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GROUP DYNAMIC

UNIT I

UNIT
UNIT II
Groups and its formation
Formal and informal formation
Functions of Group

Variable affecting the integration of group


Group Dynamic
History of Group Dynamic

UNDERSTANDING
UNDERSTANDING GROUP
GROUP DYNAMIC
DYNAMIC

Before
Before getting
getting started
started with
with Group
Group Dynamic
Dynamic let
let
us
us first
first understand
understand what
what isis Group?
Group?

UNDERSTANDING
UNDERSTANDING

GROUP
GROUP

GROUP
GROUP
A group is more than two persons who interact with
each other in such a manner that the behavior or
performance of one is influenced by the behavior of
the others.

What
What Does
Does ItIt Take
Take to
to Make
Make aa Group?
Group?
Characteristics
Characteristics of
of aa Group:Group:-

Interdependency

Groups
Groups Have
Have Two
Two or
or More
More Members
Members

Dyad
2 person group

Group
Two or more interacting, interdependent people

Characteristic

Common/
Common/ Shared
Shared objective
objective or
or purpose
purpose && open
open
communication
communication
Group(s)
Two or more individuals interacting
and interdependent, who have come
together to achieve particular
objectives.
Note:- A group doesnt simply mean individuals
possessing same identical features. For instance, a
collection of students or beggars doesnt form a group.
These are class.

Characteristic

Class
Class
A set, collection, group, or configuration
containing members regarded as having certain
attributes or traits in common; a kind or category.
E.g
A group of students who are taught together
because they have roughly the same level of
academic development.
A group of students or alumni who have the same
year of graduation.
A group of students who meet at a regularly
scheduled time to study the same subject.

Characteristic

Do
Do they
they form
form Groups
Groups ???
???

Railway station

Members
MembersIdentify
IdentifyThemselves
Themselvesas
asaaGroup
Group(must
(mustshare
sharecommon
common
identity)
identity)

If it looks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it is


a duck.

a group exists when two or more people define


themselves as members of it and when its
existence is recognized by at least one other
(Brown, 1988)

Characteristic

Group
Group :: Interdependence
Interdependence
Pooled
Members make separate, independent contributions to
group such that group performance is the sum of each
members contributions

Characteristic

Group
Group :: Interdependence
Interdependence
Sequential
Members perform tasks in a sequential order making it
difficult to determine individual performance since
one member depends on another.

Characteristic

Group:
Group: Interdependence
Interdependence
Reciprocal
Work performed by one group member is mutually
dependent on work done by other members.

Characteristic

Types
Types of
of Task
Task Interdependence
Interdependence
Characteristic

Figure 15.3

Functions
Functions of
of Group
Group
Task function

Maintenance function

Task Functions: Initiating, seeking information and


opinions, Clarifying, Elaborate, Summarizing
Maintenance : Harmonizing, Compromising, flow
of ideas, encouraging.

Why
Why People
People Join
Join Groups
Groups
Common Reasons for joining Groups:
Security (protection)
Status
Self-esteem
Affiliation (gregarious)
Power (union)
Goal Achievement
Identity
Huddling

Why
Why People
People Join
Join Groups
Groups
Reason

Benefits

Affiliation

Reduce the insecurity of standing alone; feel


stronger, fewer self-doubts, and more resistant to
threats
Inclusion in a group viewed by outsiders as
important; provides recognition and status
Provides feelings of self-worth to group members, in
addition to conveying status to outsiders
Fulfills social needs. Enjoys regular interaction; can
be primary source for fulfilling need for affiliation

Power

What cannot be achieved individually often


becomes possible; power in numbers

Goal
achievement

Some tasks require more than one person; need to


pool talents, knowledge, or power to complete the
job. In such instances, management may rely on
the use of a formal group

Security
Status
Self-esteem

Reason
Reason for
for Joining
Joining Groups
Groups
General Tendencies to join group

The similarity Attraction: we like people who are similar to us.


Complementarities of need hypothesis : we like people who
possess qualities that fulfill our own needs.
Proximity-attraction affect : we like people who are close by
Exposure: we like people whom we have been exposed to
repeatedly.
Reciprocity: we like people who like us.
Basking in reflect glory :
we seek to associate with successful, prestigious groups.
Furthermost, we also tend to avoid individual who possess
objectionable characteristic.

Advantages
Advantages &
& Disadvantages
Disadvantages of
of Group
Group

Advantages
Advantages of
of Group/
Group/ Usefulness
Usefulness of
of Group
Group

Groups are good for people


Better decision
Increases commitments and action.
Group contribute toward organizational effectiveness
through enhancing performance, increase in
responsiveness to customer, increasing innovation and
increase in motivation and satisfaction.

Groups are good for people

Advantages of
of Group/
Group/ Usefulness
Usefulness of
of
Advantages
Group
Group

Groups as the ability to satisfy the needs of their members.


It provides chance for social interaction and interpersonal fulfillments.
It provides sense of identification to its members.
Individual security, technical and emotional support.

