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Behavior, Modeling and Design

of Shear Wall-Frame Systems

Naveed Anwar
Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software, ACECOMS, AIT

The Basic Issues


Modeling and analysis issues

Transfer of loads to shear walls


Modeling of shear walls in 2D
Modeling of shear Walls in 3D
Interaction of shear-walls with frames

Design and detaining issues

Determination of rebars for flexure


Determination of rebars for shear
Detailing of rebars near openings and corners
Design and detailing of connection between various commonest of
cellular shear walls

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Shear Wall Common Misconceptions


Due to misleading name Shear Wall
The dominant mode of failure is shear
Strength is controlled by shear
Designed is governed primarily by shear
Force distribution can be based on relative stiffness
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Shear Wall or Column

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear Wall or Frame


Shear Wall

Shear Wall or Frame ?

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Frame

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Shear Wall and Frame Behavior

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear Wall and Truss Behavior

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear Wall and Frame

Shear Wall Behavior

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Frame Behavior

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Shear Wall and Frame Interaction


Interaction
forces

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Frame and Frame-Shear Wall

A-1

A-2

A-3

B-4

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

B-1

B-2

B-3

B-4

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Shear Wall and Frame Interaction


Frames Deform
Predominantly in a shear mode
Source of lateral resistance is the rigidity of beam-column/slab joints

Shear Wall Deform


Essentially in bending mode

Shear deformations are rarely significant


Only very low shear walls with H/W ratio <1 fail in shear
Behave mostly like a slender cantilever
Designed to resist the combined effect of axial, bending and
shear

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The Basic Behavior of


Shear Walls, Frames and Shear Wall-Frames

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Case Studies: Shear WallFrame Interaction


For each 10, 20 and 30 story buildings

Only Shear Wall


( Total 3 Cases )

Only Frame
( Total 3 Cases )

Only Shear + Frame


( Total 3 Cases )

Total 3x3 = 9 Cases


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Case 1: Shear WallFrame Interaction


10 Story Wall

cm

Wall Thickness = 15 cm

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Case 2: Shear WallFrame Interaction


10 Story Frame

cm

Beam Section = 60 cm x 30 cm
Column Section = 50 cm x 50 cm

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Case 3: Shear WallFrame Interaction


10 Story Wall and Frame

cm

Wall Thickness = 15 cm
Beam Section = 60 cm x 30 cm
Column Section = 50 cm x 50 cm

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Case 4: Shear WallFrame Interaction


20 Story Wall

cm

Wall Thickness = 20 cm

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Case 5: Shear WallFrame Interaction


20 Story Frame

cm

Beam Section = 60 cm x 30 cm
Column Section = 75 cm x 75 cm

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Case 6: Shear WallFrame Interaction


20 Story Wall and Frame

cm

Wall Thickness = 20 cm
Beam Section = 60 cm x 30 cm
Column Section = 75 cm x 75 cm

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Case 7: Shear WallFrame Interaction


30 Story Wall

cm

Wall Thickness = 30 cm

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Case 8: Shear WallFrame Interaction


30 Story Frame

cm

Beam Section = 60 cm x 30 cm
Column Section = 100 cm x 100 cm

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Case 9: Shear WallFrame Interaction


30 Story Wall and Frame

cm

Wall Thickness = 30 cm
Beam Section = 60 cm x 30 cm
Column Section = 100 cm x 100 cm

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Shear WallFrame Interaction

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear WallFrame Interaction

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear WallFrame Interaction

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear WallFrame Interaction

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear WallFrame Interaction


Force / Stiffness

Stiffness Force /

For the cases considered here (30 story example):


Stiffness Frame 200 / 40.79 = 04.90

Force=200
Deflection = 40.79

Stiffness Wall200 / 355.04 = 00.56


Stiffness Frame + Wall 200 / 12.66 = 15.79
Stiffness Frame +Stiffness Wall 4.90 + 0.56 = 5.46

Stiffness Frame +Stiffness Wall Stiffness Frame + Wall


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Change in Shear Wall Moments

