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CHAPTE

R4
SOUND

Learning Outcomes 1
Students would be able to:
Describe precisely relationship
between man and its envirobnment
on the aspect of sound, room
acoustics and sound transmission.

Introduction to
Acoustics

Objectives
1.To develop controlled environment for
human comfort.
2.Helps occupants realize the orientation
and direction.

The characteristic of sound


1.0 Frequency
What is frequency?
The number of cycles per unit of time is called the
frequency.
For convenience, frequency is most often measured in
cycles per second (cps) or the interchangeable Hertz (Hz)
(60 cps = 60 Hz)
1000 Hz is often referred to as 1 kHz (kilohertz) or simply
'1k

The range of human hearing in the young


is approximately 20 Hz to 20 kHzthe
higher number tends to decrease with age
(as do many other things).
It may be quite normal for a 60-year-old to
hear a maximum of 16,000 Hz
Frequency is related with a complete cycle , T
through a formula:

For a wave to have velocity v and wave length


(lamda) , frequency is given as:

2.0 Wave length


1. Wavelength, is the
distance between 2 repeated
waves.
2. The length of a wave is
measured in meter (m).
3. When The frequency
increases , the wavelength
decreases.
4. When the velocity of a sound
increases, the wavelength
It means that wave length is direct propotion
also increases.
with velocity and reverse propotion with
frequency.

2.0 Velocity
1. Moving distance in a
second at fix direction.
2. Unit SI in m/s
3. Simbol
1. From the wave behaviour, when wave lwngth
is multiplied with frequency, it is the samae
as the distance that sound moves in a second
which is called velocity.
2. Standard velocuty for sound in buildings
is340 m/s
Example;
For a sound that has a frequency of 340 m/s,
What is the length of the wave?
Given the frequency of the sound is 1000 m/s.

SOUND MEASUREMENTS
What is decibel?
Sound level whether it is sound power
level, Sound intensity level or Bel(B)
One Bel indicates the ratio of 10 and 2
Bel is equal to 100 and so on. Any
measurement using Bel will produce
large number.
So the suitable unit is Decibel. Decibel is
equal to 1/10 bel .So the number
measured will be reduced.

SOUND PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
Sound
Pressure P is an average
atmosphere pressure which is caused
by sound and the unit is Pascal (Pa).
SOUND POWER MEASUREMENT
The total sound produce from a sound
source and is measured in Watt(W).
SOUND INTENSITY MEASUREMENT
When a sound comes out from a source
will reduce its intensity because the
sound distributes to the vast
hemispherical surface.

SOUND INTENSITY (I) MEASUREMENT

Picture below shows the sound


intensity at the center point of the
sound source and distribute at the
spherical surfaces where intensity
reduces with distance.
Unit =

I p

W/m

I
Intensity

Inverse relation ship between


sound intensity and distance

SOUND LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
It is comparison to the standard hearing
level

Sound Power Level


SWL = 10 log ( W/W) dB
Where;
W = Sound Powerdalam Watt
W = Standard sound power 10
-12

SOUND LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
Sound Intensity Level
SIL = 10 log ( I/I) dB
Where
I = Sound Intensity (w/m)
I = Standard Sound Intensity
10 -12 W/m

SOUND LEVEL
MEASUREMENT
Sound Pressure Level
SPL = 20 log ( P/P) dB
Where;
P = Sound pressuredalam Pa
P = Standard Sound pressure
20 X10 -6 Pa

Calculation

QUESTION 1
Value the Sound Power Level for a given power source of
50 X 10-3 watt. Use the standard sound power of 10 -12
Watt.
QUESTION 2
(107dB)
A sound produces a sound intensity of 3.16 X 10-4 W/m .
Calculate the Sond intensity level in dB. The standard
intensity is valued at 10 -12 Watt.
(85dB)
QUESTION 3
Measure the Sound Pressure Level of a machine which
has a sound pressure of 7.96 X 10-2 Pa. Used the
standard sound pressure of 20 X 10 -6 Pa
(72dB)

SOALAN 4
Kirakan tekanan sebenar sebuah measin yang
menghasilkan aras tekanan bunyi 55 dB.
(1.12 X 10
QUESTION 4
-2
Pa)
Calculate
the Sound intensity of the given sound which
has the sound Intensity level o101 dB.
(0.0126
W/m)
QUESTION 5
Measure the power of a machine that produce a Sound
Power level of 75 dB.
(3.162 X
W)

10-5

Additional Sound Level


1. Decibel cannot be added using normal
additional calculation methods.
2. Example 100dB + 100dB is not equal to 200dB
3. But sound intensity and sound pressure can be
added using given formula:

Itotal = I + I
Ptotal =

P1 + P2

QUESTION 1
Calculate the total sound intensity which is
produces by 3 machines where each
machines produces 70dB, 73dB dan 65dB?

QUESTION 3
4 machnes works simulteneously.
Calculate the total sound pressure when
each macine produce 85dB, 80dB 89dB
and 90dB . Calculate the total SPL of the
four machines.

Question 3
A Factory has 2 machines which produce 100
dB and 95 dB sound level. Calculate the
total sound pressure level in that factory.
Question 4
3 machines are positioned close to a
discussion room. The sound intensity of
each machines is 89dB, 85dB and 90dB.
Calculate the total sound intensity of the
machines when operated simulteneously.

