Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 119

Chapter 1

Introduction to South-east
Asia

Lecturer: MEAS SOPHEANITH


Tel: 069 29 46 42 / 017 557 861
E-mail:
1

CHAPTER OUTLINE
I.

Getting Acquainted with S. East Asia

II.

Historical Geography

III.

Political Geography

IV.

Economic Geography

Where is S. E Asia?

Politically, S. E Asia is made up of 10


coun- tries: Brunei Darussalam
(Brunei), Cambodia, Indonesia,
Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma),
the
Philippines,
Singapore,
Thailand and Vietnam.

S. E Asia is divided by political


boundaries established by both land
and water.
3

Some of countries in this region


are fragmented, scattered over
thousands of Islands.

The
Philippines
archipelago
(Chain of islands) exists of more
than 7,000 islands.

Indonesia exists of nearly 17,000


islands in which 6,000 are
inhabited.
5

S. E. Asia area = 1.75 million square


miles (4.5 million km2).

Countries range in size from the biggest


one to the smallest one.

Indonesia with a land area of 1,919,440


km2 (about 3 times the size of Texas) to
tiny Singapore, with a land area of
692.7 km2 (about 3 and a half times the
size of Washington D.C.)

Much of S.E. Asia lies astride the Ring of


Fire, a zone known for earthquakes and
volcanoes that surround the Pacific Ocean
basin.

On December 26, 2004, one of the most


violent earthquakes ever recorded struck
the northwest coast of Sumatra, an island
of Indonesia.

This tsunami killed an estimated 250,000


people in areas as distant as the east coast
of Africa.
7

Today terrorists pose the major threat to


human life and property.

In 2002, a bomb killed more than 200


people,
mostly
tourists
in
Bali,
Indonesia.

The greatest growing threat seems to be


coming from additional violent Islamic
groups, including Gerakan Mujahidin Islam
Pattani in Thailand and Abu Sayyaf in the
Philippines.
8

The problems that relate to


regional political instability seem
to be declining.

Democracy appears to be getting


stronger, especially in Indonesia,
Singapore,
Malaysia,
the
Philippines and Thailand.

Elsewhere, countries such as Laos,


Cambodia and Vietnam are
moving away from Communist
9

Burma has become isolated in the


international community because
of its anti- democratic practices
and military rule.

Economic
activity
directly
connects S.E. Asia to the rest of
the world.

10

Products manufactured in the region


rang from clothing and toys to high-tech
computer chips and laptop computers.

The Association of South East Asian


Nations (ASEAN) has helped propel this
region rapidly forward since it was found
in 1967.

All ten S.E. Asian countries are now


members; Cambodia, the last to join,
became a member on 30 April, 1999.
11

The successes of ASEAN are great, and


the economic and political influence of
the group on the international scene has
been tremendous.

The people of S.E. Asia present


wonderful mosaic of humanity.

Today the people of S.E. Asia have


become the neighbors and friends of
other in Western and European societies.

12

13

From Colonies to
Countries

14

World War I
&
World War II

15

WW II was punctuates the history of


S.E Asia like an exclamation mark.

The war provided the context for


stunning
changes
during,
and
perhaps more importantly, after the
conflict.

Japan is an island neighbor to S.E.


Asia.
16

Japan rapidly moved forward from an era of


traditional Shogun and Samurai dominance
to the Meiji era of modernization.

Because of its ambition to extend power and


thirst for natural resources, Japan invaded
part of China in 1894 and Russia in 19041905.

Japan continued to expand and grew


stronger in the Pacific region as European
and the US became immersed in WW II.
17

All of S.E. Asia was under Japans


rule by 1942.

Thailand was attacked but chose to


become a Japanese ally against the
Western allied forces rather than be
occupied by Japan.

Japans occupation of S.E. Asia


provide both negative and positive
effects:
18

Negative Effects:
Tens of thousands of people died
of starvation or working as slave
laborers.
Women in some countriesthe
Philippines, Indonesia, Burma
were forced to become comfort
women or prostitutes.
Data show that more than
200,000 women were forced in to
prostitution during the Japanese
occupation of S.E. Asia.