Shear Wall Moments


for the Coupled System

Interaction
forces

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Coupling Element Moments

Interaction
forces

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Shear Wall-Frame Load Distribution Curves

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Deflected Shape of Shear Wall-Frame Interactive System

Khan-Sbarounis
Curves

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Comparison of Shears and Moments in the Core wall


4 Different Layouts for Same Function Requirements
1 total length of building = 110 ft
2

10 ft

5 @ 20 = 100 ft

1
2

1 total length of building = 110 ft


2

in. thick
flat plate

10 ft

5 @ 20 = 100 ft

Column
line

30 @ 20 = 60 ft

in. thick
flat plate

corewall
corewall
12 in

10 in
6 ft

26 ft

6 ft

20 ft

12 in

1
2

26 ft

30 @ 20 = 60 ft

corewall
corewall

6
CL

Column
line

6
CL

Type A

Type B

1 total length of building = 110 ft


2

1
2

20 ft

corewall
corewall

in. thick
flat plate

6 ft

26 ft

6 ft

12 in
10 in

20 ft

20 ft

Column
line

1
2

corewall
corewall

12 in
10 in

10 ft

5 @ 20 = 100 ft

in. thick
flat plate

26 ft

20 ft

1 total length of building = 110 ft


2

10 ft

5 @ 20 = 100 ft

Column
line

18-story high
shear walls

CL

Type C
Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

18-story high
shear walls

6
CL

Type D
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Comparison of : Type A
CL

1 total length of building = 110 ft


2

36

10 ft

5 @ 20 = 100 ft

1
2

35

in. thick
flat plate

34
33
32

30 @ 20 = 60 ft

corewall
corewall

31
30

12 in
Transverse
section

26 ft

6 ft

29
28
8

7.5 thick
floor slabs

7
6

8' clear height


between floors

5
4

10 ft

Column
line

Corewall

3
2

CL

22 ft

Typical Floor Plan- Structure Type A

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

20 ft

30 ft

30 ft

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Comparison of : Type B
CL

1 total length of building = 110 ft


2

36
35

10 ft

5 @ 20 = 100 ft

1
7
2

34

in. thick
flat plate

33
32
31

29

corewall
corewall

Transverse
section

28
8

7.5 thick
floor slabs

12 in

10 in

8' clear height


between floors

26 ft

6 ft

5
4

10 ft

Corewall

30 @ 20 = 60 ft

20 ft

30

2
1

22 ft

20 ft

30 ft

Column
Column
line
line

1
1

30 ft

6
CL

Typical Floor Plan- Structure Type B

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Comparison of : Type C
CL

1 total length of building = 110 ft


2

36

10 ft

5 @ 20 = 100 ft

1
2

35

in. thick
flat plate

34

20 ft

30 @ 20 = 60 ft 20 ft

33
32

corewall
corewall

31
30

12 in

29
Transverse
section

10 in

26 ft

6 ft

10 in

28
8

7.5 thick
floor slabs

20 ft

8' clear height


between floors

5
4

10 ft

Column
Column
line
line

1
1

18-story high
shear walls

Corewall

CL

22 ft

Typical Floor Plan- Structure Type C

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

20 ft

30 ft

30 ft

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Comparison of : Type D
CL

1 total length of building = 110 ft


2

36

10 ft

5 @ 20 = 100 ft

1
2

35

in. thick
flat plate

34

20 ft

33
32

corewall
corewall

31
30

12 in
Transverse
section

10 in

26 ft

6 ft

29
28
8

7.5 thick
floor slabs

20 ft

8' clear height


between floors

5
4

10 ft

Column
line

18-story high
shear walls

Corewall

CL

22 ft

Typical Floor Plan- Structure Type D

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

20 ft

30 ft

30 ft

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Comparison of Shears and Moments in the Core wall

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Wall-Frame Interaction: Key Conclusions

