Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 62
MOTIVATION MOTIVATION && MORALE MORALE
MOTIVATION MOTIVATION &&
MORALE
MORALE
 Motivation is Motivation is   well well asas the
Motivation is
Motivation is
well
well asas the

a a

 Motivation is Motivation is   well well asas the a a Introduction Introduction psychological

Introduction

Introduction

psychological state

psychological state

Understanding

Understanding

motivation help in

motivation help in

understanding

understanding

individual behavior

individual behavior

Motivation depends

Motivation depends

on individual as

on individual as

the situation

situation

some
some
some to exert high Definitions of Definitions of Motivation Motivation Stephen P. Robbins – “ The

to exert high

Definitions of

Definitions of

Motivation

Motivation

Stephen

P. Robbins –

“ The willingness

levels of

effort towards

organizational goals, conditioned

by the effort’s

ability to satisfy

individual need”

goals. …W.G. Scott consistently in …Leighton
goals.
…W.G. Scott
consistently in
…Leighton
goals. …W.G. Scott consistently in …Leighton Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to

Motivation means a

process of stimulating

people to action to

accomplish desired

Morale is the capacity of a group of

people to pull together persistently and

pursuit

of a purpose.

 need  elements – elements – incentives. incentives.
need
elements –
elements –
incentives.
incentives.
of of three three drives and drives and
of
of three
three
drives and
drives and

Definitions of

Definitions of

Motivation

Motivation

Motivation is

Motivation is

also

also

defined as a

defined as a

condition that is initiated by the

condition that is initiated by the

need inin anan individual.

individual.

Motivation consists

Motivation consists

interacting and

interacting and

interdependent

interdependent

needs,

needs,

Motivation Process Motivation Process Physiological/ Psychological deficiency (NEED) Individual behaves in a certain manner (DRIVE) Achieves
Motivation Process
Motivation Process
Physiological/
Psychological
deficiency
(NEED)
Individual
behaves in a
certain
manner
(DRIVE)
Achieves a
particular
goal
(INCENTIVE)
  successful. successful.
successful.
successful.
Needs Needs imbalance leads Food and water. Food and water. even without even without need e.g.
Needs
Needs
imbalance leads
Food and water.
Food and water.
even without
even without
need e.g. to be
need e.g. to be

Imbalance between physiological

Imbalance between physiological

or psychological

or psychological imbalance leads

to a need. E,g,

to a need. E,g,

Need may arise

Need may arise

physiological

physiological

Drives Drives  Propel individuals to attain one’s goal Propel individuals to attain one’s goal 
Drives
Drives
Propel individuals to attain one’s goal
Propel individuals to attain one’s goal
Drives constitute the core element in
Drives constitute the core element in
motivation motivation
 decrease the decrease the called
decrease the
decrease the
called

Anything that

Anything that

 decrease the decrease the called Anything that Anything that Incentives Incentives mitigate a need and
 decrease the decrease the called Anything that Anything that Incentives Incentives mitigate a need and

Incentives

Incentives

mitigate a need and

mitigate a need and

intensity of a drive is

intensity of a drive is

called anan incentive.

incentive.

 Primary physiologically physiologically etc. etc.  Secondary  General manipulation
 Primary
physiologically
physiologically
etc.
etc.
 Secondary
 General
manipulation

classified as the

classified as the

 Primary physiologically physiologically etc. etc.  Secondary  General manipulation classified as the classified as

are those which

are those which

Classification

Classification

of Motives

of Motives

Primary Motives

Motives - -

they are

they are

based – hunger, thirst, sex

based – hunger, thirst, sex

Secondary Motives

Motives - -

are learned over a period of time.- fasting

are learned over a period of time.- fasting

for religious cause etc.

for religious cause etc.

General Motives

Motives

which cannot be

which cannot be

above two. Also called

above two. Also called

“stimulus motives” – curiosity,

“stimulus motives” – curiosity,

manipulation etc.

etc.