19

Positive Effects:
Japans slogan in 1942 was, The
leader of Asia, the protector of
Asia, the Light of Asia.
To help to promote nationalist
movements in some countries
Vietnam, Indonesia and the
Philippines.
To cast off European and American
colonial powers from the region.
20

President Harry
S Truman
With the battle of Midway, the tide of WW II
(1884- 1972)
the1945Pacific started to turn toward the
In in
office:
United
1953 States and the Allies.

The Allies methodically pushed Japans


forces back to their homeland.

Fearing thousands or casualties in an


attempt to invade Japan, President Truman
chose to use atomic bombs on the cities of
Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
21

The bombs ferocity was unleashed on August 6


and 9, respectively, in 1945.

Nationalism and New Nations

As the curtain closed on WW II, European


countries sought to regain control over their
former colonies.

Many countries in S.E. Asia had fought alongside


the Allies to help defeat Japan.

They believe
independence.

that

they

now

deserved

22

Indonesia

Indonesia was under the Netherlands


colony for a period of times.

Sukarno assumed independence from


the Dutch on August 17, 1945.

Because of the US involvement, the


Netherlands finally transferred all powers
to the Republic of Indonesia and
Jakarta was established as the capital.
23

This caused the first Indo-China war


between
the
nationalists
and
France, lasting from 1946 to 1954.

After the conflict subsided, Vietnam


was divided into two partsNorth
Vietnam (DRV) and South Vietnam,
Associated State of Vietnam (ASV)
by Geneva Agreement of 1954.

24

John F Kennedy
35
th second Indo-China war happened after
The
US President
amongst concerned parties.
Indisagreement
Office: 1961- 63

Ho Chi Minh had become more closely tied


to communistsPRC and the Soviet Union.

South Vietnam (ASV) was tied more closely


to the West and to the United States.

In 1961, US President John F. Kennedy


started to increase aid to S. Vietnam in the
hope of fending off the communist intrusion.
25

By 1964, however, the DRV controlled


almost half of S. Vietnam.

By 1967, half a million US troops were in


Vietnam and heavy air bombing was
taken place in Hanoi and other strategic
location in N. Vietnam.

In 1969, the United States attacked


Cambodia to remove Vietnamese base
that were operating just across the
common border.
26

The expanded did not end the


successes of N. Vietnam because
the United States began to grow
tired of the war.

Ultimately, the US withdrew its


forces, and N. Vietnam succeeded in
defeating S. Vietnam.

The country was formally reunited


in 1976.
27

Laos and Cambodia also had been


parts of French-Indochina and
were affected greatly by the wars in
Vietnam.

Laos received independence from


France in 1954 but the situation
remained complicated because of
Vietnams invasion in 1959.

Laos is now under the Communist


rule called Laos Peoples Democratic

28

After WW II, Cambodia followed a


different course than the other parts of
indo-China did.

Prince Norodom Sihanouk


worked
carefully with the French to arrange the
successful transition to full independence.

Finally,
Cambodia
gained
full
independence from France on November
9, 1953 under the crusade of Prince
Sihanouk.
29

Marshal Lon Nol


1972 InInoffice:
1970,
the Sihanouk Government was
1975
overthrown
in a military coup led by

General Lon Nol.

Lon Nols government backed by the


US was called the Khmer Republic
and it lasted until 1975.

In 1975, Cambodia was under Khmer


Rouge
regime
called
Democratic
Kampuchea led by Pol Pot.
30

Pol Pot
The
(19281998) continued till 1979
regime
InVietnam
Office: 197679
invaded
Cambodia.

when

During 3 years, 8 months and 20


days of Pol Pots rule.
More than 3 million people were
killed.

The Killing Fields was filmed as


a documentation for the next
generations.
31

Singapore and Malaysia

Singapore and Malaysia share the


history of British colonization and
are close in geographic proximity.

Singapore was under the Japanese


occupation during WW II.

Tens of thousands of people were


tortured or killed.
32

Lee Kwan Yew


In office
5 June 1959 28 November 1990

Lee Hsien Loong


Present PM of Singapore
33

He served as the
minister of Singapore.

first

prime

Under Lees guidance, Singapore


became a global financial and
industrial
powerhouse,
despite
having almost no natural resources.

