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Growth and

Development
NORMAL GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
• Growth
• Quantitative change
• Can be measured

• Development
• Qualitative change
• Increase capacity to function

PRINCIPLES OF
GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
I. Growth and
Development are
continuous processes

 The health and illness


continuum

Health
 Illness


II. Growth and Development are
predictable because it follows a
pattern
• Cephalocaudal
 -From head to tail (foot) 

• Proximodistal
 - From mid-line to periphery
 

• From gross to refined skills


 Gross
• Use of large muscle in action
 Refined
• Use of small muscle in action

III. Growth and
Development proceed at
different rates among
 different persons
• FACTORS:

• Genetics
• Environment
III. Growth and
Development proceed at
different rates among
 different persons
• FACTORS:
• GENETICS
• Race
• Gender
• Girls develop rapid language skills
than boys
• Intelligence
• Hereditary disease

III. Growth and
Development proceed at
different rates among
 different persons
• FACTORS:
• ENVIRONMENT
• Nutrition
• Socioeconomic status
• Family size
• Ordinal position in the family
• Parental-child relationship
• Illness and injury
• Health

IV. Growth and
Development proceed at
different body parts
V. There is an optimum
time for skill
development
VI. Primitive reflexes
needs to be lost first
before beginning of
meaningful behaviour
VII. Practice is needed
for skill development
INFANCY
TO
ADOLESCENCE
INFANCY
• 0-1 year old
• Doubles birth weight at 6 mos.
• Triples birth weight at 12 mos.
• Birth length increases by about 50%
at 12 mos.
• Dentition: 1st tooth erupts at 6-7
years old
• At age 1 year there will be 6 teeth
• At age 6-13 years, permanent tooth
erupts
INFANCY

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 0-1month
• Reflexive
• Hands are closed into fists
• Follows objects with gaze upto
midline

• 2 months
• Able to do social smiles
• Coos / cooing sounds
• Differentiated cries
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 3 months
• Laughs
• Ha! Ha! Ha!

• 4 months
• Certain reflexes fades
• (4GETS certain reflexes)
• Grasping Reflex
• Extrusion Reflex
• Tonic Neck Reflex
• Stepping Reflex

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 5 months
• Turns front to back
• FayB

• 6 months
• Vocalizes
• One syllable vocabulary
• Says Oh! Oh!
• (Sex months)

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 7 months
• Transfers objects from hand to
hand
• Starts to fear strangers
• 8 months
• Peak of stranger anxiety
• Sits steadily without support
• 9 months
• Creeps or crawls
• Says dada
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 10 months
• Pincer grasps
• Plays peak a boo
• Due to object permanence concept
• Plays patty cake
• Able to stand 

• 11 months
• Able to stand with support and
cruise
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES

• 12 months
• Stands without support
INFANCY

COMMON CONCERNS
COMMON CONCERNS
A. NUTRITION

• Introduction of solid foods


• Introduce at 6 months
• Needs increase Fe
• Milk - Cereals – Vegetables –
Fruits – Meat – Table Foods
• Cereals are good source of Fe
• Cereals are easily to digest
• Veg. and fruits are high in fibers
and minerals
• Vegetables are low in calorie

COMMON CONCERNS
• Introduce 1 new food at a time
• Easily identifies allergies
• Don’t force the child to eat
• In a meal, start with solid then
liquids
• Weaning
o Changing from nipple to cup
o
• Do it gradually
• Fixation may occur if not gradual
• Postpone weaning if baby is ill

COMMON CONCERNS
• Thumb Sucking
• Tell Parents that sucking is an
important aspect in an infant.
• Give small-holed hard nipple

• Colic
• Observed in babies less than 3
months
• Causes paroxysmal abdominal pain
COMMON CONCERNS
• Colic
• Observed in babies less than 3
months
• Causes paroxysmal abdominal pain

• Causes
• Milk (may be lactose
intolerant)
• Feeding techniques
• Anxious mother
• Mgt:
• *** Position the baby in prone
• *** Do rhythmic movements 
COMMON CONCERNS

• Baby bottle syndrome/night


bottle syndrome

• May develop dental caries
COMMON CONCERNS
B. SAFETY

• Childproof the house/home


- Institute changes at home for
child’s safety

• Adult’s Supervision


COMMON CONCERNS
C. HYGIENE

• Cradle cap/ Seborrhea


 - Oily crust scalp
• Mgt: apply oil in the scalp then
shampoo then rinse
• Prickly heat
 - Rash due to irritation from sweat
• Mgt: Fisan prickly heat powder
 Baking Soda bath