The shear wall deform predominantly in bending mode

The common assumptions to neglect the frames in lateral load


resistance can lead to grossly erroneous results

Consideration of shear wall-frame interaction leads to a more economic


design

The shear walls should be designed to resist the combined effect of


axial, bending and shear

Layout of the shear walls in plan in very important, both for vertical as
well as gravity load

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Basic Types of Shear Walls

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Basic Types of Shear Walls

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Basic Modeling Options


for Shear Walls

Modeling of Walls using 1D Elements


Beam elements
with rigid ends

Simple beam
elements

Beam elements in
Truss Model

H2

H1

t
L
Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

txh
L
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Frame Model for Planer Walls

t
B

Specially Suitable when H/B is


more than 5
The shear wall is represented by
a column of section B x t
The beam up to the edge of the
wall is modeled as normal beam
The column is connected to
beam by rigid zones or very large
cross-section

Rigid Zones

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Frame Models for Cellular Walls


t
H
B

2t
H

t
B

Difficult to extend the concept to


Non-planer walls
Core Wall must be converted to
equivalent column and
appropriate rigid elements
Can be used in 2D analysis but more
complicated for 3D analysis
After the core wall is converted to
planer wall, the simplified procedure
cab used for modeling

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Modeling Walls using 2D Elements


Walls are subjected to in-plane deformations so 2D elements
that have transnational DOF need to be used
A coarse mesh can be used to capture the overall stiffness and
deformation of the wall
A fine mesh should be used to capture in-plane bending or
curvature
General Shell Element or Membrane Elements can be used to
model Shear Walls

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Modeling Walls Using Membrane


The Incomplete Membrane Element
Nodes:

DOFs:

2 DOFs /Node Ux and Uy


2-Translation

Dimension:

2 dimension element

Shape:

Regular / Irregular

Properties:

Modulus of Elasticity(E),
Poisson ratio(v),
Thickness( t )

This Incomplete Panel or Membrane Element


does not connect with Beams completely and
rotation DOF of beams and the ends are Orphaned
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Modeling Walls using Shell Elements


The Complete Membrane Element
Nodes:

DOFs:

3 DOFs /Node Ux and Uy and Rz


2 Translation, 1 rotation

Dimension:

2 dimension element

Shape:

Regular / Irregular

Properties:

Modulus of Elasticity(E),

Thickness( t )

Poisson ratio(v),

R3

U2

U2
Node 4

Node 3

U1
3

U1

R3

U2

Node 1

R3

U2

Node 2

U1

U1

Membrane

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Using Incomplete Membrane Elements


Multiple elements greater accuracy in determination of stress distribution and
allow easy modeling of openings

Using Incomplete Membrane only

Using with Beams and or


Columns are Required

(No Moment continuity with Beams)


(Full Moment continuity
with Beams and Columns)

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Using Complete Membrane Elements


Multiple elements greater accuracy in determination of stress distribution and
allow easy modeling of openings

Using Complete Membrane only

Using with Beams, Columns


is NOT Required

(Moment continuity
with Beams automatically provided)
(Full Moment continuity
with Beams and Columns)
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Connecting Walls to Slab

Zipper

In general the mesh in the slab should


match with mesh in the wall to
establish connection

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Some software automatically


establishes connectivity by using
constraints or Zipper elements

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Using Trusses to Model Shear Walls


The behavior of shear walls can be closely approximated by
truss models:
The vertical elements provide the axial-flexural resistance
The diagonal elements provide the shear resistance

Truss models are derived from the strut-tie concepts


This model represents the cracked state of the wall where all
tension is taken by ties and compression by concrete

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Truss Model for Shear Walls


10

Comparing Deformation and


Deflections of Shell Model with
Truss Model

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Truss Model for Shear Walls


10

Comparing Deformation and


Deflections of Shell Model
with Truss Model

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Truss Models for Shear Walls


10

Comparing Axial Stress and Axial


Force Patterns

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Truss Models for Shear Walls


