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COPYRIGHT

HOW WOULD YOU DEFINE THE WORD


COPYRIGHT?

COPYRIGHT IS

COPYRIGHT IS

THE RIGHT TO COPY.

IF I INVENT OR DREAM UP OR CREATE

SOMETHING.

IF I INVENT OR DREAM UP OR CREATE

SOMETHING.

IF I INVENT OR DREAM UP OR CREATE

SOMETHING.

IF I INVENT OR DREAM UP OR CREATE

SOMETHING.

IF I INVENT OR DREAM UP OR CREATE SOMETHING.

ONLY I HAVE THE RIGHT TO COPY. IN OTHER WORDS


TO MANUFACTURE.

WHEN IS COPYRIGHT CREATED?

WHEN IS COPYRIGHT CREATED?

WHEN THE IDEA COMES TO YOU IN A DREAM?

WHEN IS COPYRIGHT CREATED?

WHEN THE IDEA COMES TO YOU IN A DREAM?

WHEN YOU START HUMMING A TUNE IN YOUR HEAD?

COPYRIGHT IS CREATED AT THE MOMENT IT IS


FIXED BY THE AUTHOR. IE; WHEN THE PEN
LEAVES THE PAPER OR WHEN THE SONG IS
RECORDED.

HOW DO I PROTECT MY COPYRIGHT?

HOW DO I PROTECT MY COPYRIGHT?

PRESERVE EVIDENCE THAT COPYRIGHT WAS


FIXED ON A CERTAIN DATE.

EG; PUT CD IN AN ENVELOPE, WAX SEAL, POST IT


TO YOURSELF BY RECORDED DELIVERY. DO NOT
OPEN.

BUT WHY IS COPYRIGHT VALUABLE? HOW DOES


IT GENERATE MONEY?

BUT WHY IS COPYRIGHT VALUABLE? HOW DOES


IT GENERATE MONEY?

IN ORDER TO DEMONSTRATE THIS WE MUST


SEPARATE THE RECORDING ARTIST AND THE
WRITER.

MUSIC PUBLISHING

PRE-DATES THE RECORDING INDUSTRY.

PRE-DATES THE RECORDING INDUSTRY.

WOULD PUBLISH AND SELL SHEET MUSIC OF

POPULAR SONGS

PRE-DATES THE RECORDING INDUSTRY.

WOULD PUBLISH AND SELL SHEET MUSIC OF

POPULAR SONGS

WOULD EMPLOY SONGWRITERS AND PUBLISH

THEIR SONGS

THEY WERE ASSIGNED THE RIGHT TO COPY BY

THE SONGWRITER IN RETURN FOR A ROYALTY


(PERCENTAGE) ON EVERY COPY SOLD.

THEY WERE ASSIGNED THE RIGHT TO COPY BY

THE SONGWRITER IN RETURN FOR A ROYALTY


(PERCENTAGE) ON EVERY COPY SOLD.
THEN RECORDED MUSIC WAS INVENTED

THEY WERE ASSIGNED THE RIGHT TO COPY BY

THE SONGWRITER IN RETURN FOR A ROYALTY


(PERCENTAGE) ON EVERY COPY SOLD.
THEN RECORDED MUSIC WAS INVENTED
A+R FROM THE NEWLY FORMED RECORD

COMPANIES WOULD GO DOWN TO DENMARK


STREET AND LOOK FOR SONGS FOR THEIR
ARTISTS TO RECORD.

SO THE PUBLISHERS BEGAN TO ASSIGN THE

COPYRIGHT TO THE RECORD LABELS SO THEY


COULD MANUFACTURE RECORDS.
IN THOSE DAYS THE SONGWRITER AND THE

RECORDING ARTIST WERE ALWAYS DISTINCT


ENTITIES.

SO THE PUBLISHERS BEGAN TO ASSIGN THE

COPYRIGHT TO THE RECORD LABELS SO THEY


COULD MANUFACTURE RECORDS.
IN THOSE DAYS THE SONGWRITER AND THE

RECORDING ARTIST WERE ALWAYS DISTINCT


ENTITIES.
UNTIL..

CONSIDER MOTOWN

CONSIDER MOTOWN
IN-HOUSE BAND, PLAYED AND RECORDED IN

EXCESS OF 150 MULTI MILLION SELLING HIT


RECORDS.

