Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

ACG 7th Annual Conference on Total Building

Commissioning

COMMISSIONING ACTIVE BEAMS


Presented By
Darren Alexander
Twa Panel Systems Inc.

April 15, 2011

Agenda

Agenda

Introduction to Active (Chilled) Beams

Introduction to Active Beams


Fan energy savings

Introduction to Active Beams


De-coupled ventilation systems

Fan Coil Units


VAV Systems
VRV System
(Variable
Refrigerant
Volume)
Active Beams

Energy
Usage

Noise
Level

Output

Comment
s

Medium/High

Medium

32-64 Btuh/ft2

Adaptable
solution

32-64 Btuh/ft2

Very
efficient
all-air
system

Low

Low/Mediu
m

High

Medium

48-64 Btuh/ft2

Possible
high
maintenan
ce costs

Low

Low

32-125 Btuh/ft

Very low
maintenan
ce costs

Introduction to Active Beams


Principles of operation

Introduction to Active Beams


Active beam benefits
1) Lower overall air volume processed by the primary air handling unit.
(0.25-0.5 cfm/ft2)
2) Higher entering chilled water temperatures: (55F-61F).
3) Lower hot water temperatures: Select beams for cooling duty, then
choose
appropriate hot water
temperature for heating.
(i.e. usually less than 120F. Beam
discharge air
should be less than 15oF
warmer than room design
temperature to
limit the risk of stratification.
4) Suitable for use with water-to-water heat pumps, and has the
potential to double the
COP of a dedicated chiller loop.
5) Self regulating secondary capacity: Approach = Room Temperature Supply water
temperature
6) VAV control: Can be used to strictly limit room air velocity, provide
linear
temperature control, and additional fan energy
savings for areas with
highly variable latent loads.

Introduction to Active Beams


Suitable areas for active beams

Introduction to Active Beams


Psychrometrics

Primary air
dew point
Room air dew
point
Secondary
CWT
Dehumidifica
tion

Option 1

Option 2

48F

51.5F

55F

57.8F

55F

58F

0.002 lbs/lbDA

0.002 lbs/lbDA

RESET FOR ENERGY


SAVINGS!

Introduction to Active Beams


Condensation risks
Areas of greatest condensation risk:
1) Near points of entry to the building
2)At the perimeter, with mixed-mode ventilation
3)Structures with poor building envelopes, including retrofit applications
4)In areas with highly variable latent loads:
Board rooms
Lunch / coffee rooms
Etc
Condensation prevention strategies may include:
1)De-activation of secondary chilled water supply, by zone, via loss of dewpoint from
sensors mounted to CWS lines. ( or via combination: DB / RH zone
stats, or other)
2) Tempering secondary chilled water supply by zone via:
Three-way mixing valve
Injection pumps
3) Etc

Introduction to Active Beams


DOAS Information Resource
1) http://doas.psu.edu/
2) Not all primary air handling systems are DOAS!

Introduction to Active Beams


Placement within the ceiling

P2 drops rapidly
moving into the
room
P3 = at 3ft
into occupied
zone

Introduction to Active Beams


Inherent comfort with active beams

Active Beam

Diffuser

Introduction to Active Beams


Beam acoustics

Chart reports
acoustic values
without room
attenuation
effect
Active beams can
be very quiet!

Introduction to Active Beams


1/3rd Octave band analysis
Owens Corning Acoustic
Testing
Acoustic test standards may
include:
ISO3741
ASHRAE Std. 70
Reverberant chamber (No
Attenuation)
Manufacturer A = Worst Case

2 x 8 D nozzle @ 1.20w.c.
Peak in the 2.5 KHz Band
Lw (dB) = 39.1
LwA (dBA) = 38.8

Installation and maintenance

Installation and maintenance


Fastening beams to the structure

Upstream damper
at SMACNA
recommended
minimum distance
Drywall

N.B. - Include seismic restraint


where required by code

Installation and maintenance


T-bar mounting detail

Width

Length

Installation and maintenance


Exposed / pendant type units

Coanda wings
required for
proper throw
characteristics

Installation and maintenance


Installation Tips
1. Rough-in: piping, ducting, concrete threaded inserts, and
beams, prior to T-bar installation. Lower beams into T-bar for
final positioning.
2. Store beams on-site indoors whenever possible, in a low traffic
area, and otherwise covered for protection from the elements.
3. Leave plastic film on each unit to minimize site damage, and
prevent coil / unit fouling.
4. Match beam label to schedule; - beams look alike! Confirm that
the right beam is in the right room. Contractor suggestion: Confirm packing slip matches shop drawing requirements upon
receipt of material.
5. Limit flexible duct to no more than 10. Avoid sharp turns in
ductwork.