10

Uniaxial

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Biaxial
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How to Construct Truss Models

txt

C
t x 2t
B

For the purpose of analysis, assume the


main truss layout based on wall width and
floor levels
Initial member sizes can be estimated as t x
2t for main axial members and t x t for
diagonal members
Use frame elements to model the truss. It is
not necessary to use truss elements
Generally single diagonal is sufficient for
modeling but double diagonal may be used
for easier interpretation of results
The floor beams and slabs can be connected
directly to truss elements

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Openings in Shear Walls


Very Small Openings
may not alter wall
behavior

Medium Openings
may convert shear
wall to Pier and
Spandrel System

Very Large Openings


may convert the Wall
to Frame

Beam

Spandrel
Wall

Column
Pier

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Pier

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Openings in Shear Walls - Cellular


5

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Openings in Shear Walls - Planer

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Modeling Walls with Opening

Plate-Shell Model

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Rigid Frame Model

Truss Model

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Frame Model of Shear Walls

A: Shear Wall with Line Loads

B: Finite Element Model

Rigid Zones
Beams
3 DOF
per rigid zone

Columns

C: Define Beams & Columns

D: Beam-Column Model

Based on Concept proposed by E.L. Wilson


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Using Beam-Column to Model Shear Walls

4-Node plane element may not accurately capture the linear


bending, because constant shear distribution is assumed in
formulation but actually shear stress distribution is parabolic
Since the basic philosophy of RC design is based on cracked
sections, it is not possible to use the finite elements results
directly for design
Very simple model (beam-column) which can also captures the
behavior of the structure, The results can be used directly to
design the concrete elements.
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Shear Wall Design Meshing

Shell Deformations:
Three types of deformation that a single shell element
could experience
A single shell element in the program captures shear
and axial deformations well.
But a single shell element is unable to capture bending
deformation.

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Modeling Shear Walls Using Shell Elements

A-1
Plates with Columns
and Beams

A-2
Plates with
Beams

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

A-3
Plates with
Columns

A-4
Plates Only
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Modeling Shear Walls Using Beam Elements

B-1
Single Bracing

B-2
Double Bracing

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

B-3
Column with
Rigid Zones

B-4
Columns with
Flexible Zones
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Comparison of Behavior

A-1

A-2

A-3

B-4

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

B-1

B-2

B-3

B-4

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Comparison of Behavior (5 Floors)

B4
A1

B1
A1
B1

B4

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Comparison of Behavior (15 Floors)

B4
A1
B1
A1

B1

B4

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Comparison of Behavior (25 Floors)

B4
A1

B1
A1

B1

B4

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Effect of Shear Wall Location

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Modeling of Shear Walls


In ETABS

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Shear Wall Design Using ETABS


Special Considerations/Concepts:

Zoning

Pier
Spandrel and
Boundary Zone

Labeling

Pier
Spandrel

Section Types

Simplified Section (C, T or Linear)


Uniform reinforcing section
General Sections

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Shear Wall Design Meshing


Wall Meshing and Load Transfer:

Appropriate Meshing and labeling of Shear Walls is the key to


proper modeling and design of walls
No automatic meshing is available for walls (only manual)
Loads are only transferred to walls at the corner points of the
area objects that make up the wall
Generally the Membrane or Shell type Elements should be used
to model walls

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Shear Wall Design Meshing


Wall Meshing:
Piers and spandrels where bending deformations are
significant (slender piers and spandrels), need to mesh
the pier or spandrel into several elements
If the aspect ratio of a pier or spandrel one shell
element is worse than 3 to 1, consider additional meshing
of the element to adequately capture the bending
deformation

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Shear Wall Design Pier Zones


Pier Zone Labeling (Naming/Grouping)

Pier labels are assigned to vertical area


objects (walls) and to vertical line objects
(columns)

Objects that are associated with the same


story level and have the same pier label are
considered to be part of the same pier.

Must assign a pier element a label before


you can get output forces for the element or
before you can design the element.

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Shear Wall Design Pier Zones

A single wall pier cannot extend over


multiple stories

Wall pier forces are output at the top and


bottom of wall pier elements

Wall pier design is only performed at


stations located at the top and bottom of
wall pier elements.

