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CIRCUIT

BREAKERS

CIRCUIT BREAKER- FUNCTIONS


CARRIES CURRENT WHEN CLOSED
WITHSTANDS VOLTAGE WHEN OPEN
WITHSTANDS FAULT CURRENTS FOR SHORT TIME
CAN WITHSTANDS CLOSING THE FAULT CURRENT
CAN INTTERUPT LOAD CURRENTS
CAN INTERRUPT FUALT CURRENTS
CAN INTERRUPT SMALL INDUCTIVE & CAPACITIVE
CURRENTS WITHOUT CREATING EXCESSIVE
OVERVOLTAGES

CIRCUIT BREAKERS
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Interrupting Unit

Mechanism

TYPES
OF
CIRCUIT
BREAKERS

AIR BLAST CIRCUIT BREAKERS

BULK OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS

MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS

SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS

DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF SF6 GAS

SINGLE POLE OPERATED


OPERATED

GANG

11

LIVE TANK CBS


DEAD TANK CBS

INTERRUPTER
S

Interrupter

Open position

Interrupting Principle

Closed Position

SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS CONTACTS

DIAGRAMMATIC VIEW OF SF6 CB POLE

MECHANISM

Closed Position

Opened Position

Closed Position

Mechanism Housing 145 / 72 kV SP/SP

Spring Mechanisms 72 / 145 kV - Closing Spring

Spring Mechanism 72/145 kV - Opening Spring (Rear View)

TRIP & CLOSE COIL POSITION

CLOSING MECHANISM- CLOSED


VIEW

PHOTOGRAPHS OF
DIFFERENT RATINGS
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

33 KV CIRCUIT BREAKERS

132 KV CIRCUIT BREAKERS

220 KV CIRCUIT BREAKERS

400 KV CIRCUIT BREAKERS

800 KV CIRCUIT BREAKERS

COMMISSIONING
OF
CIRCUIT
BREAKERS

Gas System

CIRCUIT
BREAKER
SPECIFICATION
S

SOME IMPORTANT TERMS


Transient
Rate

Recovery Voltage

of Rise of Restriking Voltage

Recovery

Voltage

Reignition/

Restrike

Capacitive/Inductive/Resistive
Current
Various

Chopping
Timings

Breaking

TYPICAL SYSTEM LUMPED PARAMETER


MODEL

CURRENT, TRV AND RECOVERY


VOLTAGE

CURRENT AND TRV WAVEFORMS


DURING INTERRUPTION OF
RESISTIVE CURRENT

CURRENT AND TRV WAVEFORMS DURING


INTERRUPTION OF INDUCTIVE CURRENT

RECOVERY VOLTAGE IN CASE OF A


CAPACITIVE LOAD

EVOLUTION
OF
VOLTAGES
WITH
RESTRIKE
OCCURRING A HALF CYCLE AFTER CURRENT
INTERRUPTION, IN THE CASE OF SINGLE-PHASE
CAPACITIVE CURRENT SWITCHING

CIRCUIT BREAKER WITH MULTIPLE REIGNITIONS

TRV DURING CURRENT CHOPPING

VARIOUS TIMINGS

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR 145 KV CIRCUIT


BREAKER

Rated Voltage

: 145 kV

Rated Lightning Impulse Voltage

: 650 kVp

Rated Power Frequency Voltage

: 275 kV

Creepage Distance (Total)

: 3625 mm

Applicable Standards

: IEC-62271-100/ IS 13118

Type of Mechanism

: Spring-Spring

Rated Normal Current

: 3150 Amps

Rated Operating Sequence

: O- 0.3 Sec.-CO-3 min.-CO

Rated Frequency

: 50 Hz

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR 145 KV CIRCUIT


BREAKER

Rated Closing /Tripping Voltage

: 110 VDC

Current of Closing / Tripping Coil

: 6 Amps Max.

Rated Break Time

: 60 mSec.

Rated Closing Time

: 130 mSec.

