MRAS

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MRAS

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Control (MRAC)

MRAS

proposed to solve a problem in which the performance

specifications are given in terms of a reference model.

This model tells how the process output ideally should respond to

the command signal.

The Adaptive Controller has two loops. The inner loop consists of

the process and an ordinary feedback controller.

The outer loop adjusts the controller parameters in such a way that

the error, which is the difference between the process output y and

model output ym is small.

The MRAS was originally introduced for flight control.

In this case, the reference model describes the desired response of

the aircraft to joystick motions.

Model reference adaptive systems were originally derived for

deterministic continuous systems.

parameters in a model reference adaptive

system can be obtained in two ways:

Using a gradient method and

Appling a stability theory

MIT Rule

where G(s) is known and k is an unknown parameter.

The design problem is to find a feedforward controller that gives a system

with transfer function Gm(s) = k0 G(s)

where k0 is a given constant.

With the feed forward controller u = uc ,

where u is the control signal and uc the command signal,

the transfer function from the command signal to output becomes

kG(s)

order system

Problem:

theory

The drawback of MIT rule based MRAS

design is that there is no guarantee that

the resulting closed loop system will be

stable.

To overcome this difficulty, the Lyapunov

theory based MRAS can be designed,

which ensures that the resulting closed

loop system is stable.

first order system

MRAS and STR were regarded as two

quite different approaches to adaptive

control.

But later it was proved that they are

actually very closely related.

In particular the direct self tuning regulator

with cancellation of process zeros can be

interpreted as a MRAS.

Gain scheduling

the gain of the system is determined and based on its

value the controller parameters are changed.

In many cases, it is possible to find measurable variables

that correlate well with changes in process dynamics.

These variables can then be used to change the

controller parameters.

This approach is called gain scheduling because the

scheme was originally used to measure the gain and

then change, that is, schedule the controller to

compensate for changes in the process gain.

There is an inner loop composed of the process and the

controller

Outer loop contains components that adjust the controller

parameters on the basis of the operating conditions.

Gain scheduling can be regarded as mapping from process

parameters to controller parameters.

It can be implemented as a function or a table lookup.

The concept of gain scheduling originated in connection with

the development of flight control systems.

In this application, the Mach number and the altitude are

measured by air data sensors and used as scheduling

variables. This was used, for instance, in the X-15.

In process control the production rate can be often chosen as

a scheduling variable, since time constants and time delays

are often inversely proportional to production rate.

Gain scheduling is thus a very useful technique for reducing

the effects of parameter variations.

Advantages:

Parameters can be changed quickly in response to

changes in plant dynamics

This strategy is very easy to apply if the plant dynamics

depends in a well known

fashion on a relatively few easily measurable variables

Drawbacks:

It is an open-loop adaptation scheme, with no real

learning or intelligence

The design required for its implementation is enormous.

controllers

The key issue in the design of gain scheduling

controllers is the determination of variables that

can be used as scheduling variables.

One criterion for selection of the scheduling

variable is that these auxiliary variables must

reflect the operating conditions of the plant.

Ideally there should be simple expressions for

how the controller parameters relate to the

scheduling variables.

It is thus necessary to have a good insight into

the dynamics of the process if gain scheduling is

to be used.

one of the following techniques:

Design of gain scheduling controllers can be carried out

by one of the following techniques:

Gain scheduling based on measurement of auxiliary

variables

Time scaling based on the production rate and

Nonlinear transformations

It should be noted here that by linearizing of nonlinear

actuators, we get a very improved performance, but this

should not be regarded as gain scheduling because,

gain scheduling should consist of a measurement of

variable related to the operating condition of the process.

auxiliary variables

From the above expression, it is clear that it is sufficient to make the gain

proportional to the cross section of the tank.

So it can be seen that we have established a relation between the gain (auxiliary

variable) and the area of the tank (variable relating operating condition of process).

The above example illustrates that it is sufficient to measure one or two variables

in the process and use them as scheduling variables.

But often it is not easy to determine the controller parameters as a function of

measured variables.

The design of controller must then be redone for different working points of the

process. Some care must also be taken if the measured signals are

noisy. They should be filtered properly before they are used as scheduling

variables.

Consider concentration control for a fluid that flows

through a pipe, with no mixing, and through a tank, with

perfect mixing. A schematic diagram of the process is

shown

Notice that the sampled data model has only one parameter, a, that does

not depend on q.

A constant gain controller can easily be designed for the sampled data

system.

The gain scheduling is realized simply by having a controller with

constant parameters, in which the sampling rate is inversely proportional

to the flow rate.

This will give the same response independent of the flow, in looking at

the sampling instants, but the transients will be scaled in time.

To implement the gain scheduling controller for the case where flow is

varying, it is necessary to measure not only the concentration but also

the flow.

Errors in flow measurement will result in jitter in the sampling period. To

avoid this, it is necessary to filter the flow measurement.

Nonlinear Transformations

It is of great interest to find transformations such that the transformed

system is linear and independent of the operating conditions.

In case of concentration control problem, time scaling was used to

make the model independent of flow.

i.e ts = (Vd/q)t was used to make the model independent of flow.

All processes associated with material flows like rolling mills, band

transporters, flows in pipes, etc. have this property.

transformation is as described below:

The system is first transformed into a fixed linear system.

The transformation is usually nonlinear and depends on the

states of the process.

A controller is then designed for the transformed model,

and the control signals of the model are retransformed into

the original control signals.

The result is a special type of nonlinear controller, which

can be interpreted as a gain scheduling controller.

z = g2(x) makes the relation between v and z

linear.

A state feedback controller from z is then

computed that gives v.

The control signal v is then transformed into the

original signal u.

Feedback linearization requires good knowledge

about the nonlinearities of the process.

The method of nonlinear transformations is

described with the following examples.

of a Pendulum

of a second order system

The commonly used techniques for auto

tuning of PID regulators are:

Open loop response method (transient

response method)

Closed loop response method

Tuning by use of external equipment

Use of expert systems

method)

method is that it is sensitive to disturbance

because it relies on open loop experiments.

The relay based methods avoid this difficulty

because the required experiments are

performed in closed loop.

The key idea here is the fact that many

processes have limit cycle oscillations under

relay feedback.

Here the idea is to determine the critical gain and critical period first

and then determine the controller parameters.

The critical period (Tu) is the period of oscillations when relay

feedback is applied.

The gain at which the oscillations just begin is termed as critical

period (Ku).

Ziegler and Nichols have devised a simple method for determining

the parameters of the controller based on the values of critical gain

and critical period

damping can be obtained by relay auto tuner

means that relay feedback is activated

and the PID regulator is disconnected. When a stable

limit cycle is established, the PID

parameters are computed, and the PID controller is then

connected to the process. Naturally the

method will not work for all systems. First, there will not

be unique limit cycle oscillations for an

arbitrary transfer function. Second, PID control is not

appropriate for all processes. This type of

tuning works well for a large class of systems

encountered in process control.

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