Malaysia gained independence in


1957
led
by
Tunku
Abdul
Rahman.
34

He was the first prime minister in the


federation of Malaya (1957- 1963) and of
Malaysia (1963- 1970).

Malaysia moved forward significantly in


the economic realm under Prime Minister
Mahathir bin Mohammed (1981- 2003).

His vision helped transform Malaysia from


a natural resource provider to a provider
of world- class technology.

35

The Philippines

The Philippines was to receive


independence in 1944 under the Act
of Tydings McDuffie passed by the
US Congress in 1934.

This transition was delayed until


1946
because
of
Japanese
occupation of the island during
world war II.
36

The
Philippines
and
the
US
maintained strong economic and
military relationship for several
decades after WW II.

By 1991, American bases in the


Philippines had been closed.

Ferdinand Marcos was the first


Pilipino president reelected to the
office in 1969.
37

Marcos, however, was limited by the


Constitutiona virtual clone of American
documentto two four-year terms.

He turned the country into a dictatorship


that was subject to the rise of opposition
against him.

Political opponents including Beningno


Aquino and journalists were arrested and
jailed as martial rule continued from 1972
to1981.
38

After returning from the United


States in 1983, Aquino was killed by
an alleged Communist gunman.

Because of the assassination,


Pilipino People Power was born and
forced Marcos to resign from office
in 1986.

Aquinos wife, Corazon, took office


as the 7th president of the
Philippines.

39

Burma and Thailand

Burma was a major stage


fighting during world war II.

for

The Allies, led in Burma by British,


tried to prevent Japan not to create
an Asia empire.

The rugged terrain and climate in


Burma took a huge toll on both
sides during the war.
40

The armies struggled not only each other


for survival but also against the
unforgiving environment.

Because of the Britishs promise, Burma


became independent soon after the war
in 1948.

A parliamentary government ruled until


1962, when the military under leadership
of General Ne Win staged a coup.
41

In
1988,
massive
public
demonstration forced Ne Win to
resign from office.

An
estimated
10,000
demonstrators were killed in
Rangoon (Yangon) when the
military fired on them with
machine guns.

Despite this brutal power, the


protestors
forced
the
military

42

The opposition leader Aung San


Suu Kyi won a landslide victory in
the election.

She not only took the office but also


placed under house arrest by
military regime.

In 1991, Aung San Suu Kyi won the


Nobel Peace Prize in terms of
leading democracy.
43

44

Thailand traveled a course unlike


any other country in S.E. Asia during
WW II.

Joined with Japan, Thailand also


hoped that it might regain its former
lands in Cambodia and Laos if the
Allies were defeated.

Thailands declaration of war on the


US came in 1942.
45

However, the Thai ambassador in


Washington D.C., refused to deliver
the
declaration
to
the
US
government:

Therefore, the US never retaliated


by declaring war on Thailand.

This strange event meant that the


Allies never invaded Thailand.
46

During WW II, the monarchy secretly


opposed Japan.

When King Phumiphon came to the throne


in 1950, he promoted a pro-Western
government.

This allowed the United States house


troops in Thailand during Vietnam war.

A new constitution created in 1997 made


Thailand much more democratic.
47

Thailand had the worlds highest


economic growth rate from 1985 to
1995.

Then suffered a brief, steep


economic downturn during 1997
and 1998.

Steady growth has taken place


since that time as political stability
has enhanced Thailands economic
opportunities.

48

Political Geography of
South-east Asia

49

In democracy, governments ruled


by the people help bring structure
and popular support for the ruling
parties elected to leadership.

In dictatorship, rule is by a select


few individuals like the communist
party that governs in a totalitarian
manner.

50

Rule of law is a vitally important idea


in democracies; it means that no
person is above the law.

Monarchy
is
another
form
of
government, one in which a ruling
family presides over the government.

Rule in this society passed from one


generation to the next as kings,
queens, sultans, or emperors.
51

Types of government within the


region
range
from
military
dictatorship in Burma to historical
monarchies in Thailand and Brunei.

