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3.

6 Bernoullis Principle
CHAPTER 3 FORCES AND PRESSURE

Expected Learning Outcomes

Student should be able to:

state Bernoullis principle.


explain that a resultant force exists due to a
difference in fluid pressure.
describe applications of Bernoullis principle.
solve problems involving Bernoullis principle.

Try This Out, What can you find?

A student blowing
above a thin of
paper. The paper
rises Upward.

A student blowing with a


straw between 2 ping
pong balls. Ping pong
balls move closer to each
other.

Bernoullis Principle
Bernoullis principle state that when the
velocity of a fluid is high, the pressure is
low, and when the velocity is low, the
pressure is high.
The fluid can be air gas, liquid or water.

Pressure in Still Water

Compare the P1, P2 & P3

P1=P2=P3

Pressure in Moving Fluids


Pressure in water

Pressure in Moving Water


Water flows from high pressure
area to low pressure area.
Therefore fluid pressure
decrease linearly: Px > Py> Pz
Therefore the velocity increase
linearly : Vx < Vy < Vz

Pressure in Moving Water

Velocity of the fluid:


Vy > Vz > Vx
Pressure of fluid:
Py < Pz < Px
Therefore,
hy < hz < hx

Pressure in Air

When air is allowed to flow in


the tube, VB > VC> VA
Air pressure : PB < PC < PA
Therofore, hB > hC > hA

Applications of Bernoullis Principle

1.An Aeroplane wing has a curved upper surface


and flat under surface.
2.When an aeroplane moves forward, the air which
flows over the top of the aerofoil moves faster
than the air below.
3.An area of low pressure is created on the top
surface of the aerofoil and an area of high
pressure is at the bottom.
4.This difference in pressure produces a lifting
force. This force helps the plane to fly up in the air

Racing Car
A spoiler at the
top of the
racing car is
using to push
the car
downward and
prevent the car
from overturn.

Bunsen Burner
When the compressed
gas flows through the jet
at high speed, the area
around the jet has a low
pressure. Atmospheric
pressure will force the
surrounding air into the
burner. The mixture of
the gas and air allows a
complete combustion.

Insecticide

1.When the piston is pushed, air in the cylinder


rushes out through a small nozzle.
2.The velocity of air flowing through the nozzle is
high, causing low pressure in the area.
3.Open end of the container allows atmospheric
pressure to apply pressure into the insecticide
liquid.
4.Insecticide liquid is drawn to the low pressure
area and mixes with the air stream

Carburettor

Carburettor

1. It works by regulating the quantity of petrol and air that enters the
engine.
2. The air flows past a choke valve, which controls the quantity of air,
into a narrow section of the carburetor where the air velocity
increase.
3. In accordance to the Bernoulli principle, the high velocity of the air in
the narrow section creates region of low pressure. As a result, which
is at the higher pressure (atmospheric), is forced out of a jet in a fine
spray to form a combustible mixture with the air.
4. The mixture of petrol and air is then drawn into the engine cylinders
to be burned.

Solve the Problems


Example 1:
Diagram 1 shows a glass tube with uniform cross-section. It
is used to study the relationship between velocity and
pressure in fluids.


a)

The tube is filled with water and the two ends are stopped.
i) Mark on the above diagram, the water levels at tubes A, B
and C.
ii) Explain your answers in a (i) above.

the water in the tube is allowed to flow with


uniform speed from P to Q.

i(i)Mark on the above diagram, the water levels at tubes A, B and


C.
ii) Explain your answer in (b) (i).

The experiment in (b) is repeated by replacing the above


tube with another tube as shown in Diagram 3 below.
i) Mark on the above
diagram, the water levels
at tubes A, B and C.
ii) Compare the velocity of
water at X, Y and Z.
iii) What is the relationship
between the velocity of
water and water level in the
tubes.

Diagam 4 shows an experiment. The tube is inverted into basin of


water.

a) The air flows in the tube from A to B.


i) Compare the velocity of air at K, L and M.
ii) Mark the water levels in tubes P, Q and R.
iii) Compare the pressure in tubes P, Q and R.
iv) Name the principle used. Explain the principle.

b)A passenger is standing by the side of a railway track. He


seems to be attracted to the railway track when a fast
moving train travels in front of him. Explain the observation.