CONSIDER MOTOWN
IN-HOUSE BAND, PLAYED AND RECORDED IN

EXCESS OF 150 MULTI MILLION SELLING HIT


RECORDS.
MOTOWN PAID THE MUSICIANS $50/WEEK.

CONSIDER MOTOWN
IN-HOUSE BAND, PLAYED AND RECORDED IN

EXCESS OF 150 MULTI MILLION SELLING HIT


RECORDS.
MOTOWN PAID THE MUSICIANS $50/WEEK.
THE SONGWRITERS ARE MULTI MILLIONAIRES

STILL EARNING MONEY FROM THOSE RECORDS


TO THIS DAY.

HOW DID THEY BECOME MULTI MILLIONAIRES?

HOW DID THEY BECOME MULTI MILLIONAIRES?


MOTOWN HAD TO PAY A ROYALTY ON EACH COPY

MANUFACTURED TO THE
PUBLISHER/SONGWRITER IN RETURN FOR BEING
ASSIGNED THE RIGHT TO COPY

UK LAW (1988 COPYRIGHTS AND PATENTS ACT)

LEGAL REQUIREMENT FOR RECORD LABELS TO


PAY 8.5% OF THEIR DEALER PRICE TO THE
ORIGINAL COPYRIGHT OWNER.

CD ALBUMS
DEALER PRICE = 6.50 (RETAIL 9.99)

CD SINGLES
DEALER PRICE = 1.40 (RETAIL 1.79)

RECORD LABELS MUST PAY 8.5% TO THE PUBLISHER


ON EACH COPY SOLD.

CASE STUDY

BRIAN HIGGINS

STUDIED MUSIC TECH AT COLLEGE AND LANDED

A JOB AT WARNER BROS AS A STUDIO


TECHNICIAN

STUDIED MUSIC TECH AT COLLEGE AND LANDED

A JOB AT WARNER BROS AS A STUDIO


TECHNICIAN
THE CHER DISPUTE

STUDIED MUSIC TECH AT COLLEGE AND LANDED

A JOB AT WARNER BROS AS A STUDIO


TECHNICIAN
THE CHER DISPUTE
QUITS

STUDIED MUSIC TECH AT COLLEGE AND LANDED

A JOB AT WARNER BROS AS A STUDIO


TECHNICIAN
THE CHER DISPUTE
QUITS
STARTS WRITING POP SONGS. QUITE CATCHY!

GOT SIGNED TO SONY/BMG PUBLISHING AS A

SONGWRITER. 20000 ADVANCE TO REPAID


(RECOUPED) FROM FUTURE ROYALTIES.

GOT SIGNED TO SONY/BMG PUBLISHING AS A

SONGWRITER. 20000 ADVANCE TO REPAID


(RECOUPED) FROM FUTURE ROYALTIES.
SONY/BMG STARTED TO TOUT THEM ROUND THE

LABELS.

GOT SIGNED TO SONY/BMG PUBLISHING AS A

SONGWRITER. 20000 ADVANCE TO REPAID


(RECOUPED) FROM FUTURE ROYALTIES.
SONY/BMG STARTED TO TOUT THEM ROUND THE

LABELS.
BRIAN BUILT A LITTLE STUDIO.

DEALER PRICE CD SINGLE = 1.40, SO ANY LABEL

THAT RELEASES HAS TO PAY SONY/BMG


8.5%=12P

DEALER PRICE CD SINGLE = 1.40, SO ANY LABEL

THAT RELEASES HAS TO PAY SONY/BMG


8.5%=12P
BUT BECAUSE PUBLISHERS DONT SPEND LIKE

RECORD LABELS (NO RECORDING COSTS,


MARKETING, VIDEOS ETC) THEY DO NOT TAKE A
LARGE CUT (15%)

DEALER PRICE CD SINGLE = 1.40, SO ANY LABEL

THAT RELEASES HAS TO PAY SONY/BMG


8.5%=12P
BUT BECAUSE PUBLISHERS DONT SPEND LIKE

RECORD LABELS (NO RECORDING COSTS,


MARKETING, VIDEOS ETC) THEY DO NOT TAKE A
LARGE CUT (15%)
BRIAN GETS 10P, SONY/BMG 2P.