Groups tends to make better decision

Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks.


Due to application of multiple mind it helps in visualizing the situation
in better manner.

Increase in commitment

Group member are always influenced with each other behaviors and
due to share liability and common goal their commitment toward
accomplishing the task is more as compare to individual.

Advantages of
of Group/
Group/ Usefulness
Usefulness of
of
Advantages
Group
Group

Group contribute toward organization effectiveness

Group Enhances Performance

Groups are not only useful for task


Accomplishment but also to bring
out synergy.
Synergy may be understood as the
Creation of a whole that is greater
than the sum of its parts.
Here the
Principle of 2+2=5 is relevant.

Groups
Groups as
as
Performance
Performance Enhancers
Enhancers

Advantage of synergy

People working in a group are able to produce more


outputs than would have been produced if each
person had worked separately.

Factors that contribute to synergy


Ability of group members to bounce ideas off one
another
To correct one anothers mistakes
To bring a diverse knowledge base to bear on a
problem
To accomplish work that is too vast for any one
individual to achieve

Groups
Groups as
as
Performance
Performance Enhancers
Enhancers

To take advantage of the potential for synergy,


managers need to make sure groups that should
be composed of members who have
complementary skills and knowledge
relevant to the groups work.
However, performance of a group may be affected
by Social Loafing also known
as Ringlemann effect and
phenomena of Group Think.

Advantages of
of Group/
Group/ Usefulness
Usefulness of
of
Advantages
Group
Group

Group contribute toward organization effectiveness

Group Increases responsiveness


to customers.

Responsiveness to Customers
Difficult to achieve given the many
constraints.
Safety issues, regulations costs.
Cross-functional teams can provide
the wide variety of skills needed
to meet customer demands.
Teams consist of members of
different departments.

Groups
Groups and
and Innovation
Innovation

Innovation
The creative development of new products, new
technologies, new services, or new organizational
structures
Individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed for
successful innovation.
Team members can uncover each others flaws and balance each
others strengths and weaknesses
Managers should empower the team and make it accountable for
the innovation process.

Groups
Groups and
and Teams
Teams as
as Motivators
Motivators

Members of groups, and particularly teams, are often


better motivated and satisfied than individuals.
Team members are more motivated and satisfied than if
they were working alone.
Team members can see the effect of their contribution to
achieving team and organizational goals.
Teams provide needed social interaction and help
employees cope with work-related stressors.

PITFALLS
PITFALLS OF
OF GROUPS
GROUPS

Status Differentials
Group Norms
Risky and cautious Shift
Polarization
Group think

Classifying
Classifying Groups/
Groups/ Types
Types of
of Group
Group
Informal Group

Formal Group

Command Group (Permanent)


Task Group (Temporary)
Virtual Group

Friends Group (Clique)


Reference Group
Membership Group
Interest Group
Mayo & Lombard
Sayels Classification
Daltons Classification

Other Classifications

Cooleys Classification
Primary Group
Secondary Group

Change of Membership
Open Group
Close Group

Planned V/s Emergent

Lickel, Hamilton, Sherman

Concocted & Founded


Circumstantial & Self organizing

Intimacy
Weak Association
Social categories
Task

Social Group
Psychological Group

Formal Groups contd


Command Group:
Represented in the organization chart.
Permanent in nature.
Members report to common supervisors.
Functional reporting relationship exists.
Task groups:
Formed to carry out specific tasks.
Temporary in nature.

Virtual
Virtual Group
Group

A team whose members rarely meet face-to-face


Interact by using various forms of information
technology
Email, computer networks, telephone, fax, and
videoconferences

Advantage
Advantage of
of formal
formal Group
Group

Accomplishment of task
Create new ideas
Coordinate interdepartmental efforts
Implement action plans
Socialize and train newcomers
Solve complex problem
Reduce insecurity
Satisfy needs for affiliation
Mechanism for solving problem
Confirm identity and enhance self esteem

Advantage
Advantage of
of Informal
Informal Group
Group

Satisfaction of social and affliation need


Satisfaction of needs for security and support
Enhanced status
Values as a group member
Enhanced feeling of self esteem
More competent due to sharing of powers
Solidify common social values
Social satisfaction
Member access information
Integrate new employees
Sense of identity and status

Reference
Reference Group
Group
Any group with which an individual identifies for
the purpose of forming opinion or making
decision.
Based on factors such as Race , Gender, politics,
religion, social class, profession, etc.
These forms bases for friendship and interest
group formation.