More details about status of


Governments in Southeast Asia is
on page 214.

52

1.

Brunei Darusalam

Brunei has been under British rule


for more than a century.

In 1984, Brunei achieved full


independence. The sultan became
prime minister.

53

Brunei gave supreme authority to sultan


in the 1959 constitution.

The sultan received advice from five


Primary Councils that are designated in
constitution:
1.The Religious Council,
2.The Privy Council,
3.The Council of Ministers,
4.The Legislative Council, and
5.The Council of Succession
54

The sultan stated in 1989 that he


would
liberalize
Bruneis
government if the people showed
the potential to govern in a more
democratic government.

Because of the relative prosperity of


the people from oil revenues, there
has been no significant political
opposition to the rule of sultan since
independence.
55

Cambodia

The Kingdom of Cambodia fought


for and achieved independence
from France in 1953.

Like the rest of Indochina, Cambodia


was occupied by Japan during WW
II until the French regained power in
1945.

In 1970, Prince Sihanuok was


thrown out off power in a military

56

In 1975, the county fell into the


hands of the Khmer Rouge:
Three million people are estimated
to have died under the rule of
Khmer Rouge.

In 1978, Vietnam invaded


Cambodia.

In 1989, Vietnam withdrew from


Cambodia.
57

Prince Sihanouk again rose to power to


forge political agreement and to
develop a more democratic framework
for a new government.

Prince Sihanuok became a king after the


new constitution was created in 1993.

Cambodian government consists of


three branches and is a constitutional
monarchy.
58

The king serves as the Chief of State, but


he has no power in the government.
The 3 Branches:
1. The Legislative Branch consists of a
bicameral legislature:
.The National Assembly with 122
members
.The Senate with 61 members
2. The Executive Branch is headed by the
Prime Minister, who is a member of ruling
political party of ruling coalition.
59

3. The

Judicial Branch has the


Supreme Court as the highest in
the country.

Indonesia
.

The
resent
political
roots
of
Indonesias government lie with
Dutch and also in Japans wartime
occupation of the country.
60

With independence in 1945, Indonesias


constitution established 3 Branches of Govt.
that were based on five key elements
advocated by first prime minister, Sukarno.
The five elements are
principles of Pancasila:
1. God,
2. Humanitarian,
3. National Unity,
4. Democracy, and
5. Social Justice

called

the

five

61

The

three Branches of Indonesian


Govern:
1. The

Executive Branch is led by


the president
2. The Legislative Branch is a
unicameral
called
Dewan
Perwakilan
(Peoples
Representative Council)
3. The Judicial Branch has the
Supreme Court as the highest
court.

62

Indonesia also has two other bodies:


The Dewan Perwakilan Dearah
(DPD), a body of regional
representative.
2. The Majelis Permusyawaratan
Rakyat( MPR) or Peoples
Consultative Assemply, which
meets every five years to consider
amending constitution,
1.

63

Laos

Laos is one of the worlds


remaining Communists states.

few

The Laos Peoples Revolutionary Party


is the name for Communists, and the
party completely dominates political
structure.

Laos has 3 Branches under the new


constitution adopted in 1991.
64

The

three Branches of Laos


Government:
The Executive Branch is led by
the president, who serves as the
head of state and the prime
minister, who serves as the head
of the government.
2. The Legislative Branch called
National
Assembly
with
109
members.
3. The Peoples Supreme Court is
1.

65

Malaysia

Malaysia was formed in 1963 as a


federation of various British colonies in
the region that included Malaya, Sabah,
Sarawak, and Singapore.

Singapore withdrew from the new country


in 1965 and declared its independence.

The government of Malaysia


constitutional monarchy.

is

66

The government operates with a


monarch called the paramount
ruler.

The paramount ruler serves as the


chief of state, and the prime
minister serves as the head of
government.

Malaysia
bicameral
parliament
represent the Legislative Branch.
67

The Senate, or Devan Negara,


has 69 members.
2. The House of Representative, or
Devan Rakyat, has 219 members,
who are elected by popular vote for
a five-year term.
1.

