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UNIT-3

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL
SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION
A distributed control system (DCS) refers
to a control system usually of a
manufacturing or processor any kind of
dynamic system, in which the controller
elements are not central in location (like the
brain) but are distributed throughout the
system with each component sub-system
under the control of one or more controllers.
The entire system may be networked for
communication and monitoring.

APPLICATION
Distributed control systems (DCSs) are used in
industrial, electrical, computer and civil engineering
applications to monitor and control distributed
equipment with or without remote human
intervention; the nomenclature for the former
'manual control' and the latter 'automated control'.

EVOLUTION

1934- Direct-connected pneumatic controls dominate market.


1938- Transmitter-type pneumatic control systems emerge, making
centralized control rooms possible.
1958- First computer monitoring in electric utility.
1959- First supervisory computer in refinery.
1960- First solid-state electronic controllers on market.
1963- First direct digital control (DDC) system installed.
1970- First programmable logic controllers (PLCs) on market.
1970- Sales of electronic controllers surpass pneumatic.
1975- First distributed control system on market.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
1. Hybrid system architecture
2. Central computer system architecture
3. Distributed control system architecture

Hybrid system architecture

Hybrid system architecture.


It making use of a combination of discrete control
hardware and computer hardware in a central
location to implement the required control
functions.
In this approach, first level or local control of the
plant unit operations is implemented by using
discrete analog and sequential logic controllers
(or PLCs).
Panel board instrumentation connected to these
controllers is used for operator interfacing and is
located in the central control room area.

Hybrid system architecture.


A supervisory computer and associated data
acquisition system are used to implement the
plant management functions, including operating
point optimization, alarming, data logging, and
historical data storage and retrieval.
The computer also is used to drive its own
operator interface, usually consisting of one or
more video display units (VDUs).
A substantial amount of interfacing hardware is
required to tie the analog and sequential control
equipment to each other as well as to the
supervisory computer.

Central computer system architecture

Central computer system architecture.


System functions are implemented in highperformance computer hardware in a central
location.
Redundant computers are required so that the
failure of a single computer does not shut the
whole process down.
Operator interfacing for plant management
functions is provided using computer-driven
VDUs, like hybrid control system architecture.

Central computer system architecture.


Operator interfacing for first-level continuous and
sequential closed-loop control also may be
implemented using VDUs.
Optionally, the computers can be interfaced to
standard panel board instrumentation.

Distributed control system


architecture

Distributed control system architecture


1.Local Control Unit (LCU):
The smallest collection of hardware in the system
that can do closed-loop control. The LCU interfaces
directly to the process.
2. Low Level Human Interface (LLHI):
A device that allows the operator or instrument
engineer to interact with the LCU using a direct
connection.
LLHIs can also interface directly to the process
Operator oriented hardware called Low Level Operator
Interface; instrument engineer- oriented hardware
called Low Level Engineering Interface

Distributed control system architecture


3. Data Input/ Output Unit (DI/OU):
A device that interfaces to the process solely for the
purpose of acquiring or outputting data, It performs no
control functions.
4. High Level Human Interface (HLHI):
A collection of hardware that performs functions
similar to LLHI but with increased capability and user
friendliness. It interfaces to other devices only over the
shared communication facilities.
5. High-Level Computing Device (HLCD):
A collection of microprocessor-based hardware that
performs plant management functions traditionally
performed by a plant computer.

Distributed control system architecture


6. Computer Interface Device (CID):
A collection of hardware that allows an external
general purpose computer to interact with other devices
in the DCS using shared communication facilities.
7. Shared communication facilities:
One or more levels of communication hardware and
associated software that allow the sharing of data among
all devices in the distributed system. It do not include
dedicated communication channels between specific
devices or between hardware elements within a device.

COMPARISON OF ARCHITECTURE
Feature

Hybrid
Architecture

Central computer
Architecture

Distributed
Architecture

Sclability and
Expandability

Good due to
modularity

Poor-very limited
range of system
size

Good due to
modularity

Control
capability

Limited by analog Full digital control


and sequential
capability
control hardware

Full digital control


capability

Operator
Interfacing
capability

Limited by panel
board
instrumentation

Digital hardware
provides significant
improvements for
large systems

Digital hardware
provides significant
improvements for
full range of
systems sizes

Integration of
system
functions

Poor due to
variety of
products

All functions
performed by
central computer

Functions
integrated in a
family of products

COMPARISON OF ARCHITECTURE
Feature

Hybrid
Architecture

Central computer
Architecture

Distributed
Architecture

Significance
Low due to
of single-point modularity
failure

High

Low due to
modularity

Installation
costs

Medium-save
control room and
equipment room
space but uses
discrete wiring

Low-savings in
both wiring costs
and equipment
space

High due to
discrete wiring
and large volume
of equipment

Maintainability Poor-many
Medium-requires
module types, few highly trained
diagnostics
computer
maintenance
personnel

Excellent-automatic
diagnostics and
module
replacement

LOCAL CONTROL UNIT

LOCAL CONTROL UNIT.