Question 5
For a sound that has a frequency of 440Hz
with a velocity of 340 m/s, what is the
wavelength of that sound?
Question 6
Calculate the intensity of a sound and
sound intensity level for a sound that has
a sound power of 3.14 X 10 -6 Watt. Given
the value r = 5m
Question 7
If a machine has a sound intensity level of
76 dB. What is the sound power level of
that machine that has a value r=2m.

Question 1
The total SPL of an area which has 1 machine
that produces 79 dB. When the machine is not
in operation , the SPL measure is72 dB
(background noise) in that area. Calculate the
SPL of that
Question
3 machine.
Find the difference in dB for the 2 machines
that have the intensity value of 4.16 X 10 -3
W/m2 and 2.61 X 10 -4 W/m2.

Estimation measurement of any sound level


Addition from the
Differential ( addition)
value between 2 highest sound level
3 dB
sources
2 dB
0 1 dB
1 dB
2 3 dB
0 dB
4 9 dB
10 dB above
dB subtraction- Estimation
Differential value
Subtraction from
between 2 sources
the highest sound
10 dB above
level
6 9 dB
0dB
4 5 dB
1 dB
3 dB
2 dB
2 dB
3 dB
1 dB
5 dB
7 dB

For example:
Source A = 98 dB
Source B = 100 dB

Difference between 2 sourc


100 dB 100 dB = 2 dB

From the estimation table the Decibel additional


measurement :
Difference : 2dB --Addition from the highest sound
level
= 2 dB
Highest value + 2 dB = 100dB + 2
= 102 dB

CALCULATION
Question 1
Estimate the total sound level which are
produced by 3 sources as given : 95 dB, 93 dB
& 98 dB.
Question 2
Estimate the total sound level which are
produced by 4 machines : 75 dB, 90 dB, 100 dB
& 80 dB.

EAR COMPONENTS
Malleu
s
Incus
Stapes

Semicircle
canals
Auditory
nerves

NOISE AND ITS EFFECTS


Definition of
noise

Noise is unwanted & loud sound.


Noise can be produced by many
sources - man's vocal cord, a running
engine, a vibrating loudspeaker, an
operating machine, and so on.

Damage to the ears


1. Reduce/loss of hearing
2. Speech interference.

Effects of noise to
human

Disturb health and way


of life.
1. Reduce work
performances
2. Sleep disturbance
3. Disturb health

It can cause the


voice of the speaker
difficult to be heard.

1. Difficult to
understand
2. Impression of
direction is lost.

SPEECH
INTERFERENCE

DISTURB
HEARINGAN

LOSS OF HEARING
(FISIOLOGY)

NOISE EFFECT ON
HUMAN DAILY LIFE
HEALTH
DISTURBANCE

Incease the % of
sufferer
1. Blood circulation
problem
2. Heart problem
3. Balancing

1. Temporary deaf
2. Permanent deaf

REDUCE WORK
PERFORMANCE

1. Jeopardize the
work quality.
2. Lack of
conteration /

SLEEPING
DISTURBANCE

1. Disturb deep
sleep
2. Depends on the
age, gender and
the quality of
sleep factors.

EFFECT OF NOISE TO HUMAN

1. INTENSITY
2. FREQUENCY
3. SOUND
NOISE
SOUND
DURATION/
EXPOSURE.
4. TONE CONTENTS
5. LOCATION OF THE
NOISE
1. DISTANCE OF
Factors that canSOUND
convert sound
SOURCE

to noise

INTENSITY
High intensity sound will cause loud sound.

FREQUENCY
Sound with high frequency level are easy to be heard by normal
human ears.

SOUND DURATION/EXPOSURE

Exposure to sound in a long time will cause disturbace of human


life.

TONE CONTENT
Sound with information cause less disturbance compare to sound
that content unclear and not easy to understand.

LOCATION OF THE SOUND


Sound source that is far from human is less disturbing.
Source with several location will cause great disturbance.

DISTANCE OF SOUND SOURCE.


Indirect proportion with intensity.
Sound source that is far cause less noise.

METHODS OF EVALUATE THE


ACOUSTIC
INTERFERENCE/DISTURBANCE
There are a few index level in measuring the
level of interference/disturbance(sound or
vibration)
1.ARAS GANGGUAN PERBUALAN (SIL)
SPEECH
INTERFERENCE LEVEL
2.KRITERIA KEBISINGAN (NC
NOISE CRITERIA
3.ARAS BUNYI
SOUND LEVEL
4. ARAS PENCEMARAN BUNYI (NPL)
NOISE POLLUTION LEVEL

SOUND INTEFERENCE
LEVEL (ARAS GANGGUAN
PERBUALAN) (SIL)
1. It describes how far a person can
hear clearly in different back
ground noise level.
2. This index measures the ability
sound interferes the
communication between 2 people
in a room

SOUND INTEFERENCE
LEVEL (ARAS GANGGUAN
PERBUALAN) (SIL)
The SIL graph shows
the relationship
between SIL and
distance.
The SIL index helps
to determine the speech
interference level when
2 people communicate
at certain distances.
4 normal, raised,
very loud or shouting
voice to be understood.