General General Motives Motives •The curiosity, manipulation and activity motives •The affection motive
General General Motives Motives •The curiosity, manipulation and activity motives •The affection motive

General

General

Motives

Motives

•The curiosity,

manipulation and

activity motives

•The affection

motive

Secondary Motives Secondary Motives  The Power motive The Power motive Alfred Alfred Adler Adler Vs.
Secondary Motives
Secondary Motives
The Power motive
The Power motive
Alfred
Alfred Adler
Adler Vs.
Vs. Sigmund
Sigmund
Freud – (Inferiority & Competition)
Freud – (Inferiority & Competition)
The achievement motive –
The achievement motive –
Thematic Apperception test / Degree of Risk Taking e.q.
Thematic Apperception test / Degree of Risk Taking e.q.
Ring
Ring Toss
Toss Game;
Game;
Need for immediate feedback
Need for immediate feedback
Satisfaction of accomplishing than material rewards
Satisfaction of accomplishing than material rewards
The affiliation motive -
The affiliation motive -
The security motive -
The security motive -
The status motive -
The status motive -
 direction direction  Instrument for Instrument for creating  
direction
direction
Instrument for
Instrument for
creating
inspiring inspiring of of
inspiring
inspiring
of
of
workforce and workforce and
workforce and
workforce and

Meaning

Meaning & Definition

& Definition

Integral part of the

Integral part of the

process of

process of

creating confidence.

confidence.

Deals with actuating

Deals with actuating

people to work

people to work

for accomplishment

for accomplishment

goals.

goals.

It is a performance

It is a performance

factor in Industry

factor in Industry

Performance
Performance

Education and

X Motivation by human
X Motivation
by human

Performance of an industy is

determined by

two factors:

1.Level of ability to

do certain work

2.Level of motivation

expressed as:

= Ability

Performance will

be

high if both these

factors are high.

Motivation is governed

behaviour in the organisation

Ability to do work is

governed by

Training.

Has its roots in individual. behaviour.
Has its roots in
individual.
behaviour.

Motivation - act

which induce a etc. within the motive. studying the
which induce a
etc. within the
motive.
studying the

of energizing people to

satisfy their needs.

motives

person to behave

in a

certain manner.

Motive is defined more often as needs,

wants, drives, impulses

There is a Stimulus

behind every

Stimulus depend

on the

Motive can be known by

needs & desires.

Need & Importance of Motivation Need & Importance of Motivation  Helps in realizing Organizational Helps
Need & Importance of Motivation
Need & Importance of Motivation
Helps in realizing Organizational
Helps in realizing Organizational
goals
goals
Helps in increasing productivity
Helps in increasing productivity
Reduce turnover & absenteeism
Reduce turnover & absenteeism
Maintain good industrial relations
Maintain good industrial relations
Helps in getting right personnel
Helps in getting right personnel
Reduce employee grievances
Reduce employee grievances
Theories of Motivation Theories of Motivation  Theories Theories based based onon human human needs: needs:
Theories of Motivation
Theories of Motivation
 Theories
Theories based
based onon human
human
needs:
needs:
Maslow, Hertzberg and
Maslow, Hertzberg and
McClelland
McClelland
 Theories
Theories based
based onon human
human
nature:
nature:
McGregor. McGregor.
 Theories
Theories based
based onon
expectancy of human
expectancy of human
beings: beings:
Vroom Vroom
Maslow’s Need Theory Maslow’s Need Theory SELF ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
Maslow’s Need Theory
Maslow’s Need Theory
SELF
ACTUALIZATION
ESTEEM NEEDS
SOCIAL NEEDS
SAFETY NEEDS
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

hierarchical

 
 

Need priority

Need priority

 
 

applicable at

applicable at

 

 
 

of behaviour.

 
 
 
 

In many level

 

always.

always.

 
 
 
 
multiplicity one need need at at
multiplicity
one need
need at
at

definite

definite

CRITICISMS

CRITICISMS

Needs may not

Needs may not

follow

follow

hierarchical order

order

model

model

may not be

may not be

all times.

all times.

Behaviour is guided

Behaviour is guided

by

by multiplicity

of behaviour. Satisfying

Satisfying one

a time may not

a time may not

be valid.

be valid.

In many level of motivation is low

of motivation is low

Hertzberg’s Two factor Theory Hertzberg’s Two factor Theory Interview 200 - Two important incidents in their
Hertzberg’s Two factor Theory
Hertzberg’s Two factor Theory
Interview 200 - Two important incidents in their
job:
1. When did they feel particularly good about their
job?
2. When did they feel exceptionally bad about their
job?
Results interesting & consistent.
Good feelings were associated with Job Satisfaction
Bad feelings were associated with Job
dissatisfaction.
Job satisfiers were labeled MOTIVATORS factors
Job dissatisfiers were labeled HYGIENE factors
Hygiene : Motivators: Job Dissatisfaction Job satisfaction Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Company Policy
Hygiene :
Motivators:
Job Dissatisfaction
Job satisfaction
Achievement
Recognition
Work itself
Responsibility
Advancement
Growth
Company Policy & Admn
Supervision
Interpersonal Relations
Working Conditions
Salary*
Status
Security
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

credit when

credit

 
 

go well & blame

go well & blame

 
 

bad. bad.

