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Optimization model for

integrated municipal
solid waste management in
Mumbai, India

GROUP 9

AMIYA MOHAN DASH


ARPIT GUPTA
11B
FIRDAUS KHAN
21B
NILKANCHA BADHIYE
SANISH NAIR
41B

5B

32B

BACKGROUND
Mumbai, the largest metropolitan city in India, presents one of the most critical Solid Waste
Management (SWM) systems.

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

11.9

7000

An increase
of 20%

6256

6000
5000

9.9

4439

4000
1991
2001

1991
2001

3000
2000
1000
0

Population

MSW

0.54

0.53

0.52
0.5
0.48
0.46

0.45

0.44
0.42
0.4
Per Capita Waste Generation

1991
2001

An increase of
41%

Community Compost
Plant

Mechanical Aerobic
Compost Plant

HH

HH

Rag pickers
of NGOs

Compost
Plant

Biodegradable

Landfill

Compost

Recyclable

Sell

Inert
Materials

Compost

Landfill

Decision Variables
Generation node i
Mechanical aerobic composting a
Community compost plant v
Sanitary landfills o
Decision variables waste transported from to
Wia
generation node i
Aerobic compost plant a
Wiv
generation node i
Compost plant v
Wio
generation node i
Sanitary landfill o
Wao
Aerobic compost plant a
Sanitary landfill o
Wvo
Compost plant v
Sanitary landfill o

Optimization function
The objective function includes minimization of net cost of integrated solid
waste management (ISWM) system
Minimi ze(CT BT)
where,
CT is total cost associated with ISWM stream, and CT includes cost associated with :
1. Aerobic Composting
2. Community Composting
3. Sanitary Landfill

CAa
CVv
CODo

BT is total benefit associated with ISWM stream, where BT consists of benefits derived
from,
1. Aerobic Composting
BAa
2. Community Composting
BVv

Transportation
Cost to Compost
Cost of
Waste
Processing
at Aerobic
Composting
Plant a

Operating Cost
at Compost
Land Cost at
Compost
Environmental
Cost at Compost

coll =
t
=
Dia =
oca =
lca =
envca
ocod
lcod=
envcod

Operating Cost
at Landfill
Land Cost at
Landfill
Environmental
Cost at Landfill

cost of collection of waste


Transportation cost of waste per ton per km
Distance between generation node i and aerobic compost a
Operating cost per ton of waste for aerobic composting plant
Land cost associated with aerobic composting
=
Environmental cost per ton of waste for aerobic composting
=
Operating cost per ton of waste for sanitary landill
Land cost associated with sanitary landfill
=
Environmental cost per ton of waste for sanitary landfill

Transportation
Cost to landfill
Cost
associated
with
Landfill

Operating Cost
at Landfill
Land Cost at
Landfill
Environmental
Cost at landfill

coll =
t
=
Dio =
ocod
lcod=
envcod

cost of collection of waste


Transportation cost of waste per ton per km
Distance between generation node i landfill o
=
Operating cost per ton of waste for sanitary landill
Land cost associated with sanitary landfill
=
Environmental cost per ton of waste for sanitary landfill

Cost
associated
with
Community
Composting
Plant

coll =
ocv =
lcv =
envcv
ocod
lcod=
envcod
t
=
Dvo =

Operating Cost
of
Biodegradable
Waste

Operating Cost
at Landfill
Land Cost at
Landfill

Land Cost
Environmental
Cost of the
Biodegradable
Waste

Environmental
Cost at landfill
Transportation
Cost to landfill

cost of collection of waste


Operating cost per ton of waste for community composting plant
Land cost associated with community composting
=
Environmental cost per ton of waste for community composting
=
Operating cost per ton of waste for sanitary landill
Land cost associated with sanitary landfill
=
Environmental cost per ton of waste for sanitary landfill
Transportation cost of waste per ton per km
Distance between generation node i and landfill o

Benefits are derived from recyclable material and compost produced from community
compost plants and aerobic compost plants

BAa =
BVv =
BCODo
BT =
frr =
pca =
pcv =
fca =
fcv =
prr =

total benefits of waste processing at aerobic composting plant a


total benefits of waste processing at community compost plant v
=
total benefits of waste management under sanitary landfill
total benefits of waste management
fraction of recyclable material r in total waste
price of aerobic compost
price of community compost
compaction factor for aerobic compost plant
compaction factor for community compost plant
price of recyclable material r

CONSTRAINTS
Mass balance constraints
All solid waste generated at a source i, should be transported either to a community compost
plant v or to an aerobic compost plant a, or to a sanitary landfill o.

Wiv + Wia + Wio = Gi


v

Capacity limitation constraints


Planned capacity at each facility should be less than or equal to the maximum allowable capacity
of the facility.

Wia <= Capmax,a


Wiv <= Capmax,v
i

Capmax,a = Maximum capacity of aerobic plant a


Capmax,v = Maximum capacity of community compost plant v
Material limitation constraints
It implies that all inert material reaching community compost plants and aerobic compost plants
has to be transported to sanitary landfill.

Wvo >= fin * Wiv


Wao >= fin * Wia
fin

=fraction of inert material in total waste

Application of Optimization Model


Assumptions:
1. Every generation node has a community compost plant.
2. Three disposal sites have been considered in the model.
3. Aerobic composting plants are situated near every disposal site so that cost
of transportation of inert material is negligible.
No. of generation nodes : 24
No. of Aerobic Composting Plant : 3
Generation node (i)
= 24 (municipal wards)
Aerobic composting plant (a) = 3 (one near every dump site)
Compost plant (v)
= 24 (one in every ward)
Sanitary landfills (o)
=3
Number of decision variables
= (ia + iv + io + ao + vo)
=(243 + 2424 +243 +33 +243)
= 801
Number of constraints
= I+v+a+2 = 53

Estimated Cost and Benefits Figures

Further assumptions:
The optimization model is solved using BDMLP solver in GAMS.
The following assumptions are made to obtain the optimal solution:
1. Households segregate waste into organic and recyclable material and there would
be no additional cost associated with it.
2. Volume reduction factor for composting assumed to be 0.25.
3. Rag pickers in Mumbai for the year 200001 is estimated to be 26,444 to 59,500.
Each rag picker picks up 12kg of waste everyday.

Optimal Solution
The optimal strategy in this case is, all waste is
processed at community
compost plants and only inert material is
transported to dump site. Hence,
community compost plant becomes the
dominant option. Here community
employees collect segregated waste from
households. Recyclable material
is sold to wholesalers and organic material is
composted and then sold in
the market. All inert material goes to the
municipal bins, which is later
transported by the MCGM to disposal sites.

Sensitivity analysis
Scenario I: Introducing cost for segregation of waste with community participation.

Collection cost of Rs. 700 ($16) per ton is imposed for the community compost plant.

Scenario II: This scenario assumes that


there is no revenue obtained from compost

Scenario III: Environmental costs associated with all the waste management
options are neglected.
1. Cost of segregation of waste with
community participation is Rs. 700
($16) per ton.
2. No revenue is incurred from
compost.
3. Environmental costs associated
with all the options for waste
management are neglected.