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FLOTATION KINETICS

A flotation model is similar to chemical kinetics


dN/dt =-k1 N1a- k2 N2b
N - species (1 and 2) concentration
t- time
k - rate constant(s)
a, b process order
-negative sign indicates that the concentration is diminishing
due to the loss
of particles being floated.
-exponents a and b signify the order of the process
Since flotation seems to depend only on particles concentration
dN/dt =-k1 N1a

Flotation kinetics models


Model
Classic first order
Modified first order
For reactor with ideal mixing
Modified for gassolid adsorption
Kinetics of second order
Modified second order
Two rate constants
Distributed rate constants

Relation

= [1 exp (k1t)]
= {1 1/(k2t)[1 exp (k2t)]}
= [1 1/(1 + t/k3)]*
= k4t/(1 + k4t)*
= ( )2 k5t/(1 + k5t)
= {1 [ln (1 + k6t)]/(k6t)}
= [1 { exp (k7t) + (1 ) exp(k8t)}
= [1 exp(kt) f (k, 0) dk]

* Equivalent models because k3 = 1/k4.


flotation recovery after time t,
maximum recovery,
fraction of particles having lower flotation rate constant, k7,
k
flotation rate constant.

more

A. Bakalarz, J. Drzymala, 2013, Interrelation of the Fuerstenau upgrading curve parameters with kinetics of
separation, Physicochemical Problem of Mineral Processing, 49(2), 443-451

Flotation kinetics of the whole mass and


components

product (yield vs time)


components (recovery vs
time)
Flotation
results plotted as a relationship between recovery of each
component in concentrate and separation time (a), yield of
components forming concentrate vs. separation time (b)
A. Bakalarz, J. Drzymala, 2013, Interrelation of the Fuerstenau upgrading curve parameters with kinetics of
separation, Physicochemical Problem of Mineral Processing, 49(2), 443-451

relation between flotation kinetics and


upgrading curves

The kinetics of separation of feed components (a) provide separation


results in the form of the Fuerstenau upgrading curve (b).

A. Bakalarz, J. Drzymala, 2013, Interrelation of the Fuerstenau upgrading curve parameters with kinetics of
separation, Physicochemical Problem of Mineral Processing, 49(2), 443-451

c,1

ugrading curves (here Fuerstenaus) equations based on kinetics of flotation

13

recovery of component 1 in concentrate


c,2 recovery of component 2 in concentrat

Theoretical shape of the separation data in the Fuerstenau


plot

4*

13

Remeber: for characterizing separation results


we need either two parameter or a law governi
separation and then you can use one paramete
which can be called selectivity as in these plots
selectivity k

*for a suitable equation see previous slide


(more plots in A. Bakalarz, J. Drzymala, 2013, Interrelation of the Fuerstenau upgrading curve parameters
with kinetics of separation, Physicochemical Problem of Mineral Processing, 49(2), 443-451

An example of separation results approximation using the Fuerstenau


plot
ideal upgrading

100

100

80

10

plant 3, trial 1
a=102.28

60

60

no upgrading

= a(100-r)/(a-r)

40

40

20

a=
~
10
00

a=100

~1

80

a=

F = (89/89)

20

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Polish copper ore lab tests with xanthate

20

40

60

80
component 2 in product 2,%

100

Homework
Calculate the rate constant and order of a set of yield flotation
data

FLOTATION DEVICES
Microlaboratory cells
Laboratory cells
Laboratory machines
Industrial machines
Mechanical
Pneumo-mechanical
Pneumatic
Pressurized (DAF)
Other (sparged hydrocyclone, ASH)

Laboratory cells

water level
magnetic stirrer
porous glass
gas

deflector

froth
product

water level
x

stirrer
porous glass

flotaton product

gas

Other laboratory flotation devices


a) cylindrical cell equipped with magnetic stirrer (Fuerstenau, 1964)
b) laboratory flotation device of Partridge and Smith, 1971

drive

air

Laboratory Mechanobr flotation


machine

Laboratory Denver flotation


machine

Industrial flotation

EIMCO Product Leaflets, 2000

Flotation machines are used individually and as a


group (bank)

Flotation machines are rectangular


and circular

Svedala Product Handbook, 1996

Constructions and impellers of flotation machines are different

FLOTATION MACHINES
MECHANICAL

Denver
Mechanobr
Fagergreen (WEMCO-EIMCO)

DENVER

Wemco-Fagergreen (V=0.085 85m3)

Kelly E.G., Spottiswood D.J., Introduction to mineral processing. J.Wiley& Sons, N.Jork 1985

Wemco-Fagergreen (WEMCO-EIMCO)
mechanical flotation machines

EIMCO Product Leaflets, 2000

FLOTATION MACHINES
PNEUMO-MECHANICAL
Denver
Agitair
Metso RCS (Metso Minerals)
Outotec (Outokumpu)
X-Cell (FLSmidth Minerals)
Humbolt-Wedag
IMN Gliwice

Fragment of mechano-pneumatic flotation machine


(continueous, multi-impeller tankless Denver D-R

Wills B.A., Mineral processing


technology. Pergamon Press 1983

Pneumo-mechanic multi-tank (15m3 each)


(Aker FM Humbold Wedag)

tailing

fe
ed

Humbold-Wedag Product Leaflets, 1998

Pneumo-mechanical flotation machines IMN

Maszyna
przepywowa
wielowirnikowa

Maszyna
jednowirnikowa

New machines: large volume and output, saving energy

Historyczny rozwj pojemnoci maszyn flotacyjnych


Flotation technologies. Outotec Leaflets 2007

(Outokumpu OK-100, V= 100m3

TankCell 300
300m3

Outokumpu Oy Leaflets 2000


Flotation technologies, Outotec Oyj. Leaflets 2007

Outotec TankCell 500 (500m3)

2012 Outotec Oyj. www.outotec.com

RCS (Reactor Cell System) from 5 to 200 m3 (Metso


Minerals/Svedala)
1-radial flow of
slurry to tank
wall
2-primary slurry
stream to
benith impeller
3-secondary
recirculation
towards upper
part of tank

Basics in mineral processing. Metso


Minerals 2003

RCS (Reactor Cell System) from 5 to 200 m3 (Metso Minerals)

Basics in mineral processing. Metso Minerals 2003

RCS (Reactor Cell System) from 260 m3 (Metso Minerals)

pneumo-machanic
XCELL (FLSmidth Minerals)

XCELL Flotation Machines. FLSmidth Mineralss brochure 2008.

PNEUMATIC
FLOTATION MACHINES
FLOTATION COLUMNS
Metso
Outotec (Outokumpu)

INJECTION FLOTATION MACHINES

Jameson Cell
Imhoflot
Pneuflot (Humbolt-Wedag)

Injection Jameson Cell

Pneumatic PNEUFLOT

Pneumatic flotation with PNEUFLOT cells HUMBOLDT WEDAG leaflet 2009

Multi-injection Imhoflot 3 (centrifugal flotation)


fee
d

compress
ed air
air
plus
suspensio
n
feed reagent
s

concentrat
e
tailing
feed
pump

tailing
pump

Pneumatic cell Imhoflot. Maelgwyn Mineral Service leaflet 4/06 Chile 2006

Injection column

Siemens
SIMINE Hybrid Flot

Metals and Mining, Siemens VAI, No. 1, 2011

SSURIZED FLOTATION MACHINES


Dissolved air flotation (DAF)

Dissolved air flotation (DAF)

Flotation, ZWR Polkowice