Friends Group (Clique)


Reference Group
Membership Group
Interest Group
Mayo & Lombard
Sayels Classification
Daltons Classification

Cooleys Classification

Billions of groups in the world, but


they can be classified into basic
categories, or clusters
Cooley (1907) drew a distinction
between primary and secondary
groups

Type of
Group

Characteristics

Examples

Primary
groups

Small, long-term groups


characterized by face-toface interaction and high
levels of cohesiveness,
solidarity, and member
identification

Families, close
friends, tight-knit
peer groups, gangs,
elite military squads

Secondary
groups

Larger, less intimate, more Congregations, work


goal-focused groups typical groups, unions,
of more complex societies professional
associations
(Cooley, 1907)

Types of groups

Cooley (1907)
primary
secondary
Arrow and her colleagues offer a
more fine-grained analysis
planned vs. emergent

Concocted

Founded

Circumstantial

Self-organizing

Type of Group

Planned groups

Characteristics

Deliberately formed by the members themselves or by an external


authority, usually for some specific purpose or purposes

Concocted Planned by individuals or authorities


outside the group.
Founded Planned by one or more individuals
who remain within the group
Emergent groups

Examples

Production lines, military


units, task forces, crews,
professional sports teams
Study groups, small
businesses, expeditions,
clubs, associations

Groups that form spontaneously as individuals find themselves


repeatedly interacting with the same subset of individuals over time
and settings

Circumstantial Emergent, unplanned groups that


Waiting lines (queues),
arise when external, situational
crowds, mobs, audiences,
forces set the stage for people to join bystanders
together, often only temporarily, in a
unified group
Self-organizing

Emerge when interacting individuals


gradually align their activities in a
cooperative system of
interdependence.

Study groups, friendship


cliques in a workplace,
regular patrons at a bar

Perceiving groups: people intuitively draw


distinctions between groupssome
look groupier than others

Lickel, Hamilton, Sherman, and their


colleagues asked people to rate many
kinds of aggregations on a scale from 1
(not at all a group) to 9 (very much a
group).

Type of
Group

Characteristics

Examples

Intimacy
groups

Small groups of moderate duration


and permeability characterized by
substantial levels of interaction
among the members, who value
membership in the group

Families, romantic
couples, close friends,
street gangs

Task groups

Work groups in employment


settings and goal-focused groups in
a variety of nonemployment
situations

Teams, neighborhood
associations

Weak
associations

Aggregations of individuals that


Crowds, audiences,
form spontaneously, last only a brief clusters of bystanders
period of time, and have very
permeable boundaries

Social
categories

Aggregations of individuals who are


similar to one another in terms of
gender, ethnicity, religion, or
nationality.

Women, Asian
Americans, physicians,
U.S. citizens, New
Yorkers

Five
Five Stages
Stages of
of Group
Group Development
Development Model
Model

Stages of Group Development


The five-Stage Model:
Adjourning/Mourning
Completion, ending or evolution
Performing
Achieving the purpose
Norming
Agreeing purpose and conduct
Storming
Resolving differences
Forming
Initial meeting together

The
The Five
Five Stages
Stages of
of Group
Group Development
Development
1. Forming
Members feel much uncertainty

2. Storming
Lots of conflict between members of the group

3. Norming Stage
Members have developed close relationships and
cohesiveness

4. Performing Stage
The group is finally fully functional

5. Adjourning Stage
In temporary groups, characterized by concern with
wrapping up activities rather than performance

The
The Five-Stage
Five-Stage Model
Model of
of Group
Group Development
Development
Forming Stage
The first stage in group development,
characterized by much uncertainty.
Storming Stage
The second stage in group development,
characterized by intragroup conflict.
Norming Stage
The third stage in group development,
characterized by close relationships and
cohesiveness.

Group
Group Development
Development (contd)
(contd)
Performing Stage
The fourth stage in group
development, when the group
is fully functional.
Adjourning Stage
The final stage in group
development for temporary
groups, characterized by concern
with wrapping up activities
rather than performance.

Form
Form stage
stage
First stage behavior of group members can be
described as :

DEPENDENT ON DIRECTION
MEMBERS ARE POLITE
INTRODUCTION AND SHARING OF INFORMATION
STEROTYPING INDIVIDUALS BASED ON FIRST IMPRESSIONS
CONVERSATIONS ARE ABOUT SAFE ACCEPTABLE TOPICS
AVOID DISCLOSURE, FEEDBACK, AND INTERPRETING NONVERBALS

Storm
Storm stage
stage
Second stage behavior of the group can be
characterized as:
COUNTER-DEPENDENT: EACH GROUP MEMBER STRONGLY
FEELS THE NEED TO TAKE CARE OF HIMSELF/HERSELF DURING
THIS STAGE
BID FOR POWER
COMPETITIVE
RATIONALIZATION
CLOSE-MINDED
CONFLICT/HOSTILITY
CLIQUES ARE FORMED

Storm
Storm stage
stage -- continued
continued
UNEXPRESSED INDIVIDUAL NEEDS
CREATIVITY SUPPRESSED
TRY TO REACH RESOLUTION BY VOTE, COMPROMISE, OR
ARBITRATION

Norm
Norm stage
stage
Third stage behavior of the group can be
characterized as:

