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UNIT 9

Clauses

and Phrases showing contrast and


exception
Past Habitual with used to and would

Use while, unlike, and in contrast to in order to


present contrasting information, especially in
writing.

While

the typical Italian person thinks school is boring,


the typical Japanese doesnt.
Unlike the Japanese, Italians seem to drink a lot of
bottled water.
In contrast to Italian drivers, Japanese people drive on
the left.

These conjunctions can also come between both


clauses

The

typical Italian person thinks school is boring while


the typical Japanese doesnt think so.

Use except (that), except (for), and except


for the fact (that) to show an exception.

Both

like TV, except (that) the typical Japanese


watches more of it.
Italian and Japanese people are fairly different,
except for the age they get married.
Japanese people typically consume less, except
for the fact that they drink more tea.

1) While most Americans live on


their own before marriage,

a) Students in Brazil are in


school for 5 hours a day.

2) Unlike the average American


students,

b) People here dont usually


have more than one TV

3) Im very similar to the average


student here,

c) Except for big purchases.

4) In contrast to most Americans,

d) People here usually live with


their parents until they get
married.

5) People in my country dont use


credit cards,

e) Except that I study German

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2.
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While/Unlike Leo prefers a big breakfast, I just


have coffee
No one in the class, except that/with the
exception of Eva, can speak German.
In contrast to/While city people, people who live
on farms must have a car.
Unlike/Except for Thai women, Spanish women
greet each other with a kiss.
Im a typical Canadian, except for the fact that/
while I dont like hockey.
Everyone on our street, except that/except for
my family, has a dog.
Unlike/While me, all my friends are addicted to
TV

Used to and Would can both be used to


describe past actions or situations which are no
longer true. However, Would cannot be used
with verbs such as live, be, have or like

You

always used to make me laugh.


Classes didnt use to be so difficult.
Remember the way we would sit around
talking?
I would see some great jacket, but you
wouldnt let me buy it.

If the sentence is affirmative, use used to


I used to get up at 7:00 every morning.

If the sentence is negative, use didnt + use to or


wouldnt
I didnt use to oversleep so often.
I wouldnt oversleep so often.

Both used to and would can express an action that


was repeated regularly in the past. Only used to
can be used to describe a situation that existed in
the past.
I used to own a very large dog.

This is Dan. He gave up smoking


two years ago.
He no longer smokes.
But he used to smoke.

Affirmative: I used to play with my dogs.


Negatives: He didnt use to play with his dogs.
We never used to row the rapids.
Note: When we add never we dont need to add the aux (didnt)
Questions: Did you use to play with your dogs?
Yes, I used to play a lot.
No, I didnt use to play with
them

No, I never used to play with them

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5.

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8.

Now Tom has a car. He ______________ a motorcycle.


Mark never ____________ coffee, but now he drinks a lot.
____ he _______________ out so much? (go)
She doesnt have many friends now, but she __________.
Andy _____________ very hard for her exams, but now she
doesnt anymore
I know he isnt very smart now, but he ________________.
Ann _______________ long hair, but she cut it some time
ago. (have)
____ you _____________ a lot of candy when you were a
child? (eat)