 

Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction

not

 

Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction

 

measured

basis

basis

 

 

variable inin

variable

motivation.

motivation.

 
 
 
 

 credit when credit go well & blame go well & blame bad. bad.  Job

Criticisms

Criticisms

People tend to take

People tend to take

when things

things

others when goes

others when goes

Theory basically on

Theory basically on

 credit when credit go well & blame go well & blame bad. bad.  Job

not onon motivation.

motivation.

not

not

measured onon overall

overall

Neglects situational

Neglects situational

 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

learning theory

 
 

from

acquired from

acquired

environment &

environment &

 
 

 

particular need

particular need

 

differently.

differently.

 

 

needs: needs:

 

ACHIEVMENT,

 

AFFILIATION

AFFILIATION

 
 
 
& &
&
&
 learning theory from acquired from acquired environment & environment &  particular need particular need

McClelland’s

McClelland’s

Need Theory

Need Theory

Closely associated with

Closely associated with

learning theory

since

since

needs are learned or

needs are learned or

culture

culture

People who acquire

People who acquire

behave

behave

His theory focuses on 3 3

His theory focuses on

ACHIEVMENT, POWER

POWER

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 

perform

perform better

better

 
 

33 Characters:

Characters:

 
 
 
 

responsibility

responsibility

 

b)

 

risk.

risk.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Drive to excel –

Drive to excel –

People with high

standards set standards set
standards set
standards set

Need for

Need for

Achievement

Achievement

against

against

People with high need

need

for achievement

for achievement

a) a) High need achievers-assume

High need achievers-assume

b) set moderately

set moderately

difficult goals/calculated

difficult goals/calculated

c) c) Have desire for

Have desire for

performance feedback

performance feedback

 people/desire people/desire diff.in diff.in life. life.  33 Characters: Characters: c)c) maintain follower
people/desire
people/desire
diff.in
diff.in life.
life.
 33 Characters:
Characters:
c)c) maintain
follower
a a
a a
 people/desire people/desire diff.in diff.in life. life.  33 Characters: Characters: c)c) maintain follower a a

Need

Need

for

for

Power

Power

Concerned with

Concerned with

impressing others/desire

impressing others/desire

to influence others/the

to influence others/the

urge to change

urge to change

to make

to make

  • a) a)

Desire to

Desire to

influence & direct others

influence & direct others

b) desire to control others

b) desire to control others

maintain leader-

leader-

follower relation

relation

 
 
 

Need

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

needs.

needs.

 

33 Characters:

a)

Characters: a)

for acceptance &

for acceptance &

 
 
 

whom they

whom

they value

value

 

c) Value feelings

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Need  needs. needs.  3 3 Characters: a) Characters: a) for acceptance & for acceptance
  • b) b)

Need for

for

Affiliation

Affiliation

Desire to establish & maintain

Desire to establish & maintain

warm relations with

warm relations with

others.

others.

Similar to Maslow’s

Similar to Maslow’s

social

social

Strong desire

Strong desire

approval

approval

Confirm to the wishes

Confirm to the wishes

of those

of those

c) Value feelings of others

of others

Alderfer’s ERG Theory Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Extension of Hertzberg’s & Maslow’s Theory Extension of Hertzberg’s
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Extension of Hertzberg’s & Maslow’s Theory
Extension of Hertzberg’s & Maslow’s Theory
Identified lower level & higher level needs
Identified lower level & higher level needs
Three Basic group of core needs:
Three Basic group of core needs:
Existence
Existence needs
needs – survival &
– survival &
physiological well being
physiological well being
2.
2. Relatedness needs – social &
Relatedness needs – social &
interpersonal needs
interpersonal needs
3.
3. Growth
Growth needs
needs – inner need for
– inner need for
personal
personal growth
growth
on Human Nature on Human Nature of workers Theory based Theory based McGregor’s Participation Theory Based
on Human Nature on Human Nature of workers
on Human Nature
on Human Nature
of workers

Theory based

Theory based

McGregor’s Participation Theory

Based on participation

 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 

XX Theory

 
 