INDEPENDENT AND CONSTRUCTIVE


REAL LISTENING TAKES PLACE
ATTEMPTS TO GAIN AND MAINTAIN CONTROL LESSEN
PROGRESS TOWARD OBJECTIVES
CREATIVITY BEGINS
ROLES IDENTIFIED
THE LEADER MAY BECOME SOMEWHAT LESS IDENTIFIABLE OR
NECESSARY TO THE GROUP

Perform
Perform stage
stage
Fourth stage behavior of the group can be
characterized as:

INDEPENDENT
HIGH GROUP MORALE AND ESPRIT
INTENSE GROUP LOYALTY
INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY IS ENCOURAGED
DISAGREEMENT IS OK
NO CLIQUES
GROUP ADOPTS AN IDENTIFICATION SYMBOL

Adjourn
Adjourn stage
stage
Fifth stage behavior of the group can be
characterized as:

LESS TASK ABILITY


REGRESSION TO LESS PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR
SEPARATION, GRIEVING BEHAVIORS
RE-DEFINITION
TERMINATION OR MINI-DEATH

Relationship
Relationship of
of team
team maturity
maturity
and
and performance
performance

PERFORMANCE

Possible
Failure

Possible
Possible Failure
Failure
FORM

STORM

Immature
Inefficient
Ineffective

NORM PERFORM ADJOURN


Mature
Efficient
Effective

Stages
Stages of
of team
team development
development and
and
associated
associated management
management challenges
challenges
FORMING
(Orientation)
STORMING
(Internal problem
solving)
NORMING
(Growth and
productivity)
PERFORMING
(Evaluation
and control)

1. Establish structure, rules, communication networks


2. Clarify relations and interdependencies among members
3. Identify leader roles, clarify responsibility and authority
4. Develop plans for goals accomplishment.
1. Identify and resolve interpersonal conflict.
2. Further clarify rules, goals, and structural relationships
3. Develop participate climate among group members
1. Direct group activity toward goal accomplishment.
2. Develop data-flow & feedback systems for task performance.
3. Promote more cohesion among group members
1. Leader role emphasis on facilitation, feedback, and
evaluation.
2. Renewal, revision, and strengthening of roles and group
interdependencies.
3. Show of strong motivation toward goal accomplishment

Critique
Critique of
of the
the Five-Stage
Five-Stage Model
Model
Assumption: the group becomes more effective as
it progresses through the first four stages
Not always true group behavior is more complex
High levels of conflict may be conducive to high
performance
The process is not always linear
Several stages may occur simultaneously
Groups may regress

Ignores the organizational context

An
An Alternative
Alternative Model:
Model:
Temporary
Temporary Groups
Groups with
with Deadlines
Deadlines
Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
Temporary groups go through transitions
between inertia and activity.

Sequence
Sequenceof
ofactions:
actions:
1.
1.
2.
2.

Setting
Settinggroup
groupdirection
direction
First
Firstphase
phaseof
ofinertia
inertia

3.
3.
4.
4.

Half-way
Half-waypoint
pointtransition
transition
Major
Majorchanges
changes

5.
5.
6.
6.

Second
Secondphase
phaseof
ofinertia
inertia
Accelerated
Acceleratedactivity
activity

Group
Group Properties/
Properties/ Structure
Structure of
of Group
Group

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Leadership
Leadership
Leadership
Leader is one who is responsible for
the actions of the group and leader
also provides direction to its group
member.
Formal Group Leader
Aids the group and embodies the value of the group.
Initiate group and resolve conflict
Informal group leader
Any one can be appointed as leader
depending upon its skills, knowledge,
qualifiction and they are easy to
replace.

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Roles
Roles
Role(s)
A set of expected behavior patterns
attributed to someone occupying a
given position in a social unit.
Role Identity
Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.
Role Perception
An individuals view of how he or she
is supposed to act in a given situation.

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Roles
Roles (contd)
(contd)
Role Expectations
How others believe a person
should act in a given situation.
Psychological Contract
An unwritten agreement that sets out
what management expects from the
employee and vice versa.
Role Conflict
A situation in which an individual is
confronted by divergent role expectations.

Commonly
Commonly played
played Role
Role
Task Oriented

Relations Oriented

Self oriented

Characteristics
Characteristics of
of Groups
Groups
and
and Teams
Teams (contd)
(contd)
The Development of a Role
The first two stages of role development are group
processes as the group members let the individuals
know what is expected of them.
The other two parts are individual processes as the
new group members perceive and enact their roles.
Expected
role

Sent
role

Perceived
role

Enacted
role

Figure 19.3

Characteristics
Characteristics of
of Groups
Groups
and
and Teams
Teams (contd)
(contd)
Role Structures
Role conflictoccurs when the messages and cues
comprising the sent role are clear but contradictory or
mutually exclusive.
Interrole conflict is the result of a conflict between roles.
Intrarole conflict is caused by conflicting demands from
different sources.
Intrasender conflict arises when a single source sends
contradictory messages.
Person-role conflict is the discrepancy between role
requirements and an individuals values, attitudes, and
needs.

Role overloadoccurs when role expectations exceed an


individuals capacities.

