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Chemical Bonds

Chapter 22
Forming Chemical Bonds

o The force that holds two atoms


together is called a chemical
bond.
o Chemical bonds may form by the
attraction between a positive
nucleus and negative electrons
or the attraction between a
positive ion and a negative ion
Review…
o Valence electrons are the electrons in the
outermost energy level. These same
electrons are involved in the formation of
chemical bonds between two atoms
Formation of Positive Ions
o A positive ion forms when an atom
loses one or more valence
electrons in order to attain a noble
gas configuration
Positively
o charged ion
is called a
o cation
Transition Metals
o When forming positive ions, transition
metals commonly lose their
valence electrons, forming 2+ ions.
n However, it is also possible for d
electrons to be lost
o A useful rule of thumb for these
metals is that they form ions with a
2+ or 3+ charge.
Formation of Negative Ions
o Nonmetals have a great attraction for
electrons and form stable outer
electron configuration by gaining
electrons

Negatively
charged ion
is called an
anion
Checkpoint
Ø Why do ions form?
Ø Describe the formation of positive and
negative ions.
Ø Predict the change that must occur to
achieve noble gas stability
• Nitrogen
• Sulfur
• Barium
• Lithium
Ø
Answers
Ø Atoms gain stability by losing or gaining
electrons
Ø Positive ions form when atoms lose valence
electrons
n Negative ions form when valence electrons
are added to an atom
Ø Nitrogen- gain 3 electrons (N3- )
Ø Sulfur- gain 2 electrons (S2- )
Ø Barium- lose 2 electrons (Ba2+ )
Ø Lithium- lose 1 electron (Li1+ )
Ø
The Formation and Nature of Ionic
Bonds
o The electrostatic force
that holds oppositely
charged particles
together in an ionic
compound is referred
to as an ionic bond
o Ionic bonds form between
cations (+) and anions
(-)
o Binary compounds contain
two different elements
n Metallic cation
n Nonmetallic anionElectrons gained = electrons lost

OVERALL CHARGE OF THE COMPOUND FORMED MUST BE ZERO!!!


The Formation and Nature of
Covalent Bonds
o Atoms of nonmetals are unlikely to gain or lose
e- therefore they share e- to attain noble
gas stability.
o Single covalent bonds – share 1 pair of e-
o Double covalent bonds – share 2 pairs of e-
o Triple covalent bonds – share 3 pairs of e-
o Covalent bonds are formed between
nonmetal elements only!
Comparing Ionic & Covalent
Bonds
Covalent Compounds
Ionic Compounds
Gases, liquids, or solids (made of
Crystalline solids
molecules)
(made of ions)
Low melting and boiling points
High melting and
Poor electrical conductors in all
boiling points
phases
Conduct electricity
Many soluble in nonpolar liquids
when melted
but not in water
Many soluble in
water but not in
nonpolar liquid
CW
o Pg 702 #s 1-6
o Pg 711 Modeling Chemical Bonding