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GSM Handover Problems & Soluti

ons

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Objectives
To master different types of handover and their
signaling flows;
To master handover statistical signaling point a
nd MR tasks;
To know common handover problem and the h
andling procedures.

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Contents
Overview of handover
Flow of handover signaling
Handover problem analysis

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Aims of handover
Why there are handovers?
1.To keep calls going on during movement;
2.To improve network service quality;
3.To decrease call drop rate;
4.To decrease congestion rate.

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Handover classification
1.Intra-CELL
2.Intra-BSC
3.Inter-BSC
4.Inter-MSC

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Contents
Overview of handover
Flow of handover signaling
Handover problem analysis

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Signaling flow of intra-cell handover

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Signaling flow of inter-cell handover within one BS


C

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Signaling flow of inter-BSC handover

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Basic signaling flow of Inter-MSC handover

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Basic flow of handover signaling


1.Inter-cell handover within BSC: There is no HORequest message for intra-BSC handover; all in
formation is analyzed within BSC; Once a target
cell in the BSC fulfilling handover conditions is f
ound, BSC send Channel activation message di
rectly.
2.Inter-BSC handover within MSC: BSC reports CGI
and handover causes of original cell and target
cell to MSC through HO-Request; After MSC fin
ds target cell LAC, it sends HO-Request to the
BSC which the target cell belong to; Target BSC a
ctivates channel in target cell, and executes the
following flow.
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Basic flow of handover signaling


3.Inter-MSC handover: MSC inquires REMOTLAC s
heet (including LAC and route address of adjac
ent MSC);
MSC sends Perform-HO message to the target
MSC-B according to the route address;
According to the Perform-HO message, target
MSC-B sends HO-Request message to BSC-B;
After the target MSC-B receives HO-Request A
CK, it sends Radio Chan ACK message to the o
riginal MSC, and executes the following flow.
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Main differences between intra-BSC handover and inter-B


SC handover
MSC transmits HO-REQ
MSC
participat
es or not

MSC transmits HO-REQ


message, and CGI of
original cell and target
cell is carried in the
message.

As for inter-BSC handover,


MSC participates in it
since HO-Request.

CGI is
carried
or not

AS for intra-BSC
handover, HOPerformed message is
sent to MSC only after
the handover is
completed; MSC doesnt
participate before that.
For intra-BSC handover,
CGI isnt carried in any
message, Its handled
within BSC.

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InterBSC
handove
r

IntraBSC
handove
r

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List of cells
under one
LAC
Targe
MSC
t BSC

Flow of handover algorithm


MS

Execution of
handover
decision
Selection
of target
cell
Extern
al cell?
NO
Channel
activation

HO
Reques
t

IntraMSC
hand
over

Confirmation
of adjacent
cell CGI

HO
Reques
t

UL
MR

Process of
MR

Target
MSC

HO
Reques
t

BCCH
frequency
point,
BSIC and
level
values of
the six
adjacent
cells(with
strongest
level) and
serving
cell.

BTS

BSC

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YE
S

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Common timers at BSC

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T3107:
Suitable for: intra-cell handover
Start-up: BSC sends assignment command
Stop counting: when assignment completed or
assignment failure is received;
MS

BTS

BSC
Channel
activate
Channel activate ack

Assignment command

Set
T3107
T3107
Timeout
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Common timers at BSC

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T3103
Suitable for: inter cell handover
Start-up: BSC sends handover command
Stop counting: when handover completed or handov
er failure is received.
MS

Old
BTS

New
BTS
Channel
activation

BSC

Channel activation
ACK

Handover
command

Handover
command

Set
T3103
T3103
Timeout
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MR cycle
MR is sent to BTS in SACCH UL direction:
When MS is in SDCCH, MR cycle is 470ms/time;
When MS is in TCH, MR cycle is 480ms/time.

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Contents
Overview of handover
Flow of handover signaling
Handover problem analysis

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Analysis handover problems


1.Analysis of handover problems
2.Location method of handover problems

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Common handover problems


Common handover
problems

Possible influences

Handover nonoccurrence

Result in call drop

Handover failure

Affect call quality and result in


call
drop

Frequent Handover

Affect call quality and increase


system load

Handover Hysteresis

Affect call quality and result in


call
drop

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Flow of handover problem checking


Too high TCH handover failure rate
of a cell
Is radio
parameter
setting
reasonable?
Interference
exists?

YES

YES

Coverage
problem exists?

YES

Any equipment
faults?

YES

Any antenna
problems?

YES

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Adjust
paramete
rs
Check &
eliminate
interferen
ce
Improve
coverage
Eliminate
equipmen
t faults
Solve
antenna
problems

Complete
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Location methods of handover problems


Analyze traffic statistics
Check handover statistics measurement, identify problem
range: If just some cells fail to make handover to the cell, c
heck handover data, check if there is same frequency and
same BSIC exist; If the cell fails to make handover from all
other cells, check its data.
Check warnings: board malfunction, transmission and cloc
k malfunctions, etc.;
Check whether radio parameters are set reasonably: whet
her same frequency and same BSIC exist among adjacent c
ells; whether handover parameters are set reasonably; wh
ether data configuration of external cells is correct.

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Location methods of handover problems


Interference checking
DT analysis
Signaling analysis: Um interface, Abis interface,
A interface
Hardware checking: like CDU, TRX, RF connectio
n lines between boards
Antenna system checking

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Analysis of handover problems


Coverage & interference
Antenna system
BTS hardware
Transmission
BSC hardware
A interface malfunction
Busy target cell

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Coverage & interference


Coverage:
1.Poor coverage: due to influence from forest,
complex landforms, houses, indoor coverage et
c;
2.Isolated site: no adjacent cells around
3.Skip-zone coverage: no adjacent cells availabl
e due to isolated-island effect.
Interference:
It makes MS unable to access in UL, or DL signa
l , receiving problem will be resulted.
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Antenna system problems


Too large VSWR
Reversed installation of antenna
Non-standard antenna installation
Unreasonable azimuth, down-tilt
Below-standard antenna insulation
Twisted cables, loosened connectors and wrong
connections;

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BTS hardware
Problem about:
Single board
Clock generator malfunction
Internal communication cable malfunction

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Transmission and BSC problems

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Transmission fault: unstable transmission, too high tran


smission error rate
BSC hardware malfunctions:
1.Clock generator malfunction: unconformity among clock
s in different BTSs due to clock generator malfunction;
2.Problem about single board
3.Wrong data configuration
4.Unreasonable setting of handover threshold
5.CGI, BCCH and BSIC values in external cell data sheet d
o not match up to those in the corresponding BSC;
6.Wrong BSC signaling point in list of cell under a LAC in
MSC.

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A interface malfunction
A interface malfunction: abnormal handover du
e to lack of link resource, abnormal calls
Handover between equipment from different su
ppliers: Difference in signaling at interface A an
d interface E between ZTE and other suppliers e
quipment, causing non-recognition or non-supp
ort problem, including speech version, handove
r code and addressing mode(CGI or LAI) etc., w
hich will result in handover failure.

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Thanks!

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