Characteristics
Characteristics of
of Groups
Groups
and
and Teams
Teams (contd)
(contd)
Behavioral Norms
Norms are standards of behavior that a group accepts
and expects of its members.
Norms define the boundaries between acceptable and
unacceptable behavior.
Norm generalizationthe norms of one group cannot
always be generalized to another group.
Norm variationnorms and their
application vary within a group
or team.

Task
Task oriented
oriented Role
Role

Initiator Contributor
Information Seekers
Energiser
Opinion Giver

Relations
Relations oriented
oriented Role
Role

Harmonizer
Compromiser
Encouragers
Expediator

Self
Self oriented
oriented Role
Role
Blockers
Dominators
Recognition seekers
Avoiders

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Norms
Norms
Norms
Acceptable standards of
behavior within a group that
are shared by the groups
members.
Classes
Classesof
ofNorms:
Norms:
Performance
Performancenorms
norms
Appearance
Appearancenorms
norms
Social
Socialarrangement
arrangementnorms
norms
Allocation
Allocationof
ofresources
resources
norms
norms

Roles
Predictive
Control
Relational

The
The Hawthorne
Hawthorne Studies
Studies
A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at
Western Electric Companys Hawthorne Works in
Chicago between 1924 and 1932.
Research Conclusions:
Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related.
Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting
individual behavior.
Group standards (norms) were highly effective in
establishing individual worker output.
Money was less a factor in determining worker output
than were group standards, sentiments, and security.

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Norms
Norms (contd)
(contd)
Conformity
Adjusting ones behavior
to align with the norms of
the group.

Reference Groups
Important groups to which
individuals belong or hope to
belong and with whose norms
individuals are likely to
conform.

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Norms
Norms (contd)
(contd)
Deviant Workplace Behavior
Antisocial actions by organizational members that
intentionally violate established norms and result in
negative consequences for the organization, its
members, or both.

Defying
Defying Norms:
Norms: Deviant
Deviant Workplace
Workplace Behavior
Behavior
Deviant Workplace Behavior
Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility
Voluntary behavior that violates significant
organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the
well-being of the organization
Typology:

Production working speed


Property damage and stealing
Political favoritism and gossip
Personal Aggression sexual harassment
EEXXHHI IBBI ITT9-5
9-5

Group
Group Influence
Influence on
on Deviant
Deviant Behavior
Behavior

Group norms can influence the presence of deviant


behavior
Simply belonging to a group increases the likelihood
of deviance
Being in a group allows individuals to hide creates a
false sense of confidence that they wont be caught
EEXXHHI IBBI ITT9-6
9-6

Group
Group Dynamics
Dynamics
Conformity and Deviance
Members conform to norms to obtain rewards, imitate
respected members, and because they feel the behavior is
right.
When a member deviates, other members will try to make
them conform, expel the member, or change the group
norms to accommodate them.
Conformity and deviance must be balanced for high
performance from the group.
Deviance allows for new ideas in the group.

Balancing
Balancing Conformity
Conformity and
and
Deviance
Deviance in
in Groups
Groups

Figure 15.5

Sources
Sources of
of Group
Group norms
norms

Why
Why are
are norms
norms strongly
strongly enforced
enforced

Norms are likely to be strongly enforced if they


ensure group success or survival.
If the norms reflect the preferences of supervisors
or other powerful group member.
If the norms predict what behaviour is expected
of them.
If they help to avoid embarrassing interpersonal
problem.

Group
Group structurestructure- Size
Size
Less than 5

More than 7

Complete
participation
Shared task
responsibility
Personal discussion

Fewer opportunity
Domination
Split into subgroups

Ideal group is
between 5-7

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Size
Size
Social Loafing
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when
working collectively than when working individually.

Ex
p

ec
te
d

Performance

t
c
A

(d
l
ua

ue

to

af
o
l

)
g
n

Group Size

Managing
Managing Groups
Groups and
and Teams
Teams
for
for High
High Performance
Performance
Social loafing
The human tendency to put forth less effort in a group
than individually.
Results in possibly lower group performance and failure
to
attain group
goals

Managing
Managing Groups
Groups and
and Teams
Teams
for
for High
High Performance
Performance
Reducing social loafing:
Make individual efforts identifiable and accountable.
Emphasize the valuable contributions of individual
members.
Keep group size at an appropriate level.

Three
Three Ways
Ways to
to Reduce
Reduce Social
Social Loafing
Loafing

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Status
Status
Status
A socially defined position or rank given to groups or
group members by others.
Group
GroupNorms
Norms

Status
StatusEquity
Equity

Culture
Culture

Group
GroupMember
Member
Status
Status

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Composition
Composition
Group Demography
The degree to which members of a group share a
common demographic attribute, such as age, sex,
race, educational level, or length of service in the
organization, and the impact of this attribute on
turnover.

Cohorts
Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common
attribute.

Composition of a Group
Most group activities
require a variety of
skills and knowledge.
Research studies show
that
heterogeneous
groups are likely to
perform
more
effectively.

