Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

MULTIPHASE FLOW

More complicated than single phase flow.

Flow pattern is not simply laminar or turbulent.


Types of multiphase flow:
Solid-fluid flows (e.g. particulate flows)
Liquid-liquid flows
Gas-liquid flows
Three-phase flows.
Due to density differences, horizontal flows are different
than vertical flows. Cocurrent flows are different than
countercurrent flows. Phase changes should be taken into
account when present.

Multiphase Flow (gas-liquid)


Horizontal Vertical

Dispersed
Annular
Stratified
Churn or froth
Wavy
Slug
Plug
Bubble

Multiphase Flow (gas-liquid)


Note: Each phase travels with its own velocity.
Flow regime is a matter of visual interpretation and
subjective to the person who takes the measurements.
Transition from one regime to another is gradual.

Cocurrent Horizontal flows:


Low liquid velocity: Stratified flow, wavy flow,
annular flow Intermediate liquid velocity: Plug
flow, slug flow, annular flow Large liquid
velocity: Bubbly flow, spray or mist flow.
Gas velocity

Importance of flow regime predictions


Better predictions of P and Holdup (volume

fraction), if flow regime is known.


Flow regime prediction is not only important for
reliable design, but for pipeline operability.
Phenomena like pipe corrosion and erosion depend on
flow regimes.
Distribution of corrosion, hydrate and was inhibitors
depend on flow regimes.
Flow regime at pipe outlet affects gas-liquid
separation efficiency.

Multiphase Flow (gas-liquid)


Typical Velocities (1in pipe)

Regime

Liquid Velocity
(ft/sec)

Dispersed
Annular
Stratified
Slug
Plug
Bubble

Close to vapor
<0.5
<0.5
Less than vapor vel.
2
5-15

Vapor Velocity
(ft/Sec)
> 200
> 20
0.5-10
3-50
<4
0.5-2

Multiphase Flow (gas-liquid)

Flow regime maps


Good for approximate prediction of flow
characteristics.
Baker plot (1954)
By

1 WG

0.463 L G
1147 1L/ 3

L2 / 3
WL
Bx

WG

WG , WL : gas or liquid mass velocity (lb/h)


viscosity in cp, surface tension in dyn/cm, density in lb/ft3,
area in ft2.

Flow regime maps


and depend on the fluid property only.
BX depends on the ratio of flows (Known beforehand. Not a
design parameter)
BY depends on the vapor/gas superficial velocity. This is the
only parameter the designer can change (through A)
Transition boundaries are not at all that sharp.
Trajectories On The Baker Plot.
How regimes change through a pipe.
As the pressure drops, the density of the vapor becomes lower.
G1/ 2
1) ~ 