Installation and maintenance


Installation Tips
6. Plan for access doors, and possibly welded-aluminum frames,
with beams mounted in dry-wall ceilings.
7. Manage glazing surface temperatures by planning discharge
configuration. With high quality glass, beams which discharge
perpendicular to the glazing, are typically preferred.
8. Stainless steel flexible hoses allow for some adjustment within
the ceiling grid.

Installation and maintenance


Sample active beam packaging
Units remain asnew
until final
commissioning
and turn-over.
Recyclable packaging
materials.
Face-to-face, and
back-to-back crating
mini-mizes shipping
damage.

Installation and maintenance


Beams mounted with aircraft cable

Note protective
film at inlet of
unit mounted coil

Installation and maintenance


IOM and precautions
Read the manufacturers Installation Operation and Maintenance
Manual
Pay particular note of any precautions which have been
identified as high risk conditions. (i.e. minimum two people to
handle beams 6 and larger, pulling on un-latched door may
cause hardware failure, be cautious of sharp edges, limit flex
duct connections to 10 maximum, etc)
Do NOT circulate water through the beam mounted coil until the
mains have been properly de-greased / flushed.
Do NOT remove protective plastic film from beam body until the
space has been appropriately cleaned, to minimize fouling of the
coil
DO lower the secondary chilled water temperature slowly to limit
the risk of condensation damage during start-up.
This list is NOT exhaustive, co-ordinate the start-up
requirements with the mechanical consultant.

Installation and maintenance


Coil maintenance

Active beams require practically no maintenance. If the coil


remains dry, as expected, there is very little risk of fin
bridging.

Recommended cleaning schedules typically involve


lowering, or removing the perforated doors / panels, in front
of unit mounted coil, at 6-Months, and 1-Yr., to establish a
maintenance schedule. Areas with higher airborne
contamination require more frequent cleaning.

Often, cleaning schedules can extend to between 3-5 years


in spaces subject to weekly housekeeping.

Higher housekeeping frequency, reduces the intervals


between coil maintenance.

Installation and maintenance


Coil maintenance

Vacuum with or
without a
horse-hair
bristle brush

Installation and maintenance


Unit cleanliness prior to start-up
Leave active beams wrapped to prevent fouling unit or coil.
Wipe unit with a damp rag to remove surface dirt, or vacuum
with a horse-hair bristle brush.
Do NOT scrub the paint. Damage to the finish may occur.
A soft bristle brush and mild detergent with water, can be
used to remove stubborn smudging, if required.
Beams ship with repair kits for surface scratched units. Do
NOT spray the unit directly with spray-bomb type matched
paint. Use artist paint brush, supplied with repair kit, to
apply the paint to the affected areas.

Air-side control and measurement

Air-side control and measurement


Ducting for equal static pressure

Pt = Ps + Pv

Pt = total pressure (w.c.)


Ps = static pressure (w.c.)
Pv = velocity pressure (w.c.)
If velocity pressure is kept negligibly low, then the same
static pressure will hold throughout the duct. ( i.e. Only if
transport loss can be neglected).

Pv = 0,5 x r x v2

Pv = velocity pressure (w.c.)


r = air density (0.075 lbs/ft3)
v2 = air velocity (fpm)
At < (590 fpm) duct air velocity Pv < (0.02w.c.)
At < (590 fpm) transport
= (5) < (0.001w.c/ft.)
= (8) < (.0007w.c./ft.)
Low air volumes required for beams makes using round
ducting practical and low air velocity achievable.

Air-side control and measurement


Vary primary air pressure for capacity
control ?
CAV primary air flow is
typically simple with
orifice plate Iris type
Varying
the plenum
dampers.
pressure yields a nonlinear capacity
response. Tight control
with variable plenum
pressure is typically
impractical.

Air-side control and measurement


Vary primary air pressure for capacity
control ?

VAV airflow solves the issue


of over-cooling a space with
un-tempered primary air.
Plenum static pressure
range (0.3-1.2 w.c. max)
VAV diversity advantage wit
tight P-band control.
Eliminates last limitation of
VAV systems.