Definition: The smallest collection of hardware in the system
that can do closed-loop control. The LCU interfaces directly
to the process.
Basic Elements:
The microprocessor along with the associated clock
comprise the CPU of the controller.
ROM is used for permanent storage of controller
programs.
RAM is used for temporary storage of information.
Input/ output circuitry can communicate with the
external world by reading in, or receiving, analog and digital
data as well as sending similar signals out.
CPU communicates with other elements in the LCU
over an internal shared bus.

LOCAL CONTROL UNIT.


The controller structure must be enhanced to
include the following:
1. Flexibility of changing the control
configuration.
2. Ability to use the controller without being a
computer expert.
3. Ability to bypass the controller in case it fails
so that the process still an be controlled
manually.
4. Ability of the LCU to communicate with
other LCUs and other elements in the system.

LCU Architecture..
ARCHITECTURAL PARAMETERS:
1. Size of Controller:
It refers to the no. of function blocks and/or language
statements that can be executed by the controller, as
well as the no. of process I/O channels provided by the
controller.
2. Functionality of Controller:
It refers to the mix of function blocks or language
statements provided by the controller. Also the mix of
process input and output types provided by the
controller.

LCU Architecture..
3. Performance of Controller:
It refers to the rate at which the controller
scans inputs, processes function blocks or
language statements, and generates outputs: it
also includes the accuracy with which the
controller performs these operations.
4. Communication Channels:
It provide other communication channels to
operator interface devices in the system . The
number, type and speed of these channels are
key controller design parameters.

LCU Architecture..
5. Controller output security:
Provided to ensure that the control
output is maintained despite a controller
failure so that a process shutdown can be
avoided.

LCU Architecture
1. LCU Architecture- Configuration A
2. LCU Architecture- Configuration B
3. LCU Architecture- Configuration C

LCU Architecture
1. LCU Architecture- Configuration A

LCU Architecture
2. LCU Architecture- Configuration B

LCU Architecture
3. LCU Architecture- Configuration C

COMPARISON
Architecture
Parameters

Configuration A

Configuration B Configuration C

Controller size

No. of functions
needed for single
PID loop or motor
controller.

Includes functions
& I/O needed for 8
control loops & a
small logic
controller.

System size is
equivalent to small
DDC system.

Controller
functionality

Uses both
continuous and
logic function
blocks.

Continuous and
logic function
blocks split
between
controllers.

Uses both
continuous and
logic function
blocks; can support
high-level
languages.

Controller
Scalability

High degree of
scalability from
small to large
systems

Requires both
controller types
even in small
systems.

Not scalable to very


small systems

COMPARISON
Architecture
Parameters

Configuration A

Configuration B Configuration C

Controller
Performance

Requirement can
be met with
inexpensive
hardware.

Because of
functional split,
performance
requirements are
not excessive

Hardware must be
high performance
to execute large no.
of functions.

Communication Need inter module


channels
communications for
control; only
minimum needed
for human
interface.

Functional
separation
requires close
interface between
controller types.

Large
communication
requirement to
human interface;
minimal between
controllers.

Controller
Output security

Lack of single-loop
integrity requires
redundancy in
critical
applications.

Size of controller
requires
redundancy in all
applications.

Controller has
single-loop integrity
usually only
manual backup is
needed.

Control Complexity Ratio:


It is defined as the ratio of number
of function blocks in control system to
the number of control system outputs.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


It expands on the basic LCU elements through the
addition of interfaces to external communication facilities
and to a HLHI device.
Functions:
It allows
1. several LCUs to implement control strategies.
2. transmission of process data to the higher-level
system elements.
3. higher-level elements to transmit information requests
and control commands to the LCUs.
4. two or more LCUs to act together as redundant
controllers to perform the same control or computational
functions.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


SECURITY DESIGN ISSUES FOR THE LCU:
-> Security Requirements:
1. Maximize the availability of the automatic control
functions of the system.
2. If failure occurs, make sure that there is a
mechanism that allows the operation to take over
manual control of that portion of the process.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


SECURITY DESIGN ISSUES FOR THE LCU:
-> Overview of Security Design Requirements:
1. Provide manual backup only:
Each LCU is designed to implement only one
or two control loops.
The control output is fed back to the manual
backup station and to the computation section of
the controller so that the inactive element can
synchronize its output with the active element.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


2. Provide a standby redundant controller:
The LCU is backed up by another LCU
that takes over if the primary controller
fails.
Full automatic control is maintained
even under failure conditions.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