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Shear Wall Design Pier Zones


Piers Labeling Examples

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Shear Wall Design Pier Zones


General Comments on Case d:

All of the area objects given the same


label P1
Design is performed across the entire
wall at each story level
Wall forces would be provided for the
entire wall at each story level
Combined reinforcement is reported at
the top and bottom of each floor (3-5
area objects)

Section for Design


at II Floor Top
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Shear Wall Design Pier Zones


General Comments on Case a:

Common way to label piers


At the upper level, Pier P1 is defined to
extend all the way across the wall
above the openings.
Pier P2 makes up the wall pier to the
left of the door opening.
Pier P3 occurs between the door and
window openings.
Pier P4 occurs between the window
opening and the edge of the wall.
Pier P5 occurs below the window
opening between the door and the
edge of the wall. A similar labeling of
piers occurs at the
lower level.

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Shear Wall Design Pier Zones


General Comments on Case a (Common Way):

At the upper level, Pier P1 is defined to


extend all the way across the wall above the
openings.
Pier P2 makes up the wall pier to the left of
the door opening.
Pier P3 occurs between the door and
window openings.
Pier P4 occurs between the window
opening and the edge of the wall.
Pier P5 occurs below the window opening
between the door and the edge of the wall.
A similar labeling of piers occurs at the
lower level.

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Shear Wall Design Pier Zones


General Comments on Case a (Common Way):
Design pier
1

Design pier 2
Design pier 3

Sections

Design pier 4
Output for Each Pier

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Shear Wall Design Spandrel Zones


Spandrel Zone Labeling (Naming/Grouping)
Spandrel labels are assigned to vertical area
objects (walls) and to horizontal line objects
(beams)
Unlike pier elements, a single wall spandrel
element can be made up of objects from two (or
more) adjacent story levels
Must assign a spandrel element a label before you
can get output forces for the element or before
you can design the element
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Shear Wall Design Pier Zones

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Shear Wall Design Spandrel Zones


Spandrels or Headers
Wall spandrel forces are output at the left and
right ends of wall spandrel Elements
Wall spandrel design is only performed at
stations located at the left and right ends of wall
spandrel elements
Multiple wall spandrel labels cannot be assigned
to a single area object.

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Shear Wall Design Spandrel Zones


Examples: Spandrel Labeling

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Concrete Shear Wall Design


Fully integrated wall pier and
spandrel design
ACI, UBC and Canadian Codes
Design for static and dynamic loads
Automatic integration of forces for
piers and spandrel

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Shear Wall Design


Design based on :
Equilibrium Conditions
Strain Compatibility Principle
Linear Strain Variation

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Interaction Surface for Shear Walls


P

My
Mx
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Concrete Shear Wall Design

2D wall pier design and boundary-member checks


2D wall spandrel design
3D wall pier check for provided reinforcement
Graphical Section Designer for concrete rebar location
Graphical display of reinforcement and stress ratios
Interactive design and review
Summary and detailed reports including database
formats

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Shear Wall - Typical Design Process


1. While modeling define Shear Wall elements
2. Choose the Shear Wall design code and review other
related preferences and revise them if necessary
3. Assign pier and spandrel labels
3. Run the building analysis
4. Assign overwrites
5. Select Design Combos
6. Start Designing Walls

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Shear Wall - Typical Design Process


7. View Design Input and Output Information
8. Design the Member Interactively
9. Print Design Report
10.Change Design Section if Required

11. Re-run Design and Re-analyze if needed


12. Repeat the Above Cycle

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Shear Wall Design Output

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear Wall Design Output

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear Wall Design Output

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Shear Wall Design Output

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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The Basic Issues


What is a Shear Wall?
Modeling and analysis issues

Transfer of loads to shear walls


Modeling of shear walls in 2D
Modeling of shear Walls in 3D
Interaction of shear-walls with frames

