machine excitation

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machine excitation

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Copyright P. Kundur

This material should not be used without the author's consent

1539pk

Excitation Systems

Outline

1. Functions and Performance

Requirements

3. Types of Excitation Systems

4. Control and Protection Functions

5. Modeling of Excitation Systems

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Requirements of Excitation Systems

generator field winding, and

essential to the satisfactory operation of the

power system

system are determined by

a) Generator considerations:

supply and adjust field current as the generator

output varies within its continuous capability

respond to transient disturbances with field forcing

consistent with the generator short term capabilities:

rotor heating due to high field current

stator heating due to high VAR loading

heating due to excess flux (volts/Hz)

contribute to effective control of system voltage and

improvement of system stability

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to a level and form appropriate for control of the exciter

senses generator terminal voltage, rectifies and filters it

to dc quantity and compares with a reference; load comp

may be provided if desired to hold voltage at a remote

point

to the regulator to damp power system oscillations

capability limits of exciter and generator are not

exceeded

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excitation power source:

DC excitation systems

AC excitation systems

1. DC Excitation Systems:

driven by a motor or the shaft of main generator;

self or separately excited

lost favor in the mid-1960s because of large size;

superseded by ac exciters

voltage regulators range from the early noncontinuous rheostatic type to the later system

using magnetic rotating amplifiers

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excitation system with an amplidyne voltage regulator

generator field through slip rings

provides incremental changes to the field in a buckboost scheme

self-excitation

2. AC Excitation Systems:

turbine-generator

controlled or non-controlled rectifiers

rotating amplifiers as regulators; most new systems

use electronic amplifier regulators

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regulators

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2.1

through slip rings

regulator controls the field of the ac exciter; Fig.

8.3 shows such a system which is representative

of GE-ALTERREX system

directly controls the dc output voltage of the

exciter; Fig. 8.4 shows such a system which is

representative of GE-ALTHYREX system

such systems are called brushless excitation

systems

use of brushes perceived to exist when supplying

the high field currents of large generators

generator field current or voltage

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system

excitation system

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generator through slip rings

generator or the station auxiliary bus

transformer from the main generator terminals

static excitation system

input ac voltage; during system faults the

available ceiling voltage is reduced

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as well as voltage of the main generator

(PPT) and a saturable current transformer (SCT)

controlled saturation of excitation transformer

voltage, the current input enables the exciter to

provide high field forcing capability

circuits and the compounding of voltage and

current within the generator stator

full "fault-on" forcing capability

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excitation system IEEE1976 [16]

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than a simple voltage regulator

protective functions which assist in fulfilling the

performance requirements identified earlier

and the manner in which they interface with each

other

these functions depending on the specific

application and the type of exciter

the desired level

exceeding set limits

remove appropriate components or the unit from

service

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circuits

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AC Regulator:

regulator

DC Regulator:

control)

faulty

poor inherent dynamic performance

the control action is unstable when generator is on

open-circuit

the dynamic response

derivative feedback (Figure 8.15)

stabilization

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speed, frequency, power) to modulate the

generator field voltage so as to damp system

oscillations

Load Compensator:

or external to the generator

AVR loop (see Fig. 8.16)

a voltage at a point within the generator;

used to ensure proper sharing VARs between generators

bussed together at their terminals

commonly used with hydro units and cross-compound

thermal units

regulates voltage at a point beyond the generator

terminals

commonly used to compensate for voltage drop across

step-up transformer when generators are connected

through individual transformers

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fed to the AVR, is given by

~

~

Vc Et R c jX c I t

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excitation to a level where steady-state (smallsignal) stability limit or stator core end-region

heating limit is exceeded

control signal derived from a combination of

either voltage and current or active and reactive

power of the generator

a wide variety of forms used for implementation

should be coordinated with the loss-of-excitation

protection (see Figure 8.17)

overheating due to prolonged field overcurrent

Fig. 8.18 shows thermal overload capability of

the field winding

OXL detects the high field current condition and,

after a time delay, acts through the ac regulator

to ramp down the excitation to about 110% of

rated field current; if unsuccessful, trips the ac

regulator, transfers to dc regulator, and

repositions the set point corresponding to rated

value

two types of time delays used: (a) fixed time, and

(b) inverse time

with inverse time, the delay matches the thermal

capability as shown in Figure 8.18

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stability limit

field thermal capability

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from damage due to excessive magnetic flux

resulting from low frequency and/or overvoltage

overheating and damage the unit transformer and

the generator core

V/Hz (p.u.)