3. Provide multiple active controllers:
Several LCUs are active at the same
time in reading process inputs, calculating
control algorithms, and producing control
outputs to the process.
Since only one output can be used at a
time, voting circuitry selects the valid
output

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


-> On-Line Diagnostics:
1. LCU should be able to alarm or report the
failure to both the LLHI and HLHI and computing
elements.
2. Should be able to switch a contact output
to provide an external hardware indication of
failure.
3. The internal application logic of the LCU
should be able to rive a failure indicator.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


->Secure control output Design:
Some of the techniques the designer should follow to
improve the security of the control output circuitry include
the following:
1. No. of analog outputs per DAC to a minimum.
2. Design both analog and digital output circuitry so
that the control outputs go to a safe state when the LCU
fails.
3. Power the o/p circuitry from a supply i.e independent
of the supply used to power the rest of the LCU.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


4. Design the o/p circuitry so that the actual value of
the o/p can be read back by the rest of the LCU.
5. For maximum reliability of each o/p channel,
minimize the no. of components and electrical
connections between the control o/p driver hardware and
the field termination point for the control actuator.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Multiplexed Control Output Configuration:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Single D/A converter is used to produce several
control o/ps by including an analog multiplexer.
To generate each o/p P writes the proper value
to o/p register, and DAC generates
corresponding analog voltage.
Processor instructs the MUX to switch o/p of
DAC to proper hold circuit, which stores the o/p
value and causes the current driver to generate
the appropriate o/p current, usually in 4-20 mA.
This process occurs on the cyclic basis at least
several times per second.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Secure Control Output Configuration:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


DAC is dedicated to generating a single
control output.
Provision is made to allow the processor
to read back the value of the control o/p,
done by means of current-to-voltage
converter and ADC.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Pulsed Control Output Configuration:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


LCU processor is involved in o/p generation
process by generating raise and lower command
to an up/down counter in the o/p channel.
This counter responds the commands by
incrementing or decrementing a digital value in
memory.
This value is fed to the DAC, which generates a
control o/p through the current driver.
The processor keeps track of the o/p through the
current-to-voltage converter and ADC.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Basic Digital Output Configuration:
This configuration suffers from many of the same
defects as the corresponding analog version of
Multiplexed control output configuration.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


SECURE DIGITAL OUTPUT CONFIGURATION:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


The added security features correct these
defects.
An o/p read back capability also can be added to
this configuration if desired.
The failsafe o/p selection section is much
simpler in the digital o/p case than in the analog
one.
In digital, there are only two states(0 or 1), and
selecting and generating the safe state is a
relatively straightforward process.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


-> Manual Backup Designs:
Principles:
1. Should be a minimal amount of h/w between LLOI
station and control actuator.
2. The operator should be able to remove and replace the
LCU electronics that implement the automatic control
function without shutting down the process.
3. Through LLOI, to observe the values of both manual
o/p signal and process variables being controlled.
4. Manual o/p command should be available to the
automatic controller.
5. Some mechanism for manual backup from the control
room must be provided

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Manual Backup-Configuration 1:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Manual Backup-Configuration 1:
Both the LCU processor and LLOI station
communicate with the i/o cards.
One operator station can back up several output
cards.
Station communications port allows transmission
of process variable and control o/p information
between the station and the LCUs.
If both the processor and the station fails, the
failsafe o/p select circuitry takes over to
generate a pre selected safe o/p signal.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Manual Backup-Configuration 2:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Manual Backup-Configuration 2:
It is similar to Configuration 1 in all respects
expect for the way in which the manual backup
commands are transmitted to the control o/p
section.
It uses an up/down counter to generate the
control o/p signal.
LLOI cannot be shared among o/ps, it must be
dedicated to a single o/p channel.
It increases the cost of backup, but also
increases the level pf security.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Manual Backup-Configuration 3:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Manual Backup-Configuration 3:
LLOI is completely independent of the
LCU and interfaces with it only over the
station communication ports.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Manual Backup for Digital output:
An o/p FF or latching circuit is included that will accept
a manual o/p override signal from the LLOI.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Remote Manual Backup Unit:
It is designed to interface with the control o/p circuitry
of the LCU using any of the techniques illustrated before.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


-> Redundant Controller Designs:
Control system security require some
form of controller redundancy to ensure
that automatic control of the process is
maintained in spite of an LCU failure.
Addition of redundant elements will
increase the system cost as well as in
additional maintenance to service the
extra hardware.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Guidelines for designing:
1. Redundant architecture should be kept as
simple as possible.
2. The architecture must minimize potential single
points of failure.
3. Should be transparent to the user
4. Process should not be bumped or disturbed by
the failed or repaired elements.
5. Until repair or replacement, the system should
not provide an information to other elements.
6. Must have the capability of hot spare
replacement.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Redundant LCU Architecture:
1. CPU redundancy
2. One-on-One redundancy
3. One-on-Many redundancy
4. Multiple Active redundancy