RECORDING ARTISTS HAVE TO RECOUP VERY

LARGE COSTS (RECORDING, PROMO, VIDEO,


ADVERTISING ETC)
BRIAN WILL NOT BE PAID ANY MORE MONEY

UNTIL HE RECOUPS 20K ADVANCE. 10P PER


SINGLE = 200,000 COPIES.

PAUL ADAM AT POLYDOR


SELECTS ONE OF THE SONGS BRIAN HAS

WRITTEN FOR A NEW GIRL BAND.

PAUL ADAM AT POLYDOR


SELECTS ONE OF THE SONGS BRIAN HAS

WRITTEN FOR A NEW GIRL BAND.


SOUND OF THE UNDERGROUND

PAUL ADAM AT POLYDOR


SELECTS ONE OF THE SONGS BRIAN HAS

WRITTEN FOR A NEW GIRL BAND.


SOUND OF THE UNDERGROUND
GIRLS ALOUD 12 WEEKS PRIMETIME TV

ADVERTISING. HIGH PROFILE.

BRIAN HOPED IT WOULD DO WELL, KNOWING FOR

EVERY COPY AFTER 200,000 HE WOULD START


EARNING.

BRIAN HOPED IT WOULD DO WELL, KNOWING FOR

EVERY COPY AFTER 200,000 HE WOULD START


EARNING.
GIRLS ALOUD HOPED IT WOULD DO WELL TOO.

BRIAN HOPED IT WOULD DO WELL, KNOWING FOR

EVERY COPY AFTER 200,000 HE WOULD START


EARNING.
GIRLS ALOUD HOPED IT WOULD DO WELL TOO.
BUT HOW MANY COPIES DID THEY NEED TO SELL

TO RECOUP, AND START EARNING.

RECORDING 55K

RECORDING 55K
RADIO AND TV PROMO 40K

RECORDING 55K
RADIO AND TV PROMO 40K
PRESS PROMO 15K

RECORDING 55K
RADIO AND TV PROMO 40K
PRESS PROMO 15K
VIDEO 75K

RECORDING 55K
RADIO AND TV PROMO 40K
PRESS PROMO 15K
VIDEO 75K
ADVERTISING 100K

RECORDING 55K
RADIO AND TV PROMO 40K
PRESS PROMO 15K
VIDEO 75K
ADVERTISING 100K
TOTAL SPEND =

RECORDING 55K
RADIO AND TV PROMO 40K
PRESS PROMO 15K
VIDEO 75K
ADVERTISING 100K
TOTAL SPEND = 285,000

DEALER PRICE = 1.40


8.5% TO PUBLISHER = 12P (LEAVES 1.28)

DEALER PRICE = 1.40


8.5% TO PUBLISHER = 12P (LEAVES 1.28)
DISTRIBUTION COSTS 20% = 28P (LEAVES 1.00)

DEALER PRICE = 1.40


8.5% TO PUBLISHER = 12P (LEAVES 1.28)
DISTRIBUTION COSTS 20% = 28P (LEAVES 1.00)
MANUFACTURING = 70P (LEAVES 30P)

DEALER PRICE = 1.40


8.5% TO PUBLISHER = 12P (LEAVES 1.28)
DISTRIBUTION COSTS 20% = 28P (LEAVES 1.00)
MANUFACTURING = 70P (LEAVES 30P)
ARTIST ROYALTY 20% = 6P

GIRLS ALOUD NEED TO RECOUP 285,000 FROM

THEIR ROYALTY OF 6P PER SINGLE.

GIRLS ALOUD NEED TO RECOUP 285,000 FROM

THEIR ROYALTY OF 6P PER SINGLE.


NEED TO SELL

GIRLS ALOUD NEED TO RECOUP 285,000 FROM

THEIR ROYALTY OF 6P PER SINGLE.


NEED TO SELL 4,750,000 COPIES TO RECOUP

GIRLS ALOUD NEED TO RECOUP 285,000 FROM

THEIR ROYALTY OF 6P PER SINGLE.


NEED TO SELL 4,750,000 COPIES TO RECOUP
WHICH IT DIDNT

GIRLS ALOUD NEED TO RECOUP 285,000 FROM

THEIR ROYALTY OF 6P PER SINGLE.


