

Feature benefit: We can set the UTRAN frequency priority base


d on the service type (CS or PS)

In case of measurement based handover: eNodeB just deliver the


high priority frequency for UE measurement based on service typ
e so that UE doent need to measure all frequencies.
In case of blind handover: eNodeB selects the target with high fre
quency priority based on service type.

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Page70

How to Enable the Feature

Activate the feature in the license, the control item is E-UT


RAN to UTRAN CS/PS Steering

Turn on relevant switch:

Prerequisite switches should be turned on, including Utran


PsHoSwitch and UtranCsfbSwitch ; If blind handover is use
d, one additional switch BlindHoSwitch should be turned on
as well
Turn on the dedicated switch for steering: FreqLayerSwtich

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Page71

Relevant MML Algorithm Switch


CSFB switch for CS
steering

Generic switch for UTRAN


PS handover and blind
handover

Switch for PS/CS steering


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Page72

Relevant MML CS/PS Steering Priori


ty

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Page73

LTE-GSM/UMTS PS Handover Flow

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Page74

LTE GSM/UMTS SRVCC Flow

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Page75

LTE GSM CCO/NACC Flow

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Page76

Summary

The typical handover application scenario

The procedure of handover

Event type used for each handover

Relevant parameters

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Page77

Abbreviations

CCO: Cell Change Order

CIO: Cell Individual Offset

NACC: Network Assistant Cell Change

SRVCC: Single Radio Voice Call Continuity

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Page78

Thank you
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