Choosing an appropriate noise criteria is important when specifying acceptable levels of


noise. Most organizations use a particular index based upon practical experience.
Recommended maximum noise levels for different types of rooms and standards are
indicated in the table below

Type of Room - Occupancy

Very quiet

Quiet
Moderate
noisy

Concert and opera halls,


recording studios, theaters,
etc.
Private bedrooms, live
theaters, television and radio
studios, conference and
lecture rooms, cathedrals and
large churches, libraries, etc.
Private living rooms, board
rooms, conference and lecture
rooms, hotel bedrooms
Public rooms in hotels, small
offices classrooms, courtrooms
Drawing offices, toilets,
bathrooms, reception areas,
lobbies, corridors, department
stores, etc.
Kitchens in hospitals and
hotels, laundry rooms,

Noise
Criterion
- NC -

Noise
Rating
- NR -

db(A)

10 - 20

20

25 - 30

20 - 25

25

25 - 30

30 - 40

30

30 - 35

30 - 40

35

40 - 45

35 - 45

40

45 - 55

NOISE CRITERIA
(KRITERIA KEBISINGAN)

(NC)

(NC) is a single numerical index commonly


used to define design goals for the
maximum allowable noise in a given space.

NC index is widely used in measuring the


disturbance of build environment (inside and
outside of the buildings)

Index NC is widely used in measuring noise


inside or outside of the buildings.

The criteria curves define the limits of octave band spectra


that must not be exceeded to meet occupant acceptance in
certain spaces

NOISE CRITERIA (NC)

NC SURROUNDINGS

ASSUMPTION

< NC 25

VERY QUIET

NC 25 - NC35

QUIET

NC 35 - NC 45

MODERATELY QUIET

NC 45 - NC 50

MODERATELY NOISY

NC 50 - NC 55

NOISY

NC 55 - NC 70

LOUD

Typical NC values
Application
NC Curve
Conference
25 - 35
rooms
Hospitals /
30 - 40
Libraries
General offices

35 - 45

Factories

50 - 70

SOUND LEVEL
The SOUND LEVEL METER measures the strength of
sound. The unit is in decibels (dB) and is usually
measured with a dB meter. The threshold of quiet sound is
zero dB and the onset of painful sound is 100 dB
The sound level depends on the distance between the
sound source and the place of measurement, possibly one
ear of a listener.

Sound level meters


measure sound pressure level and
are commonly used in noise
pollution studies for the
quantification of almost any noise,
but especially for industrial,
environmental and aircraft noise

HEARING ASSUMPTION ON
SOUND LEVEL

SOUND LEVEL

HEARING ASSUMPTION

Around 120 dB

deafening

around 100dB

Very loud

SEKITAR 80

loud

SEKITAR 50

quiet

HEARING ASSUMPTION ON
SOUND LEVEL

SOUND
LEVEL(dB)
44-69
50-75
56-81
62-87
68-93

HEARING
ASSUMPTION
Whispering &
private talk
Normal voice
Loud voice
High voice
Shouts

NOISE POLLUTION LEVEL (NPL)

This pollution is increasing due to the rise in the


utilization of heavy duty machineries of industrial
facilities and vehicles.

the degree of loudness of annoying or physically


dangerous noise in a persons environment, taken as
a measurement.

Noise pollution can affect health, yet the effects


are very difficult to quantify. It is believed that
persistent exposure to noise, especially at night,
may lead to psychological distress

A guide to noise levels is:


normal conversation 50 - 60 dB(A)
a loud radio 65 - 75 dB(A)
a busy street 78 - 85 dB(A)
a heavy lorry about 7 meter away 95 - 100
dB(A)
a pighouse at feeding time 110 dB(A)
a chain saw 115 - 120 dB(A)
a jet aircraft taking off 25 meter away 140
dB(A). (HSE, 2000

Combinations of noise exposure levels and maximum duration time


are expressed in the table below:

Exposu
re
Level
(dBA)

Duration Time - t - (s)


Hours

Minute Second
s
s

80

25

24

81

20

10

82

16

83

12

42

84

10

85

86

21

87

88

89

10

90

31

91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111

2
1
1
1

35
16
47
37
30
23
18
15
11
9
7
5
4
3
2
2
1
1
1

37
48
49
59
54
27
30
57
43
45
59
22
53
29
11

NOISE POLLUTION LEVEL (NPL)

Sumber: Jabatan Alam Sekitar. (1998). Laporan kualiti alam sekeliling.

Jadual 1: Pencemaran bunyi di


bandar-bandar utama di
Malaysia
Bandar
1998
1992
Klang
Johor Bahru

83.8
82.3

83
81.3

Kuala
Lumpur
Kuala
Terengganu
Ipoh
Alor Setar
Kota Bharu
Pulau
Pinang
Seremban
Kuantan
Kangar

81.3

81

80.1

79.6

78.9
78.8
78.6
80.5

78.3
76.6
77.6
73.1

78.2
77.9
76.4

76.8
76.8
75.4

SOUND IN
ROOMS

When a sound wave hit


any surface in a room
The sound behavior when it encounters the end of the medium or an
obstacle, they will reflect, absorb and transmit .

