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Antenna Theory

Radiation Mechanism
Dipole antenna-Fundamentals
• Antenna:
– A radiating device
– A Transducer
– A matching element
• Any wire or a structure can radiate EM waves,
however, the shape and size should
compatible with local circuit, this study can
be extended as “Antenna Theory”
Transmission line
• A transmission line, of Z0 characteristics
impedance, is excited by a source

Vertical tapering
• By vertical tapering, the electric fields will
have a curvature shape.

Give a sinusoidal signal


at t=T/4 at t=2T/4 at t=4T/4

=T/2 =T
Dipole antenna
• Fundamental antenna, the two arms of λ/4 length is placed
near by, will act as dipole.

Current element
• At a position, a dl length of wire is considered
and assumed that have uniform current flow.
• Current element is a small current carried by
small length of wire, ie I.dl
Radiation of Small current element

• Consider a wire of length L is carrying a

current I, as I = I . sin(ωt )

• The Field at a distant point P, at a distance R


Retarded Vector Potential; A

• When current I is passing through the current element, the

field created a point P will phase shifted about ωR/c
• So, to specify the field with respect to the present time, we can
write the current term as

• [ I ] = I m sin ω  t − r  P
 C
• It is a retarded form,
can be compared with

• [ I ] = I m sin ( ωt − βr ) dl

• The vector potential
• µId  µJ
A=∫ =∫ ∫4πr dv Pot. Integral
• 4πr z
Az ( r )
• θ
µ / 2 e − jkr I the only
Az =
4π ∫−/ 2 I r
dz ẑ
y component

 µ Ie − jkr
Az = zˆ
4π r
In spherical form
Aθ = 0
Aφ = 0

Convert into Polar form: Ar = Az cos θ Aθ = − Az sin θ Aφ = 0

Electric and Magnetic Fields
∇(∇ ⋅ A )
E = − jwA +
• We can find E and H terms from; jω µ ε
• 1
H = ∇× A
• µ
• By derivation, we will get:

M a g n e tic Fie ld E le ctric Fie ld
C o m p o n e n ts C o m p o n e n ts
Hr = 0 − ηI  e − jkr e -jkr 
Er = Cos θ − + j 2 3 
λ  kr 2 k r 
Hθ = 0
ηI  e − jkr e − jkr e -jkr 
 e − jkr Eθ = Sin θ  j + − j
I e − jkr  2λ  r kr 2

k 2 r 3 
Hφ = Sin θ  j + 
2λ  r kr 2 
Eφ = 0

w her η= µ
• consider the Hφ

I  e − jkr e − jkr 
Hφ = Sin θ  j + 2 
2λ  r kr 

Fa r fie ld o r R a d ia tio n fie ld

N e a r fie ld o r In d u ctio n fie ld
N o p h a se sh ift b e tw e e n th e E a n d H fie ld
E a n d H a re p h a se sh ifte d b y 9 0

Near Far
Fiel Fiel
d d

ri We can find the position of ri by

both the components
Finding ri
I  e − jkr e − jkr 
Hφ = Sin θ  j + 2 
2λ  r kr 
A t ri the far field will change from near field, both will be equale
Or from the above equation, real part is equale to imaginary

k sin ( kr ) cos( kr )
− =
r r2
By approximation;
k 1 λ ri=0.159λ
= 2 r = 1/ k =
r r 2π

If length of antenna is greater than λ, then

ri = 2
• Since “kr” value is much less than unity,
the real term is almost vanish. This
imaginary component creates a 90o
phase shift between H and E.
• Thus lead to polarization on the
direction of propagation, called “Cross
• That’s if you expect a linearly polarized
antenna to receive within induction
field, it can’t

• For example: An FM station transmits at
100MHz, therefore: λ=3meter, so you
can’t get the signal before 0.47meter.
• AM station at 1MHz, then ri=47 meter,
Far field
• The “kr” is very greater than unity, thus

ηΙ l sin θ − jkr
Eθ ≈ je
2λ r In -p h a se

Hφ ≈ sin θ je -jkr
2λ r

Zw = ≈η

C a lle d “ W a ve im p e n d e n ce ”
Radiation pattern
• Consider the far-field condition:
ηΙ l sin θ
Eθ ≈
2λ r
Hφ ≈ sin θ
2λ r

Power density
• The poynting vector:

• The radical and transverse components

S in ce th e tra n sve rse p o w e r is n o t co n trib u tin g a t fa r fie ld s

• Power in “Real and Imaginary” form says

• Wm, We are magnetic and electric energy density,
that stored in current element (or antenna)

• V a n ish e s a t kr> > 1

• The real term is modified as

R r is radiation resistance
• Find the Radiation resistance of a
dipole antenna about length of