  • a) a) People by

People by

 
 
  • b) b) They lack

They lack

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  • d) d) Generally

Generally

 

bright

bright

 
X X human beings human beings directed
X
X
human beings
human beings
directed

Theory

Theory

Two distinct views of

Two distinct views of

Theory isis negative:

negative:

nature

nature

indolent

indolent

ambition/dislike

ambition/dislike

responsibility/prefer

responsibility/prefer directed

  • c) c) Self-centered/indifferent to

Self-centered/indifferent to

Organisational

Organisational

goals

goals

gullible/not sharp or

gullible/not sharp or

 Y Theory is a) a) b) succeed. succeed.
Y Theory is
a)
a)
b)
succeed.
succeed.

They want to

b) They want to

responsibility

responsibility

Y Y quite quite
Y
Y
quite
quite

Theory

Theory

Y Theory is positive:

positive:

People by nature

People by nature

are

are

active and not

active and not

resistant to

resistant to

Organisational

Organisational

goals

goals

assume

assume

c) c) Want organisation to

Want organisation to

d) d) Have need for

Have need for

achievement

achievement

It is actually behave. another with
It is actually
behave.
another with
overlapping.
overlapping.

is seen to

the

boundary limits

of extremes within

which the

organizational

man

The fact is, no

actual man will

belong to either

of

the two fully.

There will always be

They will swing

from one to

changes in mood

and environment

Urwick’s Urwick’s Theory Theory  Each individual should know the Each individual should know the organisational
Urwick’s
Urwick’s Theory
Theory
Each individual should know the
Each individual should know the
organisational goals precisely and
organisational goals precisely and
the amount of
the amount of contribution
contribution through
through
his
his efforts
efforts
Each individual should also know that
Each individual should also know that
the realisation of organisational goals
the realisation of organisational goals
is going to satisfy his/her needs.
is going to satisfy his/her needs.
Ouchi’s Theory Z Ouchi’s Theory Z  Strong Bond between Strong Bond between Organization and Employees
Ouchi’s Theory Z
Ouchi’s Theory Z
Strong Bond between
Strong Bond between
Organization and Employees
Organization and Employees
Employee Participation and
Employee Participation and
Involvement Involvement
No Formal Organization
No Formal Organization
Structure Structure
Human Resource Department
Human Resource Department
This theory represents
This theory represents
Japanese management
Japanese management
practices (Group decision,
practices (Group decision,
Social cohesion, holistic
Social cohesion, holistic
concern for employees etc)
concern for employees etc)
 motivation motivation  reward reward they
motivation
motivation
reward
reward they
effort they put effort they put achive and achive and
effort they put
effort they put
achive and
achive and

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Most accepted

Most accepted

explanation on

explanation on

Founded on basic

Founded on basic

notion that people

notion that people

will be motivated

will be motivated

to high level of

to high level of

effort when they

effort when they

believe there is

believe there is

relationship between

relationship between

in, performance they

in, performance they

they receive.

receive.

Vroom’s Expectancy Model of Motivation M O Perform T Effort Reward ance I V A T
Vroom’s Expectancy Model of Motivation
M
O
Perform
T
Effort
Reward
ance
I
V
A
T
I
O
Will my effort
improve my
performance
?
Will performance
lead to rewards?
Will rewards
satisfy my
individual goals?
n
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

VALANCE:

 
 
 

EXPECTANCY:

EXPECTANCY:

 

performance

performance

 
 
 
 
 

Expressed as:

Expressed as:

 

 

have

 

approaches 0,

approaches 0,

touches

touches 00

 
 
 
 

on a particular

on a particular

expectancy expectancy that to rewards. to rewards.
expectancy
expectancy
that
to rewards.
to rewards.

efforts

efforts toto

Key constructs in

Key constructs in

theory

theory

VALANCE: Value

Value

strength one places

or strength one places

or

outcome or reward

outcome or reward

Relates

Relates

INSTRUMENTALITY:

INSTRUMENTALITY:

Belief

Belief that

performance is

performance is

related

related

M=VxExI

M=VxExI

Being multiplicative,

Being multiplicative,

all values must

all values must

have high +ve value. If any one

high +ve value.