Reflection, absorption and sound transmission

A sound wave doesn't just stop when it reaches the end of the surface
or when it encounters an obstacle in its path.

Angle of reflection = angle incident

Sound is reflected in different ways depending on


the shape of the reflecting surface:

Concave surfaces

Convex surfaces

Flat Surface

It distributes the sound evenly


It also amplify the reflected
sound.

METHODS IN INCREASING THE SPEAKERS VOICE TO BE


HEARD BY ALL THE AUNDIENCE.

Step 1

The speakers voice is blocked


from reaching the back row
audience.
Step 2

Step 3

Build a stage or increase the


speakers level. This will lift
some of the obstruction by
front row audience. The back
row still have problem
hearing the speakers voice.
Build a reflector on the stage
ceiling. This will reflect and
distribute the sound evenly.
The front and middle rows will
listen clearly. The back rows
still have the problem of

Step 4

Step 5

The reflector is angled 45 to


reflect the sound to the back
rows. The sound will reach the
back row but the front rows will
face a problem of hearing the
clear sound.

The reflector is angled 45 to


reflect the sound to the back
rows. The seating arrangement
is designed as steps. So that the
sound will reach the back without
any obstruction.

Step 6
The reflector is angled 45 to
reflect the sound to the back
rows. Another reflector is placed
horizontally to reflect the sound
evenly to the front and middle
rows. This is the best design as
all the audience will hear a clear

Reflected sound will be


widely distributed if 2
reflected ceiling are
placed at different angle.

HOW TO WIDEN THE SOUND DISTRIBUTION.

The prolongation of the reflected sound is known as reverberation.

Reverberation
1.When a reflected sound reach the receiver at different
time and delayed.
2.The reverberation sound is heard differently from the
original sound.
3.It creates echo.
4.Reverberation is not wanted in a room depending on
the function of the room.

Alternate Time reflection


The effect of sound reflection (amplifier, sound mixer or
reverberation) depends on the time difference between
the original sound and the reflected sound at the
receiver.
Time difference
(second)
0.00 0.02
0.02 0.03
0.03 0.07
>0.07

effects

OPTIMUM AMPLIFIER
GOOD AMPLIFIER
MIXED SOUND
ECHOES

Reverberation time (RT) the time it


takes for sound to die away to inaudibility
after the source is stopped. It is usually
measured from the slope of the sound decay
and extrapolated to represent a 60-dB
decay. RT increases with room volume and
can be decreased by adding soundabsorbing material to the room.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFECTS OF


REFLECTION AND DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY A
SOUND.
1.The distance difference is the length taken by the sound from the
source to the receiver.
2.This distance must be controlled.
3.The distance difference shouldnt be more than 11m and the best
is not more than 7m.
Difference
in distance
A

Distance
travelled
by direct
sound

Distance
travelled
by
reflected
sound

1
5

1
4

2
0

Time
Effect
difference
(s)
<7
Optimum
7 - 11
amplifier
11 - 23
Good amplifier
> 23
Mixed sound
Echoes

Describe the
condition of the
reflected sound
that reach the
listener/ in the
room

From the table, the


effect of the reflected
sound is :

QUESTIONs
1. Explain the condition of a space when a sound is
reflected by a flat ceiling as shown below:

2
0

25

18

ABSORPTION
The Purpose
1. Reduce the noise level.
2. Avoid the sound reflection which can cause mixed, confused and
echoes sound.
3. Reduce the Reverberation time.(RT)

The sound
insulation to
absorb the
sound.

The noise is transmitted out

The noise is contained inside.

Noise from the equipments in


AHU room.

Need reflector

Reflection at this points


will cause mixed and
echoes sound.

Reflector is
placed at this
point. To amplify
the sound.

Absorbers at the ceiling


will absorb the sound
and prevent echoes

Ceiling is being installed with reflectors and absorbers.


Absorption aim is to reduce the reverberation period. That is why the
absorption materials is placed throughout the room so that the
reverberation period is evenly distributed.

Sounds from reflections compete

Sound absorption controls echo

Reverberation Time Calculation


The area of the equivalent total sound absorption and the room volume determine
the expected reverberation time (RT).
The Sabine reverberation time equation can be used to obtain a simple estimate
of the sound absorption required to achieve a particular reverberation time,

A = 0.161 V/RT,
where the room volume is in m3 .

For example,
To achieve a 0.5s reverberation time in a 312-m3 room would require a total of about
100 m2 of sound absorption. If each person adds 0.75 m2 of sound absorption, 25
people would add 19 m2. Thus a further 81 m2 would be required to meet the 0.5-s
RT goal.
To meet a 0.7-s reverberation time goal would require only 72 m2 of sound
absorption or 53 m2 in addition to the sound absorption of the 25 people.

Types of rooms and activities


Different activities require different RT.
< 1 second is for speech
>1 second is for music.