Air-side control and measurement


Recommended CAV damper types
Iris Dampers
(angled multi-leaf
blades)

Pressure
independent
butterfly type

Iris
Dampers

Air-side control and measurement


Damper Tips
1. Size dampers for flow and pressure drop.
i.e. Do NOT oversize the damper by simply installing a
nominal duct diameter damper. Check range of flow control,
step-down if required.
1. Venturi style dampers are typically only used with labs, and
narrow-band pressurization control.
3. Check for flow generated noise with larger pressure drops.
Add duct silencers if necessary.
4. Consider VAV air valves for spaces with highly variable latent
loads.
Be aware of additional control requirements
Consider occupancy type (i.e. 2-position) air valves for
these spaces in an effort to manage control costs.

Air-side control and measurement


Acoustics
Watch for flow generated noise across Iris damper.
Add duct mounted silencers if required.

Air-side control and measurement


Balancing and confirmation
Beams are considered a constant volume device. Apply a known
plenum static pressure, and the cross-sectional area of each
nozzle sums to yield the total primary air delivered by the beam.
Adjust orifice P for beams of common pressure; - their nozzle
determines the primary air flow rate.
Since the induction ratio is exceedingly difficult to field measure,
the most accurate means of determining the primary air
delivery, is to rely on the manufacturers plenum pressure vs.
volume relationship, which is typically measured with a precision
orifice. Confirmation of zone flow rates can be accomplished via
a duct traverse at a node of common intersection.
Flow hoods cannot be used to determine total air flow into the
space due to the recirculation component of the room air.

Air-side control and measurement


Challenges
Nominal duct size vs. P across Iris dampers.
Zoning to minimize capital costs.
Night-time set-back.
Simultaneous perimeter heating with core cooling.
Air-side free-cooling.
Dew-point control.

Water-side control and measurement

Water-side control and measurement


Self-regulating thermal capacity
(1365
Btuh)

(682 Btuh)

Example 1
Room Temp
= 75oF
Water temp
= 61oF
Approach temp = 75oF-61oF
= 14oF
Capacity = X
Room Temp
= 68oF
Water Temp
= 61oF
Approach temp = 68oF-61oF
= 7oF
Capacity = 1/2X

Water-side control and measurement


Modulating water flow
Turbulen
t flow

Laminar
flow

Single circuit water flow

Temperature controlled water

Non-linear
Expensive
Maintenance issues?

Restricted to zone control


Expensive
Maintenance issues?

Water-side control and measurement


Challenges
Water-side free cooling
Zoning
Chilled water reset by zone
Valve authority
(Ensure that the control valves are sized based on Cv,
NOT line size)

Water-side control and measurement


Tips for easier commissioning
1. Use pressure independent flow regulating valves
2. Reverse-return piping can sometimes make life easier in
each zone
3. Apply venting liberally

Pressure independent
water control valve
(Constant Flow Rate)

Start-up

Start-up
Sample start-up sequence
1. Confirm start-up and operating sequence with the: plans,
specifications, and consulting engineer.
2. Confirm primary air ducting is free of dirt and debris to prevent
beam nozzle clogging.
3. Seal all duct leaks, and ensure all duct access ports are affixed to
the duct to achieve specified duct leakage rates.
4. Slit protective film at the active beam discharge to allow primary
air to enter the space. Do NOT remove the protective film, until
the work space is in an as-new condition.

Start-up
Sample start-up sequence (contd)
5. Do NOT operate the active beams for temporary heat without
prior written approval from the consulting engineer.
6. Close all operable windows, and ensure building exit doors are
sealed to assist in the envelope dehumidification.
7. Commission and operate the primary air handling unit for
building envelope dehumidification.
8. Balance supply air ducting to each zone.

Start-up
Sample start-up sequence (contd)
9. Ensure a clean environment within which the active beams will
operate (i.e. no gypsum dust or other construction
contamination)
10.Remove protective film from active beam units
11.Ensure piping mains have been flushed and leak-tested, prior
to being connected to the beam coils
12.DO NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES FLUSH THE PIPING SYSTEM
THROUGH THE BEAM MOUNTED COILS.

Start-up
Sample start-up sequence (contd)
13.Confirm that all air has been removed from the distribution
piping. Deliver excess water by increasing the pump flow, or by
closing other zones to assist in the removal of air from the
system.
14.Once the building envelope dew point has been reached, slowly
lower the secondary chilled water temperature to the scheduled
design value. Note that dehumidifying the building envelope
may require several days, or up to a week initially, to completely
dehumidify the space.
15.Confirm secondary water conditions regularly to ensure that it is
properly filtered, and appropriately inhibited.

Start-up
Shop drawings and schedules as a tool for
commissioning

Sample space serviced by active beams


Child care classroom, California