If any one

performance also

performance also

 productive   performance performance
productive
performance
performance

Assumption is

Assumption is

Studies prove

Studies prove

level of level of of productivity of productivity between between
level of
level of
of productivity
of productivity
between
between

The Porter-Lawler Model

The Porter-Lawler Model

that Happy worker is a

that

Happy worker is a

productive worker

worker

that there is remote

that there is remote

relationship between

relationship between

satisfaction and level

satisfaction and level

Complex relationship

Complex relationship

motivation, satisfaction and

motivation, satisfaction and

 Performance depends on 3 factors: Performance depends on 3 factors: • Employee should have desire
Performance depends on 3 factors:
Performance depends on 3 factors:
• Employee should have desire to perform
Employee should have desire to perform
• Employee should have the skill and
Employee should have the skill and
abilities to do the job
abilities to do the job
• Employee should have clear perception
Employee should have clear perception
of his role in the organization and job
of his role in the organization and job
requirements. requirements.
 - reward reward • Performance – Performance – - - effort does effort does performance
-
reward
reward
• Performance –
Performance –
-
- effort does
effort does
performance
performance
-
and
and abilities
abilities
-
- no perfect
no perfect
and

Variables in the

Variables in the

depends on

- depends on

 - reward reward • Performance – Performance – - - effort does effort does performance

model:

model:

• Effort – Energy expanded to do the job

Effort – Energy expanded to do the job

attractiveness of the

attractiveness of the

Motivation leads to effort

Motivation leads to effort

not

not

deliver effective

deliver effective

- performance

performance

depends on skills

depends on skills

match

match

between effort

between effort

and performance

performance

  • Performance Performance
Performance
Performance
give give on whether the on whether the reward offered reward offered
give
give
on whether the
on whether the
reward offered
reward offered

• Rewards : Reward

Rewards : Reward

is based on

is based on

performance

performance

Intrinsic – What employee gives himself

Intrinsic – What employee gives himself

Extrinsic – What others

Extrinsic – What others

satisfaction depends on

satisfaction depends on

perception

perception

• Satisfaction :Depends

Satisfaction :Depends

actual

actual

fall short, match or

fall short, match or

exceed.

exceed.

 Equity perceived by perceived by and
 Equity
perceived by
perceived by
and

Equity Theory

Theory

the degree

- - the degree

Theories Theories situation plays situation plays
Theories
Theories
situation plays
situation plays

performance

performance

Contemporary

Contemporary

– J. Stacy Adams

– J. Stacy Adams

of equity/inequity

of

equity/inequity

an employee with

an employee with

reference to his work

reference to his work

a major role in

a major role in

work

work

and satisfaction

satisfaction

 Equity Equity ::  Person’s Person’s outcomes outcomes Persons inputs Persons inputs Inequity: Inequity: 
 Equity
Equity ::
 Person’s
Person’s outcomes
outcomes
Persons inputs
Persons inputs
Inequity:
Inequity:
Person’s outcomes
Person’s outcomes
Person’s inputs
Person’s inputs
OROR
Person’s
Person’s outcomes
outcomes
Person’s inputs
Person’s inputs
other’s other’s outcomes] outcomes] other’s inputs other’s inputs Other’s outcomes outcomes Other’s inputs Other’s inputs Other’s
other’s
other’s outcomes]
outcomes]
other’s inputs
other’s inputs
Other’s outcomes
outcomes
Other’s inputs
Other’s inputs
Other’s
Other’s outcomes
outcomes
Other’s inputs
Other’s inputs

= =

<< Other’s

> >

 Self-inside organization in organization in  Self-outside: organization in organization in  Other-Inside  Other
 Self-inside
organization in
organization in
 Self-outside:
organization in
organization in
 Other-Inside
 Other
Other outside
outside : :
position position present position position
position
position
present position
position

others outside the

others outside the

Referents

Referents

Self-inside : Compare others within the

: Compare

others within the

similar

similar

position

position

Self-outside: Compares

Compares

a similar

a similar

Other-Inside :: Compares

Compares present

with others in another

with others in another

organization

organization

Comparing self with others

Comparing self with others

in other organization in

in other organization in

a different position

a different position

 Variable that Variable that • Gender Gender • Length • Level Level of of job
Variable that
Variable that
• Gender
Gender
• Length
• Level
Level of
of job
job
 Variable that Variable that • Gender Gender • Length • Level Level of of job

influence reference:

influence reference:

Length oror tenure

tenure

• Level of Education

Level of Education

/ /

professional

professional

qualification

qualification

 • Leave Leave the the field field 
• Leave
Leave the
the field
field
those of of
those of
of

After comparison – choices one make

After comparison – choices one make

• Change in inputs

Change in inputs

– increase/decrease

– increase/decrease

• Change in outcomes–

Change in outcomes–

increase/decrease

increase/decrease

• Distort perception

Distort perception

of self –

of self –

• Choose a different

Choose a different

referent –

referent –

People relate not

People relate not

only

only

their rewards with

their rewards with

effort but also rewards

effort but also rewards

with those

with

others. If he finds

others. If he finds

inequity he gets tensed.

inequity he gets tensed.