Design and detaining issues

Determination of rebars for flexure


Determination of rebars for shear
Detailing of rebars near openings and corners
Design and detailing of connection between various components
of cellular shear walls

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Avoid Eccentricity in Plan

Or

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Reduce In-plane Bending in Floor

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Vertical Irregularity

Expansion
Joint

No Shear Walls

Balanced Shear
Walls at All Levels

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Using Expansion
Joints to eliminate
some walls

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Using Efficient Building Plan Shape

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Design of Shear Walls

Axial Stresses in Planer Walls


10

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Axial Stresses in Cellular Walls


10

Uniaxial Bending

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Axial Stresses in Cellular Walls


10

Biaxial Bending

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Getting Result from Frame Model


Design actions (P, Mx, My and V) are obtained directly

P
M

P
Vy

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Vx

Mx

My

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Getting Results from Truss Model


P T C D sin( )
M Txt Cxc D sin( ) xd
V D cos( )

xd
xt

Tension
Member

xc

Compression
Member

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Getting Results From Shell Model


CL of wall

Fi Ai f i
n

P Fi
i 1
n

M Fi xi
i 1
n

V Ai vi
i 1

t
f5

x1

f4
f3

f2

f1

C
x1

f1, f2, ..fn are the nodal stresses at


section A-A , obtained from analysis

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Interaction Curves - Uniaxial


The curve is generated by varying
the neutral axis depth

Un-safe

Nbb

f ( )da f

Nnx

si

i 1

Mny

Safe

Asisi

Nbb

f ( )da.dz f
c

z A

si

i 1

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Asisidzi

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Interaction Surface - Biaxial


The surface is
generated by
changing Angle and
Depth of Neutral Axis

Un-safe

Safe

N z 1

x, y dx dy ...
x y

M x 2

M y 3

i 1

Ai i ( x, y ) ...

x, y dx dy . y ...
2

x y

x, y dx dy . x ...
x y

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

i 1

i 1

Ai i ( x, y ) yi ...

Ai i ( x, y ) xi ...

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Interaction Surface and Curves

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Narrow Planner Walls


The capacity is almost completely unaxial
Moment capacity can be increased by
providing Rebars at the corners

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Cellular Wall No Opening


The capacity is
almost completely
biaxial

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Single Cell Walls

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Double Cell Walls

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Designing as Axial Zones

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Axial Zone Model Planer Wall

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

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Axial Zones for Box Wall

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Shear Design

Spandrel
Pier

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Shear Design of Pier


Determine Concrete shear
capacity, Vc
Check if Vc exceeds the limit, if
it does, section needs to be
revised
Determine steel Rebars for
Vs=V-Vc
Check additional steel for
seismic requirements

Lp
tp

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ACI Equations for Pier Design


Basic Concrete Shear Capacity
Vc 3.3RLW

f ct p 0.8 L p

Pu 0.8L p
4Lp

Concrete not to Exceed the limit

Vc 0.6 RLW

P
L p 1.25 RLW f c 0.2 u

Lpt p

fc
L
Mu
p
Abs
2
Vu

t 0.8 L
p
p

Area of Steel Computed as


AbsVu
Vc

Av
f ys 0.8 L p

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

AbsVu
10 RLW

f ct p 0.8L p

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Shear Design for Spandrel


Determine Concrete shear
capacity, Vc
Check if Vc exceeds the limit, if
it does, section needs to be
revised
Determine steel Rebars for
Vs=V-Vc
Check additional steel for
seismic requirements

hs
Ls
Elevation

ts
d r top

hs

d r bot

Section

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ACI Equations for Spandrel Design


Basic Concrete Shear Capacity
Vc 2 RLW

fc ts d s

Concrete not to Exceed the limit


Vs Vn Vc

Vu

V c

Area of Steel Computed as


Av

Vs
f ys d s

Vs 8 RLW

f ct s d s

Check for minimum steel and spacing etc.