The Federal Court is the highest court


in Malaysia, and its members are
appointed by the paramount ruler
with the council of the prime minister.
68

Burma

Burma gained its independence from


British in 1948.

Democratic
foundations
were
established in the early years after
independent.

Democracy in Burma was smashed


under General Ne Wins rule and
military control until 1988.
69

In 1990, elections were held and an


opposition party, led by Aung San
Suu Kyi , won an overwhelming
victory.

The election results were quashed


by the military leaders, however, the
newly elected leaders were placed
under house arrest.

The country constitution has been


suspended since 1988.

70

Thus Burma remains a military


dictatorship where dissidents are
routinely jailed and few freedoms
exist for citizens.

The Philippines

The Philippines had two colonial


masters:
1. The United State gained control
of the Philippines in 1898.
2. Japan occupied the Philippines
during WW II.

71

The country became independent in


1946 after being occupied by Japan.

The new constitution was adopted in


1973 by President Ferdinand Marcos.

Unfortunately, the new constitution


was not democratic and it gave
nearly unlimited powers to Marcos.

72

Politics began to change in the


Philippines when Beningno Aquino,
an important leader of the political
opposition, was assassinated in
1983.

Corazon
Aquino,
widow
of
Beningno, declared herself the
winner, when the reelected Marcos
in 1986 was found corrupted and
unfair.
73

Marcos and his wife was forced to flee


the country in 1986.

Corazon Aquino assumed the presidency


and established a new constitution which
was put into place in 1987 and provided
for a more democratic government.

The constitution provides for a president


who serves as the chief of state and the
head of the government.
74

The Philippines legislative branch


consists of Congress made up of
two houses: The House and the
Senate:
1. The Senate has only 24
members, who are elected for sixyear terms.
2. The House has 214 elected
members, who serve three-year
terms.
. The highest court in the Judicial
Branch is the Supreme Court.

75

Singapore

Singapore is perhaps best known for its


unusual laws.

The other laws prohibit gum, littering,


firecrackers, firearms, and smoking in
public.

400 people were fined, in a recent


year, a minimum of $500 (U.S.) for
smoking in prohibited places.
76

A person can receive the death


penalty for having drugs or bringing
firearms into Singapore.

Failure to flush a public toilet after


use can bring a first-time offender a
fine of $250.

All of these laws are designed to


keep Singapore clean, and the laws
are viewed very favorably by most
citizens.

77

Singapores Legislative Branch, like


the United Kingdoms, is called a
parliament with 84 members elected
for a five-year term.

Singapores
parliament
is
a
unicameral which has only one
house, designated by the 1965
constitution.

The prime minister serves as the


head of the government.

78

The prime minister is appointed by


the president and is usually the
head of the majority party or ruling
coalition.

The president is the chief of state,


elected in in a popular vote for a sixyear term.

The Supreme Court is the highest


court in Singapore, with members
appointed by the president.

79

Thailand

Thailand
monarchy.

is

constitutional

The monarchy in Thailand is


hereditary, and the king serves as
the chief of state.

The
prime
minister,
who
is
appointed by the king, serves as the
head of the government.
80

Thailands Legislative Branch is bicameral:


1. The House of Representative or
Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon, with 500
members.
2. The Senate or Wuthisapha, with 200
seats.

Members of both houses are elected by


popular vote for four-year terms.

The highest court is the Supreme Court or


Sandika.
81

Vietnam

The socialist Republic of Vietnam, like


Laos, is one of the few remaining
communist states.

The constitution
adopted in 1992.

The president serves as the Chief of


State, elected by unicameral National
Assembly for a five-year term.

of

Vietnam

was

82

The prime minister serves as the


Head of the Government in the
Executive Branch.

The Communist Party of Vietnam


(CPV)
essentially
runs
the
government because it is the only
political party.

The National Assembly has 498


seats for five-year terms.
83

Normally, 90 per cent of the seats


filled by the CPV, and others are
held by CPV-approved candidates.

The Supreme Peoples Court serves


as the highest court in the Judicial
Branch.