Rated Short Circuit Making Current

: 80 kA

Rated Short Circuit Breaking Current

: 40 kA

Rated Line Charging Breaking Current

: 50 Amps

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR 145 KV CIRCUIT


BREAKER

Rated Line Charging Breaking Voltage

: 2.5 Times

Rated Cable Charging Breaking Current

: 160 Amps

Rated Cable Charging Breaking Voltage

: 2.5 Times

Rated Single Capacitor Bank Breaking Current

: 400 Amps

Rated Single Capacitor Bank Breaking Voltage

: 2.5 Times

Rated Out of Phase Breaking Current

: 7.9 kA

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR 145 KV CIRCUIT


BREAKER

First Pole to Clear Factor

: 1.5

Auxiliary Contacts

: 8 NO + 8 NC

SF6 Gas Pressure at 200C: Normal

: 6 Kg/cm2

SF6 Gas Pressure at 200C: Alarm

: 5.5 Kg/cm2

SF6 Gas Pressure at 200C: Lock Out

: 5 Kg/cm2

Weight

: 1450 Kg.

Seismic Acceleration

: 0.3 g

CONTROL
CIRCUITS

VARIOUS CONTROL CIRCUITS

CB Auxiliary Contacts

Common Ferrules & CB Changing Activity

Semaphore Circuit

ON/OFF Indication Circuit

Spring Charge Control & Indication Circuit

SF6 Alarm & Lockout Circuit

Remote Closing

Antipumping Circuit

Remote Tripping

Post Close & Pre Close Supervision Circuit

PDR Circuit

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED PRESSURE


SWITCH

SERIES RESISTORS FOR REDUCING THE COIL OPERATING


VOLTAGE

CB LOCAL/REMOTE & ON/OFF


SWITCH

CB OPERATIONAL INDICATORS

TB IN CB MB

AUXILIARY DRUM TB

CB AUXILIARY DRUM

CB Auxiliary Drum

CB MB FRONT VIEW

NUMBERS & SPECIFICATIONS OF VARIOUS


ITEMS

Item No.

Nomenclature

52C

Closing Coil

52 T1

Trip Coil

52 T2

Trip Coil

ACTUAL CONTROL CIRCUIT

CLOSING CIRCUIT WITH


ANTIPUMPING

SPRING CHARGING CIRCUIT

SF6 CIRCUITS

TROUBLESHOOTI
NG

OF
CIRCUIT BREAKE
RS

CIRCUIT
BREAKER
TESTING

INSULATION
RESISTANCE
MEASUREMENT

INSULATION RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

TOP EARTH
BOTTOM - EARTH
TOP BOTTOM (CB OPEN)
TOP BOTTOM (CB CLOSE)
TOP, BOTTOM EARTH
(CB CLOSE)

ACCEPTABLE LIMITS

PHASE TO EARTH :
1000 M
ACROSS OPEN CONTACTS :
1000 M
(5/10 kV MEGGER)

DEW POINT
MEASUREMEN
T

DEW POINT MEASUREMENT SET UP

Sr. No. Make of CB

Dew point Dew point at


at rated Atmospheric
pressure
(Min. C)

BHEL

CGL

ABB

Pressure

Remarks

(limit)
(Min C)

-15

-36

At the time of
commissioning

-7

-29

During O&M

-5

-27

Critical

-15

-35

At the time of
commissioning

-10

-31

During O&M

-15

-35

At the time of
commissioning

-5

-26

During O&M

OPERATIONAL
CIRCUIT
AND
OTHER CHECKS

POLE DISCREPENCY CHECK

ANTI HUNTING/ PUMPING FEATURE

BREAKER POSITION INDICATOR

REMOTE TRIPPING WITH TC1 & TC2

REMOTE CLOSING

ILLUMINATION IN CB MB

SPACE HEATER IN CONTROL/SWITCH


CUBICLE

OTHER CHECKS
COIL

RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT.

LEAKAGE CHECK OF SF6 GAS.


IR VALUE OF CONTROL CIRCUIT
CB OPERATION COUNTER HEALTHINESS.
OIL/AIR PRESSURE DROP TEST.
OIL/AIR PRESSURE LEAKAGE IN 24 HRS.
SPRING CHARGING TIME.