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ACI Equations for Spandrel Design


When

When

When

Ls
5
ds

and

Ls
5 and
ds

Ls
5
ds

Vu 2
Ls

10 RLW
3
ds

Av min

Vu
0.5Vc

Vu
0.5Vc

50t s
f ys

Ah min 0

Av min Ah min 0

Check
f ct s d s

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Av min 0.0015t s
Ah min 0.0025t s

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Notations for Shear Design


Ls

= Length of Spandrel

ts

= Thickness of Spandrel

d r top = Distance from top of spandrel to the centroid of top reinforcing


d r bot = Distance from bottom of spandrel to the centroid of bottom reinforcing

hs
RLW

= Total depth of spandrel


= Shear reduction factor as specified in the concrete material properties for
light weight concrete.

ds

= Effective depth of spandrel

Vs

= Portion of Shear force in spandrel carried by reinforcing steel

Vc

= Portion of Shear force in spandrel carried by concrete

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Wall Section

Place more reinforcement at the ends and distribute the remaining in the
middle portion
Confine the Rebars at the end for improved ductility and increased
moment capacity

Option -1

Option -2

Option -3

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Effect of Rebar Layout


Moment Capacity for 1% Rebars
a) Uniform Distribution

Max M= 380

b) Concentrated Bars

Nearly 25% increase for same steel

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Max M= 475

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Wall Section
Place more reinforcement at
the corners and distribute
the remaining in the middle
portion
Confine the Rebars at the
corners for improved
ductility and increased
moment capacity
Provide U-Bars at the
corners for easier
construction and improved
laps

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Effect of Rebar Layout


Moment Capacity for 1% Rebars
a) Uniform Distribution

Max M= 16500

b) Concentrated Bars

Max M= 19600

Nearly 20% increase for same steel


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Rebar Detailing For Openings

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Slenderness
of Columns

Complexity in the Column Design


Loading

Load Complexity

P M

P M

Shape

Shape
Complexity

Most Simple
Problem

Slenderness

Length

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What is Slenderness Effect


Moment
Amplification

e
P

Capacity
Reduction

I
e
C

f(Mc)

II

I. Mc = P.e

II : Mc = P(e +

Short Column

Long Column

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Column Capacity (P-M)


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Factors Effecting Slenderness Effect


Effective Length
Actual Length
End Framing and Boundary Conditions
Lateral Bracing Conditions

Effective Stiffness

Cross-sections Dimensions and Proportions


Reinforcement amount and Distribution
Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete and Steel
Creep and Sustained Loads

Loads
Axial Load
End Moments and Moments along the Length
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ACI Moment Magnification Summary


Final
Design
Moment

Larger Non- Sway Moment


Larger Sway Moment

M m M ns ns M s s
ns

Cm 0.6 0.4

M1
0.4
M2

Cm

Pu
1
0.75 PC

PC

( EI )
2

( KlU ) 2

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

a) s

1
1.0
Pu 0
1
Vu lc

If s 1.5 then
b) s

1
1
Pu
1
0.75 Pc
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What is Sway
Sway is dependent upon the structural configuration
as well as type of loading

Non Sway
For Non-sway Frames (Very rigid or braced)

For Sway Frames (Open frames, not braced,


Depends on loads also)

Sway

May be Sway

s 1.0
ns 1.0

s 1 .0
ns 1.0
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What is Sway
Appreciable relative moment of two ends of column

Sway 0

T B

lc

Sway Limits

lc
B

a ) EI Bracing walls 6 EI Columns


PU 0
b) E
0.05
VU lC

Frame considered
as Non-Sway

Mm
c)
1.05
M
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More on Sway
Braced Column (Non-Sway)

Most building columns may be considered Non-Sway for gravity loads


More than 40% of columns in buildings are Non-Sway for

lateral loads

Moment Magnification for Sway case is more significant, more complicated


and more important

Unbraced Column (Sway)

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Calculation of ns (Non-Sway)

