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C2 .

1 Structures &
Bonding

Additional Chemistry
1.1 Chemical bonding
1.2 Ionic bonding
1.3 Formulae of ionic compounds
1.4 Covalent bonding
1.5 Metals

1.1 Chemical Bonding


Elements want a complete outer shell of electrons to make them stable.
In effect they want the electronic structure of a noble gas..
To do this they will either gain, lose or share
electrons and by doing so form bonds
Elements with a completed outer shell are already
stable so do not react, e.g. noble gases (group 0).

Neon 2,8
is stable

Ions: Are charged particles

Lithium atom (Li)

Lithium ion (Li+)

Fluorine atom (F)

Fluorine ion (F-)

3 protons
3 electrons
Overall charge = 0

3 protons
2 electrons
Overall charge = +1

9 protons
9 electrons
Overall charge = 0

9 protons
10 electrons
Overall charge = -1

1.2 Ionic Bonding

For dot cross diagrams show the


outer shell of electrons only

Is when metal atoms react with non metal atoms.


Metal atoms lose extra electrons to become positive [ ]+ ions
Non metal atoms gain these electrons to become negative [ ]- ions

Na

Cl

Na

2,8,1

2,8,7

[2,8]+

Cl

NaCl

[2,8,8]-

The oppositely charged ions cause electrostatic forces to


occur in all directions. These are strong forces of
attraction. This is called ionic bonds

1.3 Formulae of ionic compounds


Charge on ions always
cancel each other out.
The formula is the ratio
of ions present.

More complicated ions

Name of ion
nitrate

formula
NO3-

Calcium chloride

Ca2+ Cl1 : 2
CaCl2

The brackets and number means there are


2 NO3 groups, so in total there are 2
nitrogen atoms &6 oxygen atoms present

Example compound
Calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2

hydroxide

OH-

Aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3

carbonate

CO32-

Sodium carbonate Na2CO3

sulfate

SO42-

Copper sulfate CuSO4

1.4 Covalent Bonding


Is when non metal atoms react with non metal atoms.
Electrons therefore need to be shared.

For dot cross


diagrams show the
outer shell of
electrons only

Simple molecules: Contain a few atoms bonded covalently

Hydrogen atoms

A shared pair of electrons. Both


hydrogen atoms have 2 electrons
in outer shell so are stable. This is
a single covalent bond.

Hydrogen molecule

Giant covalent structures:


many atoms bonded covalently

diamond

Carbon
atoms
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
2 shared pair of electrons.
This is a double covalent

1.5 Bonding in metals


Metal atoms dump their outer electrons in order to be stable
The metal atoms therefore become positively charged ions.
Electrostatic charge between free electrons and metal ions
forms the metallic bond.
Metal ion

+
+

Electron
outer shell
Metal atom

electron

Atoms form layers similar


to the structure seen in
bubble wrap

+
+

+
+

Sea of free delocalised


electrons.
Grain boundaries:

Areas where metal crystals (grains) can be seen