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


1. CPU redundancy:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Only the CPU portion of the LCU is redundant:
while the I/O circuitry is not redundant.
CPU is redundant because its failure affects all
of the control outputs.
Arbitrator monitors the operation of the primary
CPU.
If it detects any failure in the primary, arbitrator
transfers priority to the backup.
Only the primary is active in transmitting and
receiving messages over this link.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Advantages:
*Easy to understand
* Cost-effective
Disadvantages:
* Problems occur if not designed properly
* If LCU is located at some distance from the
central control room, no means of manual
backup exists.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


2. One-on-One redundancy:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


It provides a total backup LCU to the primary
LCU.
O/P switching block must be included to transfer
the outputs when the controller fails.
Arbitrator has the additional responsibility of
sending a command to the o/p switching circuitry
if the primary LCU fails, causing the backup LCU
to generate the control outputs.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Advantages:
* No manual backup is needed, since all of the
LCU hardware is duplicated.
* It eliminates any question that may arise with
a partial redundancy approach.
Disadvantages:
* It is an expensive approach to redundancy.
* It has potential single-point failure problems
with the arbitrator and the output switching
circuitry.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


3. One-on-Many redundancy

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Single LCU is used as a hot standby to backup
any one of several primary LCUs.
Arbitrator is required to monitor the status of the
primaries and switch in the backup when a
failure occurs.
There is no way of knowing ahead of time which
primary controller the backup would have to
replace.
As a result very general switching matrix is
necessary to transfer the I/O from the failed
controller to the backup.
It is loaded into the backup LCU from the primary
LCU only after the primary has failed.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Advantages:
* Low cost
* This approach violates the second and fifth
design guidelines.
Disadvantages:
* Complex design
* The approach relies on the failed controller to
provide a copy of the control system
configuration to the backup LCU.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


4. Multiple Active redundancy:

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


One or more redundant LCUs are used to
perform control functions.
All of the redundant controllers active at the
same time.
A mechanism is provides to allow the controllers
to synchronize their operations in time and to
periodically read and check others internal
states.
In analog control o/ps- voting device is designed
to select the media signal and in digital control
o/ps- voting device is designed to select the
signal generated by at least two out of the three
controllers.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


Advantages:
* As long as the output voting device is
designed for high reliability, it significantly
increases the reliability of the control system.
Disadvantages:
* High cost
* Implemented for fixed configuration
* Added hardware requires increased
maintenance and that the system is very
complex.

PROCESS INTERFACING ISSUES


PROCESS INPUT/OUTPUT DESIGN ISSUES:
The monitoring and control of a large industrial process
requires that many inputs of various types be brought
into the control system.
The control system then computes the proper actions to
be taken and transmits the control outputs to the process
and the indications to the operator.
The following are some of the requirements:
-> Input/Output requirements
-> Input/Output Design Approaches

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES
INTRODUCTION:
In conventional non-distributed control system,
the connections that allow communications
between the various system elements are
configured on point-to-point wiring.
Replacing dedicated point-to-point wiring and
cabling with the communication facility provides
a considerable no. of benefits to the user:
1. It reduces the cost
2. Flexibility of making changes increases.
3. Less time to implement large systems
4. More reliable

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES.
POINT-TO-POINT WIRING:

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES.
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:
1. Transmission of control variables between LCUs in the
system.
2. Transmission of process variables, control variables,
and alarm status information from the LCUs to the
HLHI and to the LLHI.
3. Downloading of control system configuration, tuning
parameters, and user programs from HLHI to LCUs.
4. Transmission of information from DI/OU to high-level
computing devices.
5. Transfers large blocks of data and programs.
6. Synchronization.

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES.
KEY PARAMETERS:
Maximum size of the system
Maximum delay time through the system
Sensitivity to traffic loading
System scalability
System Fault tolerance
Interfacing requirements
Ease of application and maintenance
Environmental specifications
Rate of undetected errors occurring in the
system

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES.
ARCHITECTURAL ISSUES:
-> Channel structure
-> Levels of sub networks
-> Network Topologies

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES.
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM PARTITIONING:

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES.
Several HLOI and computing elements
located in the central control room area
must communicate with each other at
moderate levels of message traffic.
Able to communicate with data acquisition
and control elements located near the
process unit to be controlled.

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES.
The requirements of communication system
partitioning has three levels:
1. A local bus or sub network in each cabinet
allows the individual controllers to inter
communicate without interfering with message
traffic in other cabinets.
2. A local sub network in the central control
room area allows the high-level devices to
intercommunicate.
3. A plant wide communication system
interconnects the control room elements with the
distributed elements in the process areas.

COMMUNICATION FACILITIES.
OTHER ISSUES:
- Selecting a Communication Medium
- Message security
- Efficiency of Bandwidth usage