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The Devices:

Diode

EE314 Basic EE II

1.Semiconductors
2.Doping concept
3.n & p-type semiconductors
4.Si diode
5.Forward & reversed bias
6.Examples
7.Diode Characteristic

Chapter 10: Diodes

Engineer-In-Training Reference Manual

http://www.amazon.com/Engineer-Training-Reference-Michael-Lindeburg/dp/09
EE314 Basic EE II

Outline

Motivation and Goals


Semiconductor Basics
Diode Structure
Operation
Static model

EE314 Basic EE II

Atom
Composed of 3 Basic particles:
Protons, Electrons & Neutrons.
An Atom requires balance, an equal No. of Protons &
Electrons.
When an atom has one more particle (protons or electrons)
it acquires a charge:
+ Ion has more Protons than Electrons,
- Ion has more Electrons than Protons.

EE314 Basic EE II

What do we know about an atomic structure?

EE314 Basic EE II

Semiconductor Basics

Electrons in intrinsic (pure) Silicon

covalently bonded to atoms


juggled between neighbors
thermally activated: density eT
move around the lattice, if free
leave a positively charged `hole behind

EE314 Basic EE II

http://www.masstech.org/cleanenergy/solar_info/images/crystal.gif

Semiconductor Basics

Two types of intrinsic carriers


Electrons (ni) and holes (pi)
In an intrinsic (no doping) material, ni=pi
At 300K, ni=pi is low (1010cm-3)
Use doping to improve conductivity

EE314 Basic EE II

II

Semiconductor Basics

Extrinsic carriers
Also two types of dopants (donors or acceptors)
Donors bring electron (n-type) and become ive ions
Acceptors bring holes (p-type) and become ive ions

Substantially higher densities (1015cm-3)


Majority and minority carriers
if n>>p (n-type) electrons majority and holes minority
Random recombination and thermal generation

EE314 Basic EE II

III

Conduction
Conductor;
Conductor
Has loosely bound electrons in its outer or Valence ring,
they are easily displaced.
Insulator;
Insulator
Has tightly bound electrons in its outer or Valence ring,
they cannot be easily displaced.
Semiconductor;
Semiconductor
Has at least 4 electrons in the outer or Valence ring, it is
neither a conductor nor an insulator.
In its pure state it makes a better insulator than conductor.
4 electrons allows easy bonding w/ other materials.

EE314 Basic EE II

Semiconductor Basics

Electrons in intrinsic (pure) Silicon

covalently bonded to atoms


juggled between neighbors
thermally activated: density eT
move around the lattice, if free

leave a positively charged `hole behind

EE314 Basic EE II

Semiconductor Basics

Two types of intrinsic carriers


Electrons (ni) and holes (pi)
In an intrinsic (no doping) material, ni=pi
At 300K, ni=pi is low (1010cm-3)
Use doping to improve conductivity

Extrinsic carriers
Also two types of dopants (donors or acceptors)
Donors bring electron (n-type) and become ive ions
Acceptors bring holes (p-type) and become ive ions

Substantially higher densities (1015cm-3)


Majority and minority carriers
if n>>p (n-type) electrons majority and holes minority
Random recombination and thermal generation
EE314 Basic EE II

II

The Diode
B

Al

SiO

p
n

Cross section of pn-junction in an IC process

EE314 Basic EE II

N-type region

P-type region

doped with
donor impurities
(phosphorus,
arsenic)

doped with
acceptor
impurities
(boron)

The Diode
Simplified structure
A
p

Al
A

The pn
region is
assumed
to be thin
(step or
abrupt
junction)
EE314 Basic EE II

B
One-dimensional
representation

B
diode symbol

Different concentrations of
electrons (and holes) of the p
and n-type regions cause a
concentration gradient at the
boundary

Depletion Region
Concentration Gradient causes electrons to diffuse
from n to p, and holes to diffuse from p to n
This produces immobile ions in the vicinity of the
boundary
Region at the junction with the charged ions is called
the depletion region or space-charge region
Charges create electric field that attracts the carriers,
causing them to drift
equilibrium ( Idrift =
Drift counteracts diffusionholecausing
diffusion
electron diffusion
-Idiffusion )
p

n
hole drift
electron drift

EE314 Basic EE II

Depletion Region
Zero bias conditions
p more heavily
doped than n (NA >
NB)
Electric field gives
rise to potential
difference in the
junction, known as
the built-in potential

hole diffusion
electron diffusion
p

(a) Current flow.

n
hole drift
electron drift
Charge
Density

x
Distance

Electrical
Field

Potential

EE314 Basic EE II

(c) Electric field.

-W 1

(b) Charge density.

W2

(d) Electrostatic
potential.

Forward Bias
hole diffusion
electron diffusion
p

n
hole drift
electron drift

Applied potential lowers the potential barrier, Idiffusion > I

drift

Mobile carriers drift through the dep. region into neutral regions
become excess minority carriers and diffuse towards terminals

EE314 Basic EE II

Reverse Bias
hole diffusion
electron diffusion
p

n
hole drift
electron drift

Applied potential increases the potential barrier


Diffusion current is reduced
Diode works in the reverse bias with a very small drift
current

EE314 Basic EE II

Diode Current

Ideal diode
equation:

EE314 Basic EE II