84

Foreign Relations

Most countries in S.E. Asia are actively


engaged in the International Community.

Some countries, such as Burma are more


limited in their foreign relations because
of the ruling military Junta.

85

The UN and other organizations impose


penalties or sanctions on regimes that do not
comply with international standards.

All of the ten S.E. Asian nations have signed


on Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty and
the Montreal Protocol on Substances that
Deplete the Ozone Layer.

In late 2003, the Philippines, Indonesia,


Malaysia, Singapore supplies personnel to
various UN peacekeeping efforts around the
world.
86

This involvement has been increasing in


recent years and is a factor that
contributes to the growth of democracies
in the region.

Democracy has been on the rise in


Southeast Asia since the second half of
20th century.

Many countries that have moved politically


toward more democratic governments
have found economic prosperity.
87

Economic Geography of
South-east Asia

88

Tremendous changes have occurred


in the economies of Southeast Asia
since the end of WWII.

Economic process started slowly for


many countries but was aided in
1967, with the formation of the
Association of Southeast Asian
Nations, or ASEAN.

89

In Vietnam and Cambodia, the


process took place later and delayed
development until 1980s:
the ravages of war and
the folly of centrally controlled
economies

Burma, afflicted by military rule and


external economic sanction, is
developing slowly even today, as a
full member of ASEAN.
90

Some countries have developed


expertise in modern technology that
places them among the worlds
leaders in terms of computer
hardware and access.

Some countries remain tied to


agricultural
production
because
government
limitations
have
impeded the development of free
market systems that have successful
in other countries in the region.

91

The economy of Brunei falls into


another category because the
economy has depended on the
production and exportation of oil
and natural gas.

92

A brief Survey of Individual Countrys


Economies
1.

Brunei

Extremely dependent on oil and gas industry

The 3rd largest producer of oil in S.E. Asia

The 4th producer of natural gas in the world

Half of Bruneis exported oil goes to Japan


93

The United States, Korea, Thailand,


and
Taiwan
are
also
trade
destinations.

Brunei is projected to have oil


supplies to last until 2015.

The country hopes that deep sea


exploration will identify new fields.

94

2.

Burma

Rich in natural resources:


Petroleum, natural gas, coal
deposits, and hydroelectric

Metal: Tin, antimony, zinc, copper,


tungsten, and lead

Other products: Marble, precious


stones, and timber
95

Opium fruit
Illegal drugs are believed to account for
exuding
a significant,
although undocumented,
Latex
from the
partcut
of the economy.

3.

Cambodia

Until 1999, Cambodia was torn by three


decades of war.

Since the end of fighting, Cambodias


economy has grown at a healthy annual
rate, averaging more than 5 percent.
96

Tourism was the most rapidly


gaining industry since 1999.

More than one third of the


population lives below poverty line.

About 80 per cent of population is


engaged in agriculture, producing
mainly rice, corn, and vegetables.

97

Most exported products go to the


United States.

Germany, Japan, and the United


Kingdom are other recipients of
Cambodian goods.

4.

Indonesia

The largest and most populated


country in Southeast Asia is
Indonesia, which has a long and
well-chronicled history of trade with
98

Currently, the economy is mixed:


Agriculture
Manufacturing
Service sectors

With labor costs low, it would seem


likely that more foreign investors
would flock into the country to start
new industries and create jobs.
99

Indonesia does have some strong


advantages that favor economic
growth.
Huge stores of oil and natural gas
Other natural resources: Tin,
nickel, bauxite, and copper as well
as deposits of gold and silver.
The country also has fertile soils,
and agricultural crops are important
to economy.
10

Rice serves
Indonesians.

as

staple

diet

of

Other chief crops include: Peanuts,


cassava, Soybeans, coffee, Tobacco,
palm oil and rubber.

Tourism is most important part of


Indonesias economy because of its
beautiful
tropical
beaches
and
fascinating cultures.
10

5.

Laos

As a communist country, Laos, like


China, has made major efforts to
decentralize
its
economy
and
support privatization.

Major agricultural products include


food crops such as rice, sweet
potatoes, vegetables, corn, and
peanuts.
10

Other crops include coffee, tobacco,


and cotton.

