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BOILER INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION OF STEAM POWER PLANT


LAYOUT OF STEAM POWER PLANT
MORE PRESSURE PRODUCES IN BOILER CAUSES HEAT LOSS
& FUEL LOSS
IDINDUSTRIAL PROCESS
HEAT RECOVERY IN BOILER
PROBLEM ANALYSIS
ENERGY EFFICIENT BOILER SYSTEMS
TESTING OF BOILER
REDUCE THE HEAT LOSS OF BOILER
IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BOILER SYSTEMS:
SEMESTER V PROJECT REPORT

We have decided the IDP on Pressure analysis & Heat reduction


in boiler after visiting industry KABUTEX PROCESSORS at A K
Road Surat.
They are using boiler steam for drying the cloth, which is
manufactured to sell in the market. Boiler is operating daily on
temperature of 200-300 0C and 6 to 7 kg/sq.cm. of steam pressure. In
actual practice they require only 4 to 5 kg/sq.cm. of pressure. So, by
pressure reducing valve they are decreasing the pressure. By analysis
of pressure at every stage we will carry out heat loss and try to reduce
the heat loss. It is useful to recover heat loss during operation of
boiler and take different measure for reducing heat loss and steam
loss which increases the efficiency of boiler.

Before final selection of project, we visited


several Boiler industries for finding mechanical
pressure analysis & heat loss reduction in boiler
& improving energy efficiency of boiler systems
related problems.
We want to make a project which have special
purpose & use everywhere so finally we selected
the project of pressure analysis & heat loss
reduction in boiler.

Before starting any project planning is done.


Planning of a project is complicated task &
should be taken care of with great care. The
project works largely depend upon its planning.
While planning a project, each & every detail
should be worked out. We have planned our
project as below:
1) Literature Survey
2) working principal of boiler
2) Study about boiler related book and videos
3) Guide by college sir & Industry Guide
4) find the problem and solution and solution

DATE

15-7-2012

19-7-2012

23-7-2012

25-9-2012

NAME OF INDUSTRY

PROCESS

PROBLEM

Ambica iron work opp.


Agro pettrol pump,
bombay road, surat.

Manufacturer
of Agriculture
Equipments

No problem

Ikon industries 28, maruti


industrial estate, behind
solapur compound, rod
no.6 surat

Manufacturing
of Sheet Metal
Parts &
Fabrication
Work

No problem

Hetex industries, palsana


surat

It Manufacture No problem
Boilers

Vasundhra industries near Dyeing &


railway crossing lane a.k. printing
road, surat.

It Creates Heat
Loss & Steam
Loss Of Boiler

Boiler is a closed vessel in which


the heat produced by the
combustion of fuel is transferred
to water for its conversion into
steam at the desired temperature
and pressure.

Broadly speaking, a boiler is a


device used for generating :-

a)

Steam for power generation


Hot water for heating purpose

b)

mechanical power is produced


by a heat engine that transforms
thermal
energy
(from
combustion of a fuel) into
rotational energy
Heat (generated in the
furnace) is transmitted to the
boiler where water forced into
the boiler by the feed pump is
converted into steam

The primary requirements of steam generators or boilers


are:

a)

The water must be contained safely


The steam must be delivered safely in desired conditions
as regards its pressure, temperature, quality and
required rate

b)

The selection of type and size of a steam boiler depends upon the following
factors:
The power required and the working pressure
Geographical position of the plant
Availability of fuel
Supply and quality of feed water
The probable load factor
Space available
Labour available
Adaptability to the type of furnace and stoker
Steam pressure and superheat desired
Nature and intensity of draught

The Boilers may be classified as under:

Horizontal boiler, vertical or inclined boilers


Fire tube and water tube boilers
Externally fired and internally fired boilers
Forced circulation and natural circulation boilers
High, medium and low pressure boilers
Stationary boiler and portable boiler
Single tube boilers and multi tube boilers

Feed pump

Injector

Economiser

Air pre-heater

Superheater

Steam separator

Function:
Its is a pump which is used to deliver
feed water to the boiler.

The appliances in common use for


delivering the feed-water into the
steam boilers are:

a)

Reciprocating pump

b)

Rotary pump

Function:
The function of an injector is to
feed water into the boiler. It is
also used where the space is not
available for the installation of a
feed pump

Function:
An economiser is a device in which
the waste heat of the flue gases is
utilised for heating the feed water.

Economiser are of two types :

a)

Independent type, and

b)

Integral type

Function:
The function of the air pre-heater is
to increase the temperature of air
before it enters the furnance. It is
generally placed after the
economiser.

During our visit to the industry and discussion with b


oiler operator about the problem regarding heat recovery
and saving of the fuel. We come to know that they are
producing more pressure of steam than required for the
process. Which finally loss of heat and fuel. We explain
the same analysis for pressure to them .they agree with
our analysis, which gives us boost to solve their problem.
More pressure of steam producing loss of cost of the
industry. Which can be saved and finally per year it comes
to lot of energy saving and cost saving to this industry. We
successes to explain the same to the industry management,
they agree to adopt our solution mentioned in our
following topic.

Feed water is held in the desecrator (1) tank to help remove


dissolved oxygen and is then treated (2) prior to entering the boiler
(4). There are two types of boilers - water tube and fire tube.
Water tube boilers heat water in tubes and the hot combustion
gases are contained in the space around the tubes. Fire tube
boilers on the other hand have hot combustion gases contained
inside tubes and the water is circulated around these. An
economizer (3) pre-heats feed water using the flue gases from the
boilers chimney. The water is heated in the boiler (4) to produce
hot water and/or steam that can be used directly in the process or
sent to a heat-exchanger (5). The heat-exchanger transfers the heat
from the circulating boiler water to another media such as the
product, as indirect process use. Any condensate (6) (steam that
has condensed) is captured and returned to the desecrator for
reuse. Because the buildup of contaminants in the circulating
water can cause biological growth, corrosion and scale, a portion
of the circulating water is blown down (7)

1) A Text Of Thermal Engineering; R. S. KHURMI, J. K. GUPTA


2) Energy Hand Book, Second Edition, Von Nostrand Reinhold Company - Robert
L.Loftness
3 )Industrial Boilers, Longman Scientific Technical 1999
4) www.boiler.com
5) www.eng-tips.com
6) http://www.cedengineering.com/upload/Energy%20Efficiency%20Boilers.pdf
7) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler_feedwater_pump
8) http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/vishnuvashist-828523-heat-loss-in-boilerand-efficiency/
9) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Injector
10) www.brighthub.com
11) www.steamandboiler.com
12) http://www.energydepot.com/RPUcom/library/HVAC017.asp
13) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economizer
15) http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/industrial/equipment/boilers/10852

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