 Four methods by which employee overcome perceived Four methods by which employee overcome perceived inequity:
Four methods by which employee overcome perceived
Four methods by which employee overcome perceived
inequity: inequity:
 Over
Over rewarded:
rewarded:
• Hourly
Hourly based
based wages
wages :If Rewards exceed their input tend to
:If Rewards exceed their input tend to
produce
produce more.
more.
• Piece
Piece rate
rate wages
wages: Over rewarded employees tend to increase
: Over rewarded employees tend to increase
output either in quality or quantity.
output either in quality or quantity.
Under
Under rewarded
rewarded ::
Will try to restore equity by reducing the efforts they put in by
Will try to restore equity by reducing the efforts they put in by
reducing
reducing quality
quality oror quantity.
quantity.
If payment is on the basis of no. of units – reduce equity by
If payment is on the basis of no. of units – reduce equity by
producing
producing more.
more.
 
 
 

Exceptions:

Exceptions:

 

 
 

affect

affect much

much

 

Not only pay is

Not only pay is

 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 

and relative

and

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
rewards
rewards

Inequity due to overpayment does not

Inequity due to overpayment does not

considered but other

considered but other

factors are also considered like job

factors are also considered like job

designation, fringe benefits etc.

designation, fringe benefits etc.

Distributive justice vs.

Distributive justice vs.

procedural justice.

procedural justice.

This theory demonstrates that employees

This theory demonstrates that employees

are motivated by

are motivated by

both

both

absolute rewards

absolute

relative rewards

rewards

  are: are: making
are:
are:
making
  are: are: making Attribution Attribution Theory Theory Different from other Different from other theories

Attribution

Attribution

Theory

Theory

Different from other

Different from other

theories

theories

Identifies attributions made by people for

Identifies attributions made by people for

their motivation.

their motivation.

Common assumptions

Common assumptions

• Give logical explanation

Give logical explanation for the happening

for the happening

• Attribute actions to internal/external causes

Attribute actions to internal/external causes

• Individuals follow

Individuals follow

fairly

fairly

logical approach in

logical approach in

making attributions.

attributions.

 process process   forces (rules, forces (rules,
process
process
forces (rules,
forces (rules,
 process process   forces (rules, forces (rules, determined by determined by This theory deals

determined by

determined by

This theory deals

This theory deals

with cognitive

with cognitive

It tries to answer

It tries to answer

“why” aspect of

“why” aspect of

motivation and

motivation and

behavior.

behavior.

Heider – Behavior is

Heider – Behavior is

both personality attributes ( ability,

both personality attributes ( ability,

effort and fatigue) and external

effort and fatigue) and external

regulations)

regulations)

 employee’s   performance performance
employee’s
performance
performance
outcome in the outcome in the
outcome in the
outcome in the

of factors that

of factors that

Locus of Control

Locus of Control

Attribution Theory

Attribution Theory

It is the chief source

It is the chief source

creates a result to an

creates a result to an

employee’s perception.

perception.

Depends on Internal/External factors

Depends on Internal/External factors

An employee’s perceived locus of

An employee’s

perceived locus of

control controls

control controls his/her own

his/her own

and

and

satisfaction level

satisfaction level

 their abilities effect. effect.
their abilities
effect.
effect.
about regarding
about
regarding

Other

Other Attributions

Attributions

Bernard Weiner –

Bernard Weiner –

Employees with

Employees with

longer work experience

longer work experience

have stable internal

have stable internal

attributions about

attributions

their abilities and

and

unstable internal

unstable internal

attributions regarding

attributions

 attributions. attributions. • Consensus Consensus – – situation • Consistency pertains is similar for is
attributions.
attributions.
• Consensus
Consensus – –
situation
• Consistency
pertains
is similar for
is similar for
tasks
tasks

to

to

which others which others other people other people of behavior which of behavior which – –
which others
which others
other people
other people
of behavior which
of behavior which
– – pertains
pertains toto

impact

impact onon

Kelly : Consensus, consistency &

Kelly : Consensus, consistency &

distinctiveness

distinctiveness

have

have

extent

extent

behave in a similar manner in the same

behave in a similar manner in the same

situation -- pertains to

pertains to

Consistency – –

pattern

pattern

may be relatively

may be relatively

stable or unstable –

stable or unstable –

pertains toto time

time

Distinctiveness

Distinctiveness

whether the behavior

whether the behavior

– –

all tasks.

all tasks.