Forming
Forming Groups
Groups
Homogeneous
Homogeneous vs.
vs. Heterogeneous
Heterogeneous

nt
e
d
Stu
ed
t
c
le
Se

Inst

Your Class

ruct

Sele
ct

ed

Homogeneous
Groups

or

Heterogeneous
Groups

Courtesy of Hal White

What
What Aspects
Aspects of
of Heterogeneity
Heterogeneity are
are
Important
Important for
for You?
You?

Skills?

Ag
e?

Maj
or

?
e
p
y
T
y
t
i
l
a
n
o
rs
e
P
?
?
y
r
e
d
t
n
i
e
G
c
?
i
e
l
n
y
t
h
S
t
g
n
i
E
A
n
c
r
adem
a
e
L
ic Re
cord
?

Group
Group Structure
Structure -- Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness
Degree to which group members
are attracted to each other and
are motivated to stay in the
group.
Increasing
Increasinggroup
groupcohesiveness:
cohesiveness:
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
6.
7.
7.

Make
Makethe
thegroup
groupsmaller.
smaller.
Encourage
Encourageagreement
agreementwith
withgroup
groupgoals.
goals.
Increase
Increasetime
timemembers
membersspend
spendtogether.
together.
Increase
Increasegroup
groupstatus
statusand
andadmission
admissiondifficultly.
difficultly.
Stimulate
Stimulatecompetition
competitionwith
withother
othergroups.
groups.
Give
Giverewards
rewardsto
tothe
thegroup,
group,not
notindividuals.
individuals.
Physically
Physicallyisolate
isolatethe
thegroup.
group.

Group
Group Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness
The degree to which members are attracted to
their group
Three major consequences
Level of participation
Level of conformity to group norms
Emphasis on group goal accomplishment

Sources
Sources and
and Consequences
Consequences of
of
Group
Group Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness

Figure 15.6

Factors
Factors Leading
Leading to
to Group
Group Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness
Factor
Group Size

Smaller groups allow for high cohesiveness;


Low cohesiveness groups with many
members can benefit from splitting into two
groups.

Managed Diversity

Diverse groups often come up with better


solutions.

Group Identity

Encouraging a group to adopt a unique


identity and engage in competition with
others can increase cohesiveness.

Success

Cohesiveness increases with success;


finding ways for a group to have some small
successes increases cohesiveness.

Group
Group Cohesive
Cohesive nessness- Causes
Causes and
and consequences
consequences

Interaction
Threat
Severity of initiation
Co-operation
Group
Shared goals
Attitude and values Cohesiveness
Size

Positive
Increased morale
High productivity
Better communication
Conformity and influences

Negative
Group think
Lower productivity

Effects
Effects of
of Group
Group Cohesion
Cohesion
Positive effects
Increased quality and
quantity of group
interactions
Strengthened adherence to
group norms
Increased effectiveness in
achieving group goals
Augmented individual
satisfaction with group
membership

Negative effects
Useful or creative ideas may
be ignored if they deviate
from established norms or
values
Increased probability of
developing groupthink
Potential decrease in
intergroup cooperation
Counterproductive norms
may be emphasized

Adapted from Exhibit 13.6: Effects of High Levels of Group Cohesion

Approches
Approches to
to increase
increase cohesiveness
cohesiveness (308)
(308)

Emphasis on task accomplishment


Participative management
Intergroup competition
Disband the groups

Characteristics
Characteristics of
of Groups
Groups
and
and Teams
Teams (contd)
(contd)
Consequences of Cohesiveness
The interaction between cohesiveness and performance norms

Performance norms

The best situation


High
is high cohesiveness
combined with
high performance

Low
Low

Moderate
performance

High
performance

Low
performance

Lowest
performance

Cohesiveness

High
Figure 19.4

What
What IsIs aa Team?
Team?

Work Team
A group whose members work intensely
on a specific common goal using their
positive synergy, individual and mutual
accountability, and complementary
skills.

Why
Why Have
Have Teams
Teams Become
Become So
So Popular?
Popular?
Great way to use employee talents
Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes
in the environment
Can quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband
Facilitate employee involvement
Increase employee participation in decision making
Democratize an organization and increase
motivation
Note: teams are not ALWAYS effective
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-105

Differences
Differences between
between Groups
Groups and
and Teams
Teams
Work Group
A group that interacts primarily to share information
and to make decisions to help each group member
perform within his or her area of responsibility
No joint effort required

Work Team
Generates positive synergy through coordinated
effort. The individual efforts result in a performance
that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs

2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-106

Comparing
Comparing Work
Work Groups
Groups and
and Work
Work Teams
Teams

E X H I B I T 10-1
E X H I B I T 10-1

2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-107

Exhibit
Exhibit1511
1511

Characteristics
Characteristicsof
ofEffective
EffectiveTeams
Teams

Types
Types of
of Teams
Teams
Problem-Solving Teams
Groups of 5 to 12 employees from
the same department who meet
for a few hours each week to
discuss ways of improving quality,
efficiency, and the work
environment