The best RT
1.Shorter RT means clearer sound.
2.Longer RT causes mixed sound (good for music)

How to measure RT
Use Sabine formula

RT = 0.16V
A
RT = reverberation time
A = the absorption surfaces area
( total area of the components X Absorption coefficient)
V = volume of the room/space

Sound absorption
Sound absorption is the incident sound that is not reflected back.
When a sound wave strikes an acoustical material the sound wave causes the
fibers or particle makeup of the absorbing material to vibrate.
The more fibrous a material is the better the absorption; conversely denser
materials are less absorptive.

Factors that influence the sound absorption characteristic:


In general low frequency sounds are very difficult to absorb because of their long
wavelength.
The material thickness has the greatest impact on the material's sound absorbing
qualities.

Acoustic Popcorn Ceilings


- an acoustic spray
Acoustic foam : charcoal
grey, fire retardant foam

Acoustic Wedges
Soundproofing

most popular industrial


noise source absorber

Bonded acoustical cotton.

Pyramid Acoustic Soundproofing

Mineral Fiber Acoustic


ceiling Board
Gypsum acoustic
ceiling board

Acoustic absorption materials


3 types :
1. Porous absorption
2. Diaphragm panel
3. Resonant absorption

1. POROUS ABSORPTION
The sound wave vibrates in the
cavity space/holes
The friction caused by the
vibration will turn the sound
energy into heat energy and the
sound will reduce.
2 types of porous absorption

Cavity holes.

1. Bulk type
The performance of this absorbents is better. For example : Foam and
fiber
1. Curtains
a) The air gap between the glass window and the curtain acts as the
cavity space that trap the sound waves.
b) The trapped sound will reflected in the cavity area, slow down and
die in the end.
c) The curtain material itself is a good absorber.
d) It gives double impacts to sound absorption.
2. Carpets
It absorbs the sound/vibration on the floor.
Types of carpets:

Cut pile yarn ( High absorption)

Looped yarn (Less absorption)

The thickness and weight of the carpet influence the quality of


absorption.

3. Akustik plaster

In the form of semi plastic.

The plaster is ether sprayed or laid

It absorbs high frequency sound better.

4. Acoustic blankets

Materials are from rock wool, fiber glass and hair felt (bulu
tenunan)

It is usually placed in between the wood/steel frame and


covered by a thin protection materials such as wire mash.

NRC Ratings for Inexpensive Sound Absorbtion Material:


Material

NRC

Audimute Sound Absorption Sheets

0.70

Sound Absorbing Carpet with or without


padding

0.20-0.55

Polyurethane Foam (1" thick)

0.30

Auralex 1" Studio Foam Wedge

0.50

Sound Absorbing Drapery, light weight

0.05-0.15

Sound Absorbing Drapery, medium weight

0.55

Sound Absorbing Drapery, heavy weight

0.60

2. Sheet types
It depends on the density, area and thickness of the materials.
Examples: Fiberglass wool, mineral fiberglass

Acoustic fiber panel

Acoustic Fiberglass
panel

Fiberglass sheet is
placed on board.

2. DIAPHRAGM PANEL
This panel will vibrate at the frequency that is the same as the source
frequency.
But.
In reality, this panel in not elastic. That is why the sound energy will be
forced to stop vibrating and change it into heat energy.
heat energy received = absorbed sound energy.
This absorber is suitable for high
frequency sound.

Sound
source

f = 60 / md
Panel

f - frequency
m density
d distance from the wall

2. Diaphragm panel

wall
studs
d
Absorption
panel

For low and medium sound frequency, this absorber is not


suitable.
To increase the ability to absorbed sound, blanket type of
absorber is placed on the wall surfaces.

3. RESONANT ABSORPTION
This types is suitable for rough and tough places like gym, bowling alley,
machine rooms factories, bus/train stations and highways.
2 types of resonant absorption

1. Cavity resonator
It consists of a hard wall which has a small hole/opening in front.
Inside the block, it has a wide cavity area/space with small and narrow
mouth/opening.
V
v
A
A = Area or the mouth
V = Volume inside the block.
V = volume of the mouth.

Sound that enter the


mouth into the cavity
space will being reflected
continuously till all the
sound energy is
absorbed.

CONCRETE BLOCK
RESONANCE
1. This concrete block
consists of a small
long mouth in front.
2. It also has hard walls
which will create cavity
space effects to the
sound.
3. It is suitable as sound
barrier walls.
4. The outside surface of
the walls can be
painted without
damaging the
absorption quality of
the wall.

MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF


ABSORPTION OF A MATERIAL
Absorption coefficient
1.It is the ratio of the acoustic energy absorbed and changed into heat energy.
2.Different types of materials and sound frequency has different value of
absorption coefficient.

Material
Unpainted
concrete
block
painted
concrete
block
Brick
Plastered
brick

Frequency (Hz)
250
500
1000
0.44 0.31
0.29

2000
0.39

0.1

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.09

0.03
0.13

0.03
0.15

0.03
0.02

0.04
0.03

0.04
0.04

125
0.36

Factors in calculating RT
1.RT cannot be added or subtracted directly. Total RT can be obtained by
calculating the absorption unit.
2.Sketch the situation to help finding accurate measurement.
3.Any surface than is not touched, should not be included in the calculation
4.Prepare a table that includes all the related elements in the calculation.