Cm
ns
Pu
1
0.75 PC

Moment curvature
Coefficient

Applied column load

Critical buckling load

( EI )
PC
2
( KlU )
2

Flexural Stiffness

Effective Length Factor


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The Cm Factor
The Moment and Stress
Amplification Factors are
derived on the basis of pinended columns with single
moment curvature.
(Cm = 1.0)
For other Moment Distribution,
the correction factor Cm needs
to be computed to modify the
stress amplification.
Cm = 0.4 to 1.0

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

M1
Cm 0.6 0.4
0.4
M2
M1

M1

M2

M2

M1/M2
Positive

M1/M2
Negative

M1 is the smaller End Moment


M2 is the larger End Moment
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More about Cm Factor


M1

M2

M2

M1

M1= -M
M2 = M
M1
1
M2

Cm = 1.0

M1 = 0
M2 = M

M2

M2

M1
M1 =M
M2 = M

M1
0
M2

Cm = 0.6

M1

M1
1
M2

Cm = 0.2

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

M1 =0
M2 = M
M1
0
M2

Cm = 0.6
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Effective Length Factor, K


To account for Axial-Flexural Buckling
Indicates the total bent length of column between
inflection points
Can vary from 0.5 to Infinity
Most common range 0.75 to 2.0

0.5

1.0

0.5 - 1.0

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

2.0

1.0 -

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Determination of K
Members Part of Framed Structure

Unbraced
Frames
Braced
Frames
(smaller of)

20 Gm
K
20

1 Gm

K 0.9 (1 Gm )

for Gm 2

for Gm 2

K 0.7 0.05 (GT GB ) 1.0


k 0.85 0.05 Gm 1.0

( EI / LC )
Columns
G
( EI / L)
Beams
K G
G Increase, K Increases
Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

GT Top End
GB Bottom End
Gm Minimum of GT and GB
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Determination of K
Isolated Members

Bottom End

Top End

Fix

Pin

Free

Fix

0.5

0.8

2.0

Pin

0.8

1.0

Unstable

Free

2.0

Unstable

Unstable

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More about Factor K


( EI / lC )

( EI / l )
K

Columns
Beams

Increase, K Increases

How about I Gross? Cracked? Effective?


ACI Rules

B1

C2

B2

Beams I = 0.35 Ig, Column I = 0.7Ig


C1
B3

E ( I C1 I C 2)
Example T
E ( I B1 I B 2 )

Lc

B4
C3

E for column and beams may be different


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Determination of Stiffness EI
EI

or

Ab

0.2 EC I g Es I se
1 d

yb

0.4 EC I g
1 d

Attempt to include,

Cracking, Variable E, Creep effect


Geometric and material non linearity

Ig

I se Ab. yb2

Ig = Gross Moment of Inertia


Ise = Moment of Inertia of rebars

d = Effect of creep for sustained loads. =


Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

bh 3

12

Pud/Pu
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Slenderness procedure for Buildings

PU 0
Q
VU lC
PU PU 1 PU 2 PU 3 ......
0 T B

T
PU1

PU2

PU3

PU4
lC

VU1

VU1

VU1

VU1
B

VU VU 1 VU 2 VU 3 .......

lC Clear storey height average

If Q 0.05 : Non sway case


Q 0.05 : Sway Case
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BS Moment Magnification
Basic Equation for Slender Columns

M m M i Nau
Initial Moment form
elastic analysis

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

Madd, Additional
moment due to
deflection

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Calculation of Deflection au
Load correction factor

au a Kh

Column Dimension
along deflection
Length Correction Factor
Applied column load

N uz N
K
1
N uz N bal

Axial capacity at balanced


conditions
Axial Capacity for M = 0 N uz 0.45 f cu Ac 0.95 Asc f y

1 le

2000 b

Effective Length = lo

(From Table 3.21 and 3.22)

Smaller dimension
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Some Special Cases

M
V

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Some Special Cases


P

Soft

Hard

(e)

P
L1
d

L1

h1

L1

h1

Le = ?

h2
L2

(a)

L2

(b)

Shear Wall Behavior, Modeling, Analysis and Design

(c)

(d)

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