Findings: Findings:  Bad-luck attributions –– blaming Bad-luck attributions blaming external causes like bad luck, fate
Findings:
Findings:
Bad-luck attributions –– blaming
Bad-luck attributions
blaming
external causes like bad luck, fate
external causes like bad luck, fate
etc.
etc. for
for failure
failure
Good-luck – reduces the happiness
Good-luck – reduces the happiness
associated with the success.
associated with the success.
Internal factors –
Internal factors –
expectations high for success in future.
expectations high for success in future.
Set Challenging goals for performance
Set Challenging goals for performance
• Greater desire for achievement.
Greater desire for achievement.
Other Emerging Theories Other Emerging Theories  Control Theory – Control Theory – • Cognitive Cognitive
Other Emerging Theories
Other Emerging Theories
Control Theory –
Control Theory –
Cognitive
Cognitive phenomenon
phenomenon
Control function
Control function
Agency Theory –
Agency Theory –
• Principal engages another person to act
Principal engages another person to act
on his behalf. Helps understand how
on his behalf. Helps understand how
principals can reduce conflicts between
principals can reduce conflicts between
their interests and those of agents.
their interests and those of agents.
 Job Design – Job Design –  • Job
Job Design –
Job Design –
• Job
Taylor - Taylor - responsibilities responsibilities
Taylor -
Taylor -
responsibilities
responsibilities

Motivating thru’

Motivating thru’

Job design and

Job design and

Goal

Goal

setting

setting

Fredrick

Fredrick

Structuring tasks

Structuring tasks

and

and

into a job to make the job a more

into a job to make the job a more

meaningful, significant and satisfying

meaningful, significant and satisfying

Approaches to

Approaches to job design:

job design:

Job Engineering

Engineering – –

plant layout, design of

plant layout, design of

product, processes & tools,

product, processes &

tools,

measurement

measurement

and

and

standardization.

standardization.

 Job Job enlargement enlargement –– horizontal horizontal expansion of jobs – increasing the expansion of
 Job
Job enlargement
enlargement –– horizontal
horizontal
expansion of jobs – increasing the
expansion of jobs – increasing the
number of jobs. – less monotonous
number of jobs. – less monotonous
 Job
Job rotation
rotation – Switching of jobs
– Switching of jobs
 Job
Job enrichment
enrichment – vertical expansion
– vertical expansion
of jobs – increase in the content of
of jobs – increase in the content of
work work
Quality of Work Life -
Quality of Work Life -
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Management

Management

 
 

 
 

directed

directed

 

 
 

employees

employees

 
 

 
 

&& intensity

intensity

 
 
 
 
 
of Scientific of Scientific goals – goals – content content
of Scientific
of Scientific
goals –
goals – content
content

Motivating Performance through

Motivating Performance through

Goal Setting

Goal

Setting

Originated by Theory

Originated by

Theory

Goal – end towards

Goal – end towards

which efforts are

which efforts are

Guide organization and motivate

Guide organization

and motivate

Primary attributes of

Primary attributes of

 Content – level of difficulty involved Content – level of difficulty involved  Intensity –
Content – level of difficulty involved
Content – level of difficulty involved
Intensity – process by which goal is
Intensity – process by which goal is
set
set and
and accomplished.
accomplished.
Performance enhancement thro’ goal
Performance enhancement thro’ goal
setting:
setting:
• S-M-A-R-T
S-M-A-R-T
 Application of GS to Organizational Application of GS to Organizational System System Performance Performance •
Application of GS to Organizational
Application of GS to Organizational
System
System Performance
Performance
• The Process – MBO
The Process – MBO
• Consensus on key goals and objectives
Consensus on key goals and objectives
• Sketch plan of action
Sketch plan of action
• Control Control of of behavior behavior
• Periodic appraisal and reviews
Periodic appraisal and reviews