Example calculation.
Example 1.
A 2000m3 hall is usually used for assemblies every Monday morning. Assume that the hall
doesnt have any absorption materials that causes bad echoes. Calculate the RT of the hall if
200 students with absorption coefficient of 0.46 Sabine use the hall for their activities.

Example 2.
A hall with a volume of 1500m has the following finishes that absorb sound at 500Hz.
Plastered brick wall --------400m ---------0.02 Sabine
Plastic tiled floor ----------300m ---------0.05
Plaster board ceiling ------300m --------0.10
Students
----------100 people --0.46
Calculate the RT of the hall when 100 students fill the hall.
Calculate the extra area of sound absorption needed to be added in the hall so that it can
suitably used for a speech program next week. The optimum RT for speech is 1 second.

Example 3
A hall dimension of 30m X 10m X 5m. There is an opening at one of the walls. The opening
area is 50 m. The wall is a plastered brick, the ceiling is from hard board and the floor is
made of wood block on the concrete. There are also 200 fabric type seats. The measured
RT of the emptied hall is 1.5second at 500Hz. Using the table given below, calculate the area
of the carpet needed as a sound absorption to reach the correct RT.
Materials

Area
A

Dinding (bukaan)
Lantai
Siling
Fabrik seat
Karpet

Absorption
coefficient
(SABINE)

(m)
350

0.03

300
300
200
x

0.15
0.05
0.28
0.50

Question 1
A hall with a volume of 5000m has the RT of 1.6s. Calculate the total extra area
of sound absorption needed to reduce the RT to 1 second.

Question 2
A 900m room has a RT of 1second. Calculate the total extra area of absorption
needed to lower the RT to 0.8 second.

Question 3
Calculate the actual RT for a hall that has a volume of 5000m and the following
details on the finishes that are in the hall at 500 Hz :

finishes

Brickwork
Plaster on
solid
Acoustic
board
Carpet
Curtain

Area

(m)

500
600

Absorption
coefficient
(SABINE)
0.03
0.02

150

0.70

350
70

0.30
0.40

Question 4
From Question 3, Calculate the total extra area of sound absorption needed if the
optimum RT for the hall is 1.5second.

Question 5
A multi purpose hall has a volume of 120,000m . If the hall is empty, the RT of the
hall is 9 second. When there is an assembly, the hall has the RT of 6 second.
Calculate the number of audience needed to reduce the RT if each audience acts
as sound absorption coefficient of 0.46 Sabine.

more questions will be given


at the end of this chapter.

TRANSMISSION
Acoustic transmission in building design refers
to a number of processes by which sound can be
transferred from one part of a building to another
It is the weak sound energy which transmitted
through an object but it can damage the
building structures.
Airborne transmission - a noise source in
one room sends air pressure waves which
induce vibration to one side of a wall or
element of structure setting it moving such
that the other face of the wall vibrates in an
adjacent room.
Structure-borne transmission
1.Vibration from an operating fan may be
transmitted to the interior of the building
through building structure when the fan is
directly mounted on a supporting structure
without proper isolation.
2.The vibration transmitted may activate the
building structure to generate noise which
causes noise disturbance to residents inside
the building.

Direct transmission - resonant


motion (floor radiating sound to
the room below).
Flanking transmission resonant motion (floor transmitting
sound to the adjacent walls which
radiate to the room below.
Specific low frequency
transmission - non-resonant
motion (forced motion of the floor
causing the floor to deflect and
compress the air in the room
below which changes the
pressure out the eardrum).

The transmission loss (TL)


a)

The definition - " The accumulated decrease in acoustic intensity as an


acoustic pressure wave propagates outwards from a source."
b)
As the acoustic wave propagates outwards from the source the intensity of
the signal is reduced with increasing range due to:
1) Spreading
2)
Attenuation
The term Transmission Loss (TL), or more commonly Sound Reduction Index
(SRI) are used to describe the reduction in sound level resulting from transmission
through a material. This is given by:

SRI

= 10 log (Wsource / Wreceiver) = 10 log (1/t) = -10 log (t)

Sound Transmission Loss (TL);


1.A doors ability to reduce noise is called its sound transmission loss (TL) effectiveness.
2.TL is a value given in decibels, which is determined by measuring sound pressure
levels at a certain frequency in the source and receiving rooms.
3.The calculation also factors in the area of the partition shared by the two rooms, and
adjusts for the receiving rooms acoustic liveness (known as reverberation time).
4.The adjusted difference between the two levels is the TL of the door. The higher the
TL, the better the result.

Sound Transmission Class (STC):


1.TL measurements for a door are taken across a range of frequencies, which makes
it difficult to compare the effectiveness of different doors.
2.Sound transmission class (STC) ratings solve that problem by giving a single value
to acoustical performance for a door.
3.The higher the STC value, the better the rating and the better the performance

Transmission coefficient.
1. When sound is incident upon a building element some of it will be
reflected and some will be transmitted through the wall.
2. The fraction of incident energy transmitted is called the transmission
coefficient . The sound reduction index , is in turn defined in terms of
the transmission coefficient.