Self-Managed Work Teams


Groups of 10 to 15 people who
take on the responsibilities of
their former supervisors
See E X H I B I T 10-2
See E X H I B I T 10-2

2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-109

More
More Types
Types of
of Teams
Teams
Cross-Functional Teams
Employees from about the same hierarchical level,
but from different work areas, who come together to
accomplish a task
Very common
Task forces
Committees

2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-110

AAFinal
Final Type
Type of
of Team
Team
Virtual Teams
Teams that use computer technology to tie together
physically dispersed members in order to achieve a
common goal

Characteristics
Limited socializing
The ability to overcome time and space constraints

To be effective, needs:
Trust among members
Close monitoring
To be publicized
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-111

AATeam-Effectiveness
Team-Effectiveness Model
Model
Caveat 1: This is a
general guide only.

Caveat 2: The
model assumes
that teamwork is
preferable to
individual work.
E X H I B I T 10-3
E X H I B I T 10-3

2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-112

Key
Key Components
Components of
of Effective
Effective Teams
Teams

Context
Composition
Work Design
Process Variables

Creating
Creating Effective
Effective Teams:
Teams: Context
Context
Adequate Resources
Need the tools to complete the job

Effective Leadership and Structure


Agreeing to the specifics of work and how the team fits
together to integrate individual skills
Even self-managed teams need leaders
Leadership especially important in multi-team systems

Climate of Trust
Members must trust each other and the leader

Performance and Rewards Systems that Reflect


Team Contributions
Cannot just be based on individual effort

Creating
Creating Effective
Effective Teams:
Teams: Composition
Composition
Abilities of Members
Need technical expertise, problem-solving, decisionmaking, and good interpersonal skills

Personality of Members
Conscientiousness, openness to experience, and
agreeableness all relate to team performance

Allocating Roles and Diversity


Many necessary roles must be filled
Diversity can often lead to lower performance

Size of Team
The smaller the better: 5 to 9 is optimal

Members Preference for Teamwork


Do the members want to be on teams?

Key
Key Roles
Roles On
On Teams
Teams

E X H I B I T 10-4
E X H I B I T 10-4

Creating
Creating Effective
Effective Teams:
Teams: Work
Work Design
Design
Freedom and Autonomy
Ability to work independently

Skill Variety
Ability to use different skills and talents

Task Identity
Ability to complete a whole and identifiable task or
product

Task Significance
Working on a task or project that has a substantial
impact on others

2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-117

Current
Current Challenges
Challenges in
in Managing
Managing Teams
Teams
Getting employees to:

Cooperate with others


Share information
Confront differences
Sublimate personal
interest for the greater
good of the team

Creating
Creating Effective
Effective Teams:
Teams: Process
Process
Commitment to a Common Purpose
Create a common purpose that provides direction
Have reflexivity: willing to adjust plan if necessary

Establishment of Specific Team Goals


Must be specific, measurable, realistic, and challenging

Team Efficacy
Team believes in its ability to succeed

Mental Models
Have an accurate and common mental map of how the work
gets done

A Managed Level of Conflict


Task conflicts are helpful; interpersonal conflicts are not

Minimized Social Loafing


Team holds itself accountable both individually and as a
team
E X H I B I T 10-5
E X H I B I T 10-5

2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-119

Turning
Turning Individuals
Individuals into
into Team
Team Players
Players
Selection
Make team skills one of the interpersonal skills in the
hiring process.

Training
Individualistic people can learn

Rewards
Rework the reward system to encourage cooperative
efforts rather than competitive (individual) ones
Continue to recognize individual contributions while
still emphasizing the importance of teamwork
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

10-120

Group
Group Tasks
Tasks
Decision-making
Large groups facilitate the pooling of information
about complex tasks.
Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and
facilitating the implementation of complex tasks.
Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the
requirement that group processes be effective in
order for the group to perform well.

Group
Group Decision
Decision Making
Making
Strengths
More complete
information
Increased diversity
of views
Higher quality of
decisions (more
accuracy)
Increased
acceptance of
solutions

Weaknesses
More time
consuming (slower)
Increased pressure
to conform
Domination by one
or a few members
Ambiguous
responsibility

Group
Group Decision
Decision Making
Making (contd)
(contd)
Group-think
Phenomenon in which the norm for
consensus overrides the realistic appraisal
of alternative course of action.

Group-shift
A change in decision risk between the
groups decision and the individual
decision that member within the group
would make; can be either toward
conservatism or greater risk.

Symptoms
Symptoms Of
Of The
The Groupthink
Groupthink Phenomenon
Phenomenon

Group members rationalize any resistance to the


assumptions they have made.
Members apply direct pressures on those who express
doubts about shared views or who question the
alternative favored by the majority.
Members who have doubts or differing points of view
keep silent about misgivings.
There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.