CIRCUIT BREAKER
TIMING TEST

TIMING TEST KIT

TEST LIMITS
Close

(C-operation)

<=150ms

Open

(O-operation)

<=60ms

Close-Open

(C-O operation)

<=160ms

CONTACT
RESISTANCE
MEASUREMENT

STATIC CONTACT RESISTANCE ACCEPTABLE VALUES: 150

DYNAMIC
CONTACT
RESISTANCE
MEASUREMENT

MOVING CONTACT PROBLEMS

ARCING CONTACT PROBLEMS

DCRM CAN DETECT


Erosion of Arcing Contact
Contact

misalignments

Wipe

of main and arcing contact

Main

& arcing contact resistance

Healthiness
Contact

of damping system

travel & speed

DCRM CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT

DCRM KIT

TYPICAL DCRM SIGNATURE

CASE STUDY-1

400 kV GCB AT at Hosur WITH SPRING-PNEUMATIC


MECHANISM COMMISIONED IN 2003.

420 kV SF6 GCB


With SP/Pneumatic Mechanism

DCRM SIGNATURES OF B PHASE

DCRM SIGNATURES OF R PHASE

DCRM SIGNATURE OF Y PHASE

Static contact
CONTACT
RESISTANCE
VALUES
resistance
reported to be about

53 micro-ohm at the time of commissioning


Static

Contact resistance has found to be

87 micro-ohm

Y PHASE DCRM AFTER ADJUSTMENT OF


TRAVEL/WIPE

CASE STUDY 2

CB 952 inspected in March,2006 at Hyderabad s/s.

DCRM of B pole was not alright. The problem is rectified &


DCRM taken but found abnormal again.

The Test kit was changed but same problem was indicated in
DCRM.

New spare pole was erected but same problem was again
indicated.

M/s Scope was called with new kit but problem continued

ABB then brought Contact Assembly from factory and then


rectified the problem.

952-B PHASE

952-B PHASE- NEW KIT

AFTER POLE REPLACEMENT BY SCOPE


KIT

CONTACT ASSEMBLY CHANGED

AFTER RECTIFICATION ON 30.03.2006

CONCLUSIONS
Test for CBs proved useful in indicating

DCRM

condition of main/ arcing contacts for erosion,


misalignment and looseness etc. misalignment
and looseness etc.
Prevention
Major

of Major failures by timely diagnosis

overhauling

of

Interrupters/

chamber can be decided based on DCRM

Arcing

MAINTENANCE
OF
CIRCUIT
BREAKERS

QUARTERLY MAINTENANCE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

PORCELAIN

Clean all porcelain thoroughly

Check for cracks.

Check for flash over marks.


OPERATING MECHANISM BOX

Check connection for tightness.

Check and clean for auxiliary contacts.

Check cubic heater.

QUARTERLY MAINTENANCE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

MARSHALLING BOX

Clean the connection by CTC/Equivalent.

Check connection for tightness.

Check L.T. Plug point.

Clean switch contacts.

Check the fuses.

Clean the M.B.

Check MK box for vermin proofing.

QUARTERLY MAINTENANCE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

1 Closing Coil
2 Tripping Coil - I
3 Tripping Coil - II
LOCAL/REMOTE BREAKER OPERATIONS

Closing Operations

Tripping Operations through TC-I & TC-II

Trip Trial through Protection

ANNUAL MAINTENANCE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Breaker Timing

a Closing Time
b Tripping Time
c

CO Time

Checking of operation counter

Check pole discrepancy

Check of interlocks

ANNUAL MAINTENANCE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Static Contacts resistance

Checking of tightness of all the termination in


the MB.

Checking of door sealing gaskets and


replacement there of if necessary

General cleaning of MB and repainting of


metallic surface if required.

Check functioning of space heater / illumination.

ANNUAL MAINTENANCE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

10

Record the Winding Resistance of the Spring


Charging Motor

11

Record the Current drawn by the Spring Charging


Motor

12

Record the Time Taken to charge the spring by the


Spring Charging Motor

13

Check the operation of Limit Switch

14

Check for Gas Leakage if any

MAJOR
REPLACEMENTS/OVERHAULINGS
Operating
Inspection
Item

Inspection & Renewal


of Main Contacts

Renewal of Parts of
Operating
Mechanism

Condition

/Renewal Period

Small Current
Interruptions

After @ 4000
Operations

Rated Continuous
Current
Interruptions

After @ 2000
Operations

Rated Short Circuit


Current
Interruptions

After @ 20 Operations

Total Number of
Operations

After @ 5000
Operations