NEED TO SELL 4,750,000 COPIES TO RECOUP
WHICH IT DIDNT
IT SOLD 2,200,000

GIRLS ALOUD NEED TO RECOUP 285,000 FROM

THEIR ROYALTY OF 6P PER SINGLE.


NEED TO SELL 4,750,000 COPIES TO RECOUP
WHICH IT DIDNT
IT SOLD 2,200,000
BUT BRIAN EARNED 10P PER COPY FOR EVERY

COPY AFTER 200,000 SALES.

GIRLS ALOUD NEED TO RECOUP 285,000 FROM THEIR


ROYALTY OF 6P PER SINGLE.

NEED TO SELL 4,750,000 COPIES TO RECOUP

WHICH IT DIDNT

IT SOLD 2,200,000

BUT BRIAN EARNED 10P PER COPY FOR EVERY COPY


AFTER 200,000 SALES.

IN OTHER WORDS 2 MILLION X 10 P

200,000

200,000
FOR SITTING ON HIS ARSE.

200,000
FOR SITTING ON HIS ARSE.
WHILE GIRLS ALOUD WERE GETTING UP AT 5AM

EVERY DAY

200,000
FOR SITTING ON HIS ARSE.
WHILE GIRLS ALOUD WERE GETTING UP AT 5AM

EVERY DAY
WORKING LIKE CRAZY, GOING ON EVERY TV

SHOW

200,000
FOR SITTING ON HIS ARSE.
WHILE GIRLS ALOUD WERE GETTING UP AT 5AM

EVERY DAY
WORKING LIKE CRAZY, GOING ON EVERY TV

SHOW
FOR A SINGLE THEY WERE NEVER GOING TO

MAKE ANY CASH FROM

BRIAN SAID TO SONY, IVE GOT A FEW MORE

SONGS..
NO GOOD ADVICE, LOVE MACHINE, CANT

SPEAK FRENCH, BIOLOGY, THE SHOW

BRIAN SAID TO SONY, IVE GOT A FEW MORE

SONGS..
NO GOOD ADVICE, LOVE MACHINE, CANT

SPEAK FRENCH, BIOLOGY, THE SHOW


ENDED UP WRITING MUCH OF GIRLS ALOUDS

FIRST ALBUM.

BRIAN SAID TO SONY, IVE GOT A FEW MORE

SONGS..
NO GOOD ADVICE, LOVE MACHINE, CANT

SPEAK FRENCH, BIOLOGY, THE SHOW


ENDED UP WRITING MUCH OF GIRLS ALOUDS

FIRST ALBUM.
WHICH SOLD 1,800,000 COPIES.

ALBUM DEALER PRICE = 6.50

ALBUM DEALER PRICE = 6.50


POLYDOR MUST PAY 8.5% TO SONY/BMG = 55P.

ALBUM DEALER PRICE = 6.50


POLYDOR MUST PAY 8.5% TO SONY/BMG = 55P.
55P X 1,800,000 = 850,000 FOR BRIAN.

ALBUM DEALER PRICE = 6.50


POLYDOR MUST PAY 8.5% TO SONY/BMG = 55P.
55P X 1,800,000 = 850,000 FOR BRIAN.
POLYDOR SPENT A FORTUNE ON THE ALBUM

ALBUM DEALER PRICE = 6.50


POLYDOR MUST PAY 8.5% TO SONY/BMG = 55P.
55P X 1,800,000 = 850,000 FOR BRIAN.
POLYDOR SPENT A FORTUNE ON THE ALBUM
SO POOR OLD GIRLS ALOUD

ALBUM DEALER PRICE = 6.50


POLYDOR MUST PAY 8.5% TO SONY/BMG = 55P.
55P X 1,800,000 = 850,000 FOR BRIAN.
POLYDOR SPENT A FORTUNE ON THE ALBUM
SO POOR OLD GIRLS ALOUD
WERE STILL UNRECOUPED

90% OF RECORDING ARTISTS DO NOT RECOUP

THEIR COSTS.

SO WHAT CAN THE ARTIST DO?

WRITE THEIR OWN SONGS OR

WRITE THEIR OWN SONGS OR

WRITE THEIR OWN SONGS.