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TELECOMMUNICATION

NETWORKS

UNIT-1
Introduction

to
Telecommunication Networks

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Definition

A telecommunication system is two


things: (1) a communication systemthat is, a
system in which information is transmitted from
one physical location, A, to a second physical
location, B; and
(2) a system which allows this information to be
sent beyond the range of usual vocal or visual
communications.
The human eardrum can actually pick up
vibrations between 50 Hz and 16,500 Hz
In telephone communication, the person who originates a
call is referred to as the calling subscriber and the person
for whom the call is originated is known as the called
subscriber.

FOUR EXAMPLES AND AN ERRATIC


HISTORY LESSON
Smoking Up
Wild Horses
Telegraph
The Telephone

THE TELEPHONE

SIGNIFICANCE OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS:

Banking, automatic teller machines,


telebanking
Aviation, booking of tickets
Sales, wholesale and order handling
Credit card payments at gasoline stations
Booking of hotel rooms by travel agencies
Material purchasing by industry
Government operations, such as taxation
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TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS
The following figure shows a small part of a
telecommunication network. It mainly consists of
exchanges
trunks
subscriber lines

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SET UP AND RELEASE .

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STANDARDIZATION

Standards enable competition


Standards lead to economies of scale in
manufacturing and engineering
Political interests often lead to different
standards in Europe, Japan, and the United
States
International standards are threats to the local
industries of large countries but opportunities to
the industries of small countries
Standards make the interconnection of systems
from different vendors possible
Standards make users and network operators
vendor independent and improve availability of
the systems

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EXAMPLES OF INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDIZATION

Screw thread pitches


International telephone numbering and country
codes
Telephone subscriber interfaces
Television and radio systems
Frequencies used for satellite and other radio
communications
Connectors and signals for PC, printer, and
modem interfaces
Cellular telephone systems

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NATIONAL STANDARDIZATION
AUTHORITIES
European

Organizations

The European Telecommunications


Standards Institute (ETSI)
The European Committee for Electro
technical Standardization/European Committee
for Standardization (CEN/CENELEC)
The Confrence Europenne des
administrations des Postes et des
Tlcommunications or Europen Confrence of
Postes and Tlcommunications Administrations
(CEPT)
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AMERICAN ORGANIZATIONS
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE)
The Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
The Telecommunications Industry Association
(TIA) has been developing global third generation
cellular systems together with ETSI from Europe
and the Association of Radio Industries and
Broadcasting (ARIB) from Japan

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GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONS
The International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) is a specialized agency of the United
Nations responsible for telecommunications
International Telegraph and Telephone
Consultative Committee (CCITT/ ITU-T) is
presently called ITU-T, where the T comes from
telecommunications
International Radio Consultative Committee
(CCIR/ITU-R) is presently known as ITU-R,
where the R stands for radio

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OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is
responsible for the evolution of the Internet
architecture
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications
System (UMTS) Forum is an open organization of
cellular system manufacturers
The Telemanagement Forum (TMF) is an
organization of system manufacturers that works
to speed the development of network
management standards.

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NETWORK TRAFFIC LOAD


Busy hour: Continuous 1-hour period lying wholly in the time interval
PARAMETERS

concerned, for which the traffic volume or the number of call attempts is
greatest.

Time consistent Busy Hour: The 1-hour period starting at the same time
each day for which the average traffic volume or the number of call attempts
is greatest over the days under consideration.

Call Completion rate (CCR): is defined as the ratio of the number of


successful calls to the number of call attempts.

Busy hour call attempts (BHCA): The number of call attempt in the busy
hour is called Busy hour call attempts (BHCA), which is an important
parameter in deciding the processing capacity of a common control or a
stored program control system of an exchange.

Traffic intensity: The traffic on the network may be measured in terms of


the occupancy of the servers in the network. Such a measure is called the
Traffic intensity.

A0 =Period for which a server is occupied/total period of observation


A0 is dimensionless and is called earlang (E).
1E=36 CCS = 3600 CS =60 CM

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Grade of Service: The amount of traffic rejected by the


network is an index of the quality of the service offered
by the network. This is termed grade of service (GOS)

It is defined as the ratio of lost traffic to offered


traffic.
Offered traffic is the product of the average number of
calls generated by the users and the average holding time
per call.
The actual traffic carried by the network is called the
Carried traffic and is the average occupancy of the servers
in the network as given by
GOS=A-A0/A

Where

A=offered traffic
A0=carried traffic
A-A0 =lost traffic

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EXAMPLES:
1. An exchange serves 2000 subscribers. If the average
BHCA is 10,000 and the CCR is 60%, calculate the busy
hour calling rate.
2. In a group of 10 servers, each is occupied for 30 minutes
in an observation interval of two hours. Calculate the
traffic carried by the group.
3. A group of 20 servers carry a traffic of 10 erlangs. If the
average duration of a call is three minutes, calculate the
number of calls put through by a single server and the
group as a whole in a one-hour period.
4. A Subscriber makes three phone calls of three minutes,
four minutes and two minutes duration in a one-hour
period. Calculate the subscriber traffic in erlangs, CCS
and CM.

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Timing diagram illustrating how a call to a mobile user initiated by a land


line subscriber is established

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Explain

Timing diagram illustrating how


a call to landline user initiated by a
mobile subscriber is established?

Answer to Examples:
1. Given
N = 2000 suscriber
BHCA = 10000
CCR = 60% = 60/100 = 0.6
Calculate BHCR = ?
Solution: BHCR is given by
BHCR = Average busy hour calls
Total number of subscriber

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but
Average busy hour calls = BHCA x CCR
= 10000 x 0.6 = 6000 calls
BHCR = 6000/2000 = 3
2.

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