Group
Group Decision-Making
Decision-Making Techniques
Techniques
Interacting Groups
Typical groups, in which the
members interact with each other
face-to-face.

Nominal Group Technique


A group decision-making method
in which individual members
meet face-to-face to pool their
judgments in a systematic but
independent fashion.

Group
Group Decision-Making
Decision-Making Techniques
Techniques
Brainstorming
An idea-generation process that
specifically encourages any and all
alternatives, while withholding any
criticism of those alternatives.
Electronic Meeting
A meeting in which members
interact on computers, allowing
for anonymity of comments and
aggregation of votes.

Conclusion
Conclusion
Although most humans are by nature social
creatures, cooperative group work is not something
that comes without effort. Such group activities
require that a sense of trust be built between
members, as well as a feeling of shared
responsibility. This means a responsibility to carry
your own weight in the group, as well as a
responsibility to all of the other members of the
group.

... Group behavior measures the


immeasurable."

Group
Group Dynamics
Dynamics
Group Dynamics are the forces operating in groups
that affect the way members work together.
From the system perspective Group dynamics are
the processes through which inputs are
transformed into outputs.

Group
Group Dynamics
Dynamics
Group Dynamics describes how a
group should be organized and
conducted.
It consists of set of techniques, Role
Playing, training, transactional
analysis.

Group Dynamics is viewed from the perspective of internal


nature of groups:

i.

How they are formed;

ii.

Why groups are formed;

iii.

What are their structure and processes, and

iv.

How they affect individual members, other groups , and the


organization.

History
History of
of Group
Group Dynamics:
Dynamics:
th
Late
19
Late 19th Century
Century && LeBon
LeBon

Study of groups began in late


1800s

Roots in psychology and


sociology

Collective mind (LeBon)


Contagion
In a crowd every sentiment
and act is contagious, and
contagious to such a
degree that an individual
readily sacrifices his
personal interest to the
collective interest

Psychological
Psychological Perspective
Perspective
Social facilitation

Triplett (1898)
Noticed bicyclists performed better when riding
with others
Study with children performing simple task either
alone or with others.
Results:
Children performed better when in the
presence of others compared to when alone

Kurt
Kurt Lewin
Lewin
There is no more magic behind the
fact that groups have properties of
their own, which are different than
the properties of their subgroups or
their individual members, than
behind the fact that molecules have
properties which are different from
the properties of the atoms or ions of
which they are composed. -Lewin
Groups could be studied
scientifically

Field theory
B = f (P, E)
Lifespace
Research Center for Group
Dynamics
Adapted experimentation
to the problems of group
life

Fields
Fields contributing
contributing toward
toward scientific
scientific study
study of
of group
group
Discipline
Topics
dynamic
dynamic
Anthropology

Groups in cross-cultural contexts; societal change; social and collective


identities

Business and Industry

Work motivation; productivity; team building; goal setting; focus groups

Clinical/Counseling
Psychology

Therapeutic change through groups; sensitivity training; training groups;


self-help groups; group psychotherapy

Communication

Information transmission in groups; discussion; decision making; problems


in communication; networks

Criminal Justice

Organization of law enforcement agencies; gangs; jury deliberations

Education

Classroom groups; team teaching; class composition and educational


outcomes

Political Science

Leadership; intergroup and international relations; political influence; power

Psychology

Personality and group behavior; problem solving; perceptions of other


people; motivation; conflict

Social Work

Team approaches to treatment; family counseling; groups and adjustment

Sociology

Self and society; influence of norms on behavior; role relations; deviance

Sports and Recreation

Team performance; effects of victory and failure; cohesion and performance

Lewin,
Lewin, Lippit
Lippit && White
White (( understanding
understanding individual
individual
behavior
behavior in
in group)
group)
Groups of 10- and 11-year- old boys to meet after school to
work on various hobbies.
Each group included a man who adopted one of three
leadership styles
Autocratic, democratic, or laissez-faire

Results:
Autocratic: worked more only when leader watched; more
hostile
Democratic: worked even when leader left
Laissez-faire: Worked the least

There
There isis nothing
nothing so
so practical
practical as
as aa good
good theory
theory
Lewin: Theoretical and applied research should go
hand in hand

Theory

Practice

Rodney
Rodney Dangerfield
Dangerfield Era
Era
Experimental model- trying to gain respect
Study of small groups, in the lab, with undergraduates,
manipulating one factor
Cause-effect
Research in the 60s and 70s

Conformity
Group polarization
Helping
Social facilitation
Group aggression

Sociological
Sociological Perspective
Perspective
In 1950s sociologists looked
at groups as miniature social Forefathers of sociological
systems
thought:
Durkheim
Cooley
Mead
New Measurement techniques:
Sociometry
Interaction Process Analysis

Todays
Todays Group
Group Dynamics
Dynamics
Today, research is conducted by a variety of
disciplines
Psychologists, communication researchers, social
workers, sociologists

Today group dynamics researchers use a variety of


research methods
Much research focuses on real world groups