Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

Chapter 8

Planned
Change

Murphy
(1999)
suggests
that
change is
inevitable,
but growth
is optional.

A fundamental
difference in
management and
leadership is that
managers
continue the
status quo and
leaders embrace
change.

Types of Change
Planned change
Unplanned change or
change by drift
Socialization or
indoctrination change
Reactive or systems
change
Intrapersonal change
Developmental or
maturational change

Change Agents
Persons
skilled in the
theory and
implementatio
n of planned
change

Regardless of
the type of
change, all
major change
brings feelings
of
achievement,
loss, pride, and
stress.

Planned change,
in contrast to
accidental change
or change by drift,
is change that
results from a
well-thought-out
and deliberate
effort to make
something
happen.

3 Good Reasons for


Change
1. Change to solve
some problem.
2. Change to make
work more
procedures more
efficient.
3. Change to reduce
unnecessary
workload.

Lewin (1951) identified several rules


that should be followed in implementing
change:
1. Change should only be

implemented for good


reason.
2. Change should always
be gradual.
3. All change should be
planned, and not
sporadic or sudden.
4. All individuals who may
be affected by the
change should be
involved in planning for
the change.

Driving
and
Restraining
Forces
Forces
driving
to reach
Forces restraining
the goal
reaching the goal
Goal: Return tofrom
School
Opportunity for
advancement
Status, social gratification
Enhanced self-esteem
Family supportive of
efforts
Pay increase

Low energy level


Limited financial
resources
Unreliable
transportation
Time with family already
limited

Three Phases of Planned


Change (Lewin, 1951)
1. Unfreezing
2. Movement
3. Refreezing

Change Agent Strategies


(Bennis et al, 1969)
Rationalempirical
Normative
reeducative
Powercoercive

Resistance:Degree
Theofnatural
resistance for each
individual depends on four
and expected
response to
things:
change 1. Their flexibility to change
2. Their evaluation of the

immediate situation
3. The anticipated consequences
of the change
4. Their perceptions of what they
have to lose and gain
Silber (1993)

Ten Emotional Phases of the


Change Process
1. Equilibrium
2. Denial
3. Anger
4. Bargaining
5. Chaos
6. Depression
7. Resignation
8. Openness
9. Readiness
10.Reemergence
(Adapted from Perlman &
Takacs, 1990).

Bushy and Kamphuis


(1993), building on
that work of Rodgers
(1983), identified six
behavioral patterns
commonly seen in
response to change:
innovators, early
adapters, early
majority, late
majority, laggards,
and rejectors.

Pesut (2000)
classifies
individuals as
either
crusaders or
tradition
bearers in
response to
their
propensity to
seek change.

Perhaps the greatest


factor contributing
to the resistance
encountered with
change is a lack of
trust between the
employee and the
manager or the
employee and the
organization.

Whenever
possible, all
those who
may be
affected by a
change
should be
involved in
planning for
that change.

When
information
and decision
making are
shared,
subordinates
feel that they
have played a
valuable role
in the change.

Porter-OGrady
(2003) suggests
that the
managers
behavior is the
single most
important factor
in how people in
the organization
accept change.

Stages of Organizational
Development
Birth
Youth
Maturity
Aging

Gardner (1990)
states:
The only
way to
conserve an
organization
is to keep it
changing.

The significant
problems we face
cannot be solved at the
same level of thinking
we were
Albert Einstein
at when we
created them.