SOUND REDUCTION INDEX


1. The sound reducing ability of a partition wall depends primarily on its mass per
unit area.
2. The Sound Reduction Index SRI or Transmission Loss TL of a partition
measures the number of decibels lost when a sound of a given frequency is
transmitted through the partition.
3. The sound reduction index is used to measure the level of sound insulation
provided by a structure such as a wall, window, door, or ventilator.

SOUND REDUCTION/TRANMISSION LOSS CALCULATION


1. The basic measure of sound insulation provided by a partition is called
Sound Reduction Index (SRI) or R or Sound Transmission Loss(TL).
2. The unit is in dB.

Where = Transmission coefficient


Sound Reduction Index between 2 rooms:

Where Ls = Sound level in the source room (dB)


LR= Sound level in the receiving room (dB)
S = Partition/wall area (m2)
A = Absorption area of the receiving area (m2)

The transmission loss (TL) for a partition and the noise reduction in the room

The transmission coefficient i

Where = Transmission coefficient

For composite partitions of n nos. of surface parts, the average


transmission coefficient TAV can be found from the following equation:

where Ti = transmission coefficients of the ith part


Ai = area of the ith part
A = total area of partition =

Example question 1
A 5m X 2 m wall is used as a partition between 2 spaces. If the wall SRI is 35 dB,
calculate the sound transmission coefficient of the same wall.
Example question 2
An office measuring 5m X 7m X 3m is adjacent to the factory hall.. The dividing
partition between the rooms is 6m X 3m. The SRI of the wall is 40dB. The sound
pressure level (SPL) in the factory is 80 dB. Calculate the estimated SPL in the
receiving room if the reverberation time there is 1 second.
Example question 2
Calculate the average transmission coefficient of the 5m X 5m wall partition that
has a door and a window on it. The SRI of the wall is 55dB. The 2m window and
7m door on the wall have the SRI of 35dB and 35dB.
Example question 4
A 20m2 brick wall is placed as an insulated partition with the sound reduction
index of 65 dB. A door is built onto the wall with the sound reduction index of
40dB. Calculate the area of the door if the SRI for both components is 50dB.

Now

Actual sound reduction index in dB :

It can be seen that the poor insulation of the window of small area
reduces the overall insulation very considerably. If the window had
fitted badly the insulation would be even lower.

Example 4
A partition of total area 10 m2 consists of a brick wall plastered on both sides to
a total thickness of 250 mm and contains a window of area 2 m2. The brickwork
has a sound reduction index of 51 dB and the window 18 dB at a certain
frequency. Calculate the sound reduction of the complete partition at this
frequency.
Brickwork : if TB is the transmission coefficient of the brick, then

Window : if TW is the transmission coefficient of the window, then

VIBRATION

1. Define vibration
2. Describe the 3 types of vibration
3. Define air borne and structure borne
sound/vibration
4. List the vibration control
5. List the vibration isolation
6. With the aids of a diagram, describe inertia
block.
7. Identify the vibration isolators and padding for
the BS equipment
8. Describe mass spring and mass spring with
damper.

What is vibration?
Any vibration has two measurable quantities. How far
(amplitude or intensity), and how fast (frequency) the object
moves helps determine its vibration characteristics. The
terms used to describe this movement are frequency,
amplitude and acceleration.
Frequency
The number of cycles that a vibrating object
completes in one second is called
frequency..

Amplitude
measured in meters (m). The intensity of
vibration depends on amplitude.

Acceleration (measure of vibration intensity)


The speed of a vibrating object varies from zero to a maximum during each
cycle of vibration. Speed of vibration is expressed in units of meters per second
(m/s)

Free Vibration:
Free vibration occurs when a
mechanical system is set off with an
initial input and then allowed to vibrate
freely.

Forced vibration is the vibration


resulting from the application of
an external periodic force

TYPES OF VIBRATIONS.
1. Periodic Vibration

2. Random Vibration:

3. Transient Vibration:

Vibration is distributed through 2 methods:


1, Air borne sound

Air borne sound is distributed


through air. Air in the atmosphere is
used as a medium to transfer sound
waves to another place.
Conversation, singing, shouting,
sounds emitted by animals, sounds of
wind instruments and strings
(instruments) that do not touch floor,
the sound of thunder are the
examples to airborne sounds.
Preventation methods
Air borne sound

2,Structure borne sound (bunyi bawaan struktur)


Structure borne sound is sound that is
propagated/forced through structures
as vibration and subsequently
radiated as sound.
1. Machinery noise; due to lifts,
plumbing, heating, ventilating and air
conditioning (HVAC) systems
2. Impact noise; objects dropping on the
floor, footsteps etc.
3. Vibrations due to heavy vehicles
It has negative effects on the building
structures such as :
1.Cracks in the structures.
2.Damage the building structures.

Preventation methods

CONTROL
ENGINEERING CONTROL.
CAN BE DONE IN SEVERAL WAYS :
1.CHOOSE A SILENCE MACHINES.
Silence machines & silencers.
For example : centrifugal fan
AC compressor needs sound
insulation/dampers/silencers.
2.USE MACHINES THAT IS SUITABLE FOR ITS
BURDEN.
Machines that are forced to work hard
will produced loud noise.
3.SCHEDULE MAINTENANCE.
Machines that are not maintain will
produce loud noise and will damage.

Architecture control
1.