COMMON CONCERNS
• Diaper rash
• Detergent may be a cause
• Rinse the diaper thoroughly

• Fecal and ammononical rash
• Baby wipes or wash and dry the
area affected thoroughly

COMMON CONCERNS
D. SENSORY STIMULATION

• Toys
• Human Contact
• As early as 1 month, the child
shows preferences to human face
• Experience

TODDLERS

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 15 months
• Walks well alone
• Throws toys
• Creeps upstairs
• Puts pellets into bottle
• Feeds self but rotates spoon
• Scribbles

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 18 months
• Jumps in place
• Uses spoon well
• Go up and down
• Runs
• 24 months / 2 years
• Opens door using doorknobs
• Goes upstairs with 2 feet per step
• Uses 2-word sentences

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 30 months /3 ½ years
• Draws lines
• Jumps from a height
• Milk teeth is complete (20)
• Quadriple birth weight

TODDLERS

COMMON CONCERNS
COMMON CONCERNS
A. NUTRITION

• Physiologic Anorexia
• Food jags
• Limited food preferences


COMMON CONCERNS
B. SAFETY

• (Same as with infancy) 


 (NOTE)

 Highest incidence of accident


 is among toddlers 

COMMON CONCERNS
C. NEGATIVISM

• Tell child what you expect him to


do plus giving options

D. RITUALISTIC BEHAVIOR

• For security purpose of the child


• E.g. security blanket


COMMON CONCERNS
E. SPEECH
• Talk to the child clearly and simply
• Encourage the child to talk
F. SEPARATION ANXIETY 

• Stages:
• Protest
• Despair
• Denial
• Tell the child early that you are
leaving
COMMON CONCERNS
G. SLEEP PROBLEMS

• Set a regular schedule for sleeping


• Plan activities

(NORMAL SLEEPING PATTERNS)


• 1 year
• Sleeps through the night + 2 naps 
• 2 years
• Sleeps through the night + 1 nap
COMMON CONCERNS
H. DISCIPLINE

 (Guidelines in disciplining)

• Be firm and consistent
• Immediate Discipline
• No parental guilt

COMMON CONCERNS
I. TEMPER TANTRAUMS

• Cause by frustration + Limited


verbal ability
• Don’t give what the child wants

(NOTE)

 Rewarded action are repeated


PRE - SCHOOLERS

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 3 years
• Draw cross, circle
• Pedals tricycle
• Able to balance foot
• Imaginative

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 4 years
• Draws square
• Handles buttons
• Pretending is a major ability
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 5 years
• Dresses with supervision
• Ties shoelace
• Overhand throw
• Likes games with numbers

PRE-SCHOOLERS

COMMON CONCERNS
COMMON CONCERNS

A. SAFETY
• Same with Infancy and toddlers
• Continue adult supervision

B. FEARS

• Bodily injury
• Fear of the dark
• Objects

COMMON CONCERNS
C. IMAGINARY FRIENDS
• Allow but present reality
 

D. TALL TALES

E. INQUISITIVENESS

• Answer the child simply and


honestly

COMMON CONCERNS
F. SEX EDUCATION

• Answer the child honestly and


simply

G. MASTURBATION

• Allow but in private



SCHOOL AGE

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 6 years
• First molar erupts
• Cuts and Paste Well

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 7 years 
• Tells time
• Eraser year (reflectionistic)
• Concept of conservation is
developed
• Mass
• Volume
• Weight
DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 8 years
• Best friends
• Writes cursive and prints
• Concept of past, present and future

• 9 years
• Gang

DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES

• 10 years
• Age for collection
• Likes rules
• Can camp away from home (TENt)


DEVELOPMENTAL
MILESTONES
• 11 years
• Shy and awkward with opposite sex

• 12 years
• Good sense of humor

SCHOOL AGE

COMMON CONCERNS
COMMON CONCERNS

A. SAFETY

• Without adult supervision 


B. SCHOOL PHOBIA

• Fear: Develops physical symptoms


• Rule out physical basis
• Bring child back to school ASAP

COMMON CONCERNS

C. LATCH KEY CHILD


D. CHILDHOOD STEALING


ADOLESCENCE

COMMON CONCERNS
COMMON CONCERNS

A. NUTRITION

B. SAFETY

• Suicidal Risk
COMMON CONCERNS

C. ACNE

• Increase androgen – Inc. sebum –


Oily Skin – Comedomes (white
heads) + dirt – blackheads +
bacteria – ACNE

D. SEXUAL EXPERIMENTATION

• F.D.B., BSN,RN

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