Livestock include
pigs, and cattle.

The country most important trade


partners are neighboring Thailand
and Vietnam.

water

buffalo,

10

6.

Malaysia

At the turn of the millennium, Malaysia


could boast of the worlds tallest building
the Petronas Twin Towersa fitting
symbol of the countrys soaring economy.

Malaysia has blossomed into a diversified


market economy with many strengths,
including:
. well-developed electronics and
. information technologies

10

Other important exports include


petroleum, and natural gas, wood
products, palm oil, rubber, textiles,
and chemicals.

The country has a booming


economy
that
supports
low
unemployment and relatively high
income.

Malaysians have benefited greatly


from their countrys economic

10

The factor
stability and
are essential
companies
investment.

contributes to the
trustworthiness that
for attracting foreign
and
other
capital

The Philippines

The country of the Philippines is


fairly diverse: Agriculture, light
industries, and a strong service
sectors all contribute.
10

However, poverty is a large


problem; about 40 percent of the
population lives below the poverty
level.

Unemployment is high, at about 10


percent.

The countrys products include:


Rice, coconuts, corn, sugarcane,
bananas, pineapple, and mangoes.
10

Major manufacturing products include:

textiles,

pharmaceuticals,

chemicals,

food processing,

electronics assembly, and

petroleum refining

The countrys recipients are The United States,


Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.

The country is now attempting to privatize more


of the economy.
10

8.

Singapore

This city-state boasts of being the


worlds second-busiest port. Only
Rotterdam in the Netherlands is
more active.

Situated at the southern tip of the


Malay Peninsular, the country
possesses a key location for world
trade.
10

To its benefits, free trade has been a


mainstay of the island country since Sir
Thomas Stamford Raffles established a British
trading post here in 1819.

The citizens of Singapore enjoy


high wages,
good jobs, and
low unemployment

Market economy and political stability have


created an outstanding environment for
business to operate effectively.
11

Singapores major imports include: Food products,


petroleum, and other natural resources.

The countrys major exports include:

Machinery,

equipment,

electronics,

consumer goods, and

chemicals

Key trading partners include other ASEAN nations,


notably Malaysia, as well as The U.S and China.

11

Singapore is also Southeast Asias


major hub for international air
transportation.

Many airlines use the countrys


modern and efficient airport as a
connection destination.

9.

Thailand

This kingdom enjoys the worlds


highest economic growth between
11

Growth slowed with the Asian economic


downturn in the late 1990s, but
Thailands economy has rebounded
strongly in the early twenty-first century.

Thailand has been able to develop a


modern economy that produces a
variety of goods and services.

It is a major producer of computers and


electronic appliances.
11

Other industries include: Textiles


and garments.

Agricultural
processing
include:
Beverages, and tobacco, and light
manufacturing.

Tourism is also a main factor


contributed in Thailands economy,
but it faced the devastation from
the December 1994 tsunami.
11

Slightly more than 10 percent of the


population is engaged in agriculture.

Thailand has some oil reserves, but


the country imports fuels and other
raw materials for industrial use.

Major trading partners include: The


United States, Japan, Singapore,
China, and Malaysia.
11

10.

Vietnam

The country suffers from a very high


population density.

This
factor,
because
of
communist
leadership, late reform of free-economic
system, has hampered Vietnams growth.

In recent years, the economic growth rate


has increased because of the connection to
the
outside
world
of
free-market
opportunities.
11

Nearly 40 percent of the population


is below the poverty line.

25 percent is unemployed, and


nearly two-third or the work force is
still engaged in agriculture.

Because of a 2000 bilateral


agreement with the United States,
its economy has increased step by
step.
11

The main exports include: Crude oil,


rice, coffee, rubber, tea, garments,
and shoes.

The man imports include: Machinery


and equipment, petroleum, fertilizer,
steel products, raw cotton, grain,
and cement.

Vietnam major trading partners are


the United States, Japan, Singapore,
China, and South Korea.

11

Thank You
Questions
And

Answers

Cambodian Mekong University is the university that cares for


value of education.