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Psychology 205

Perception

Day 10

20 Feb 03

   
    Speech Perception

demonstrations ­
speech synthesis & analysis
categorical perception
discrimination functions
identification functions
discriminability = identifiability

speech production ­­ source­filter theory
spectrum & spectrogram
harmonics 
formants
infant & infrahuman perception of speech
habituation & dishabituation
   
speech demos:

   
filter

Instruments source
to change
shape of filter

   
speech stream:

vowels: monophthongs:  /i/ /a/ /u/, etc.
    diphthongs: /ei/ /oi/, etc. 
consonants:
stops: prevoiced: ­­
voiced:  /b/ /d/ /g/
voiceless: /p/ /t/ /k/  /?/
liquids:voiced /l/ /r/ 
voiceless: ­­
fricatives: voiced: /v/ /z/ /δ/ , etc.
voiceless: /f/ /s/ /Θ/ /∫/, etc.
clicks: ­­ /!/
   
   
modified from text
harmonic structure
from source,
sawtooth
waveform
vocal folds/glottis

   
schematizatio
n of male
source

Upper harmonics are integer


multiples of the fundamental
frequency

   
mouth shape acts as a selective filter,
removing energy from some
harmonics, enhancing others

   
testosterone
target in
puberty

   
schematization of female
source, sawtooth wave of higher
frequency

   
   
Chas. Hockett:
The speech stream is like smashed Easter
eggs

   
formant
transitions

d
emo

   
d
emo

   
categorical perception:

two types of results (for adults)
identification task
discrimination task

   
method of
constant
stimuli:
identificatio
n

   
discrimination task:

       stimuli correct “response”|          analog to 2x2cells


response           stimuli

1­1 same
“same”|same          correct rejection
3­3 same
“different”|same             false alarm
   
1­3 different
“different”|different  hit
3­1 different
“same”|different miss

 
same for pairs 2­4, 3­5, 4­6, and 5­7
 
same-different
discrimination:
signal
detection task

   
Peak of discrimination
function at the cross-
over point of the
identification functions

   
asking infants about what they perceive

use infant behaviors
let infant control “environment”
by pairing stimuli with behaviors

can’t identify
can discriminate

   
baseline

   
/ba/

   
habituation
to /ba/
change in β

   
habituatio
habituatio
n /ba/
n to

control
condition #1

   
dishabituation
to /da/

experimental
condition

   
same stimuli

different stimuli; different


Control 1: 3-3, 4-4 phonemes
Exptl Cond: 3-5, 4-6 different stimuli; same
Control 2: 3-1, 4-2 phonemes

   
control
condition #2

lack of
dishabituation to a
different /ba/

   
infants discriminate /ba/­/da/ like adults do 

   
categorical perception tally

[b]∙[d]   [g]∙[k]   [r]∙[l]

adults w/    yes

adults w/o               ­­­
       
infants                      yes

rhesus

chinchilla
   
[b]∙[d]   [g]∙[k]   [r]∙[l]

adults w/    yes        yes      

adults w/o               ­­­         yes Kikuyu
       
infants                      yes        yes

rhesus

chinchilla
   
[b]∙[d]   [g]∙[k]   [r]∙[l]

adults w/    yes        yes       yes      

adults w/o               ­­­         yes        no Japanese
        adults

infants                      yes        yes       yes Japanese infants

rhesus

chinchilla
   
   
[b]∙[d]   [g]∙[k]   [r]∙[l]

adults w/    yes        yes       yes      

adults w/o               ­­­         yes        no
       
infants                      yes        yes       yes

rhesus    yes       ~yes       no

chinchilla               ~yes        no         no
   
Human speech perception takes advantage of what are 
likely to have been pre­existing, anisomorphic “notches” 
in the auditory system’s capacity to discriminate 
information. 

Our own evolution may also have created new “notches”

Why is this a good thing?

   
speech perception has to be fast.

speaking rate     up to ~300 wpm
      at 4 phonemes/word
                           ~20 phonemes/sec

categorical perception is a way of making rapid 
decisions, throwing away unneeded (“within 
phoneme category”) information

   
lips, jaw, tongue,
and pharynx for
eating, etc.

   
for speech
and
language
perception
for speech
production

 
Left  
hemisphere
     Speech Perception

demonstrations ­
speech synthesis & analysis
categorical perception      ­­­> speed
           & cortical areas
discrimination functions
identification functions
discriminability = identifiability

speech production ­­ source­filter theory      ­­>cortical
              areas
spectrum & spectrogram
harmonics 
formants
infant & infrahuman perception of speech
   
habituation & dishabituation ­­>infants ready to go