Damage Time in

Minutes

1.25

1.2

1.15

1.10

1.05

GEN

0.2

1.0

6.0

20.0

XFMR

1.0

5.0

20.0

voltage so as to limit the generator voltage when

V/Hz exceeds a preset value

exceeds the preset value for a specified time

Note: The unit step-up transformer low voltage

rating is frequently 5% below the generator

voltage rating

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purpose of study:

on transient and small-signal stability studies are

the voltage regulator, PSS and excitation control

stabilization

to be considered only for long-term and voltage

stability studies

Several choices available:

a) per unit system used for the main generator field

circuit

considered suitable for exciter quantities; under

normal operating conditions field voltage in the order

of 0.001 (too small)

specifications

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The basic elements which form different types of excitation

systems are the dc exciters (self or separately excited); ac

exciters; rectifiers (controlled or non-controlled);

magnetic, rotating, or electronic amplifiers; excitation

system stabilizing feedback circuits; signal sensing and

processing circuits

Separately excited dc exciter

Self-excited dc exciter

The block diagram of Fig. 8.26 also applies to the selfexcited dc exciter. The value of KE, however, is now equal

to Ref/Rg-1 as compared to Ref/Rg for the separately excited

case.

The station operators usually track the voltage regulator by

periodically adjusting the rheostat setpoint so as to make

the voltage regulator output zero. This is accounted for by

selecting the value of KE so that the initial value of VR is

equal to zero. The parameter KE is therefore not fixed, but

varies with the operating condition.

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Representation:

System equation:

Limiting action:

Representation:

System equation:

Limiting action:

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Figure 8.39 depicts the general structure of a detailed

excitation system model having a one-to-one

correspondence with the physical equipment. While this

model structure has the advantage of retaining a direct

relationship between model parameters and physical

parameters, such detail is considered too great for general

system studies. Therefore, model reduction techniques are

used to simplify and obtain a practical model appropriate for

the type of study for which it is intended.

The parameters of the reduced model are selected such that

the gain and phase characteristics of the reduced model

match those of the detailed model over the frequency range

of 0 to 3 Hz. In addition, all significant nonlinearities that

impact on system stability are accounted for. With a

reduced model, however, direct correspondence between

the model parameters and the actual system parameters is

generally lost.

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representing the wide variety of excitation systems

currently in use (see IEEE Standard 421.5-1992):

and small-signal stability studies

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Figure 8.40: IEEE type DC1A excitation system model. IEEE 1991[8]

The type DC1A exciter model represents field controlled dc

communtator exciters, with continuously acting voltage regulators.

2. Type AC1A Exciter model

The exciter may be separately excited or self excited, the latter type

being more common. When self excited, KE is selected so that initially

VR=0, representing operator action of tracking the voltage regulator by

periodically trimming the shunt field rheostat set point.

Figure 8.41: IEEE type AC1A excitation system model. IEEE 1991[8]

The type AC1A exciter model represents a field controlled alternator

excitation system with non-controlled rectifiers, applicable to a

brushless excitation system. The diode rectifier characteristic

imposes a lower limit of zero on the exciter output voltage. The

exciter field supplied by a pilot exciter, and the voltage regulator

power supply is not affected by external transients.

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Figure 8.42: IEEE type AC4A excitation system model IEEE 1991 [8]

The type AC4A exciter model represents an alternator supplied controlled

rectifier

excitation

system - a high initial response excitation system

4.

Type ST1A

exciter model

utilizing full wave thyristor bridge circuit. Excitation system stabilization is

usually provided in the form of a series lag-lead network (transient gain

reduction). The time constant associated with the regulator and firing of

thyristors is represented by TA. The overall gain is represented by KA. The

rectifier operation is confined to mode 1 region. Rectifier regulation effects

on exciter output limits are accounted for by constant KC.

Figure 8.43: IEEE type ST1A excitation system model IEEE 1991 [8]

The type ST1A exciter model represents potential-source controlled-rectifier

systems. The excitation power is supplied through a transformer from

generator terminals; therefore, the exciter ceiling voltage is directly

proportional to generator terminal voltage. The effect of rectifier regulation

on ceiling voltage is represented by KC. The model provides flexibility to

represent series lag-lead or rate feedback stabilization. Because of very

high field forcing capability of the system, a field current limiter is

sometimes employed; the limit is defined by lLR and the gain by KLR.

ES- 29

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Modeling of Limiters

these do not come into play under normal

conditions

voltage stability studies

basis

field current limiter

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