Space arrangement

Main space must be separated from the services area

Avoid placing them directly on the floor or roof.


2. Use vibration isolators.

Separate the equipment from the floor & roof - use


inertia block & fiber glass spring
3. Use the vibration isolation

All vibrated equipments must be separated or lifted


using elastic isolators.
Examples : inertia block should be separated from
the floor using spring vibration isolators.

A vibration problem can also be nicely described by the same


source path receiver model we previously used to characterize
the noise control problem.

Source: a mechanical or fluid disturbance, generated


internally by the machine, such as unbalance, torque pulsations,
gear tooth meshing, fan blade passing, etc. These typical occur at
frequencies which are integer multiples of the rotating frequency
of the machine.

Path:

the structural or airborne path by which the disturbance is


transmitted to the receiver

Receiver:

the responding system, generally having many


natural frequencies which can potentially be excited by vibration
frequencies generated by the source.

VIBRATION ISOLATION
the process of isolating an object, such as a piece of
equipment, from the source of vibrations.
VIBRATION ISOLATOR
A flexible support for any form of vibrating or reverberating
machinery, piping, or ductwork, serving to reduce noise or
vibration
The vibrations that are carried to the remainder of the
building structure.

Vibration isolation spring

Vibration isolators
for hanging pipes
and air handling
unit ducting.

Spring is enclosed
by walls but they do
not touch the
spring.

Other types of vibration isolators


Elastic/resilient
materials reduce
vibration caused by
liquid velocity
movement sanitation liquid
flow from the apparatus through
the wall in the sanitation pipe.

Vibration that transfer


through earth can be
prevented
Build a ditch/drain that separate
the building from the source of
vibration

CHOOSING THE RIGHT VIBRATION


ISOLATORS AND PADDINGS.
Equipments on the roof
Cooling tower
Compressor
AHU
Depends on the type of AHU used.
Pump
Pump with a power less than 3.7kW Pump with higher power -

Fan
If placed on the floor
Power not more than 3.7kW
Power more than 4.5kW
Air Ducting System
Use
Lift& esclator
2 noise sources produced by the equipment and banging/stamping on
of the car.
Reduce the vibration
- is placed at the places where vibration and loud noise
are produced.

Inertia Block
A concrete block which serves as a
base for mechanical equipment such
as fans or pumps; the block is
mounted on a resilient support to
reduce the transmission of vibration
to the building structure
Inertia block thickness is not less
than 150mm and usually made
from reinforced concrete and at
least the same weight as the
equipments.

PROBLEMS AND PRACTICAL REMEDIES ON PUMPING


SYSTEM NOISE
Structure-borne Noise from Pumpsets
Vibration from an
operating pump set may
be transmitted to the
interior of the building
through building
structure when the
pump set is directly
mounted on a
supporting structure
without proper isolation.
The vibration
transmitted may activate
the building structure to
generate noise which
causes noise
disturbance to residents
inside the building.

Practical Remedies
Provide an inertia block to
support the pump set (see
Fig. 11) so as to add rigidity
and stability to the pumping
system, and provide
vibration isolators (see
Fig.11) to support the
inertia block, thereby
isolating it from the
building structure (see App.
VII and VIII).
Provide flexible connectors
between the pump and
associated pipe work,
thereby preventing the
vibration of the pumps et
being transmitted to the
pipe work .

Jisim (m)
1.Merupakan jasad yang rigid/kaku
2.Jisim yang menerima getaran akan menerima atau hilang tenaga kinetik
bergantung kepada perubahan halaju jasad
3.Kerja yang dilakukan adalah hasil darab daya dengan jarak (displacement)

Spring (k)
1.Mempunyai daya elastik dan dianggap ringan
2.Daya spring akan berlaku sekiranya spring berubah bentuk dan juga jika
terjadi anjakan
3.Spring mempunyai kekejangan atau kekenyalan yang memastikan ianya cuba
balik kebentuk asalnya apabila satu daya/beban dikenakan.

Rendaman
1.Alat rendaman tidak mempunyai sifat elastik
2.Daya rendaman akan berlaku sekiranya ada pergerakan dikedua hujung
3.Daya atau kerja yang berlaku akan dipindahkan kedalam rendaman yang
akan menukarkan tenaga kinetik kepada tenaga haba.
4.Ini akan menghentukan gerakan/getaran yang dihasilkan oleh beban

SISTEM JISIM PEGAS


Jisim pegas merupakan satu alat yang bersifat anjal
Ia boleh kembali ke bentuk asal selepas diberi tekanan kepadanya
Getaran satu jisim pegas ialah jisim bersambung dengan penyambung
tegar(spring) dan akan bergerak ke atas dan ke bawah secara pugak.
Gerakan ini menghasilkan amplitud getaran

MASS SPRING SYSTEM

Spring

Titik alah

Spring

MASS

FORCE

Daya

Beban

Pemanjang ynag
berterusan akan
memutuskan spring

Pemanjangan
HOOKE LAW

MASS SPRING WITH DAMPER


A vibratory force, f(t), is
applied to the mass,
inducing response
vibration displacement,
X(t). The applied force is
typically a random time
function having a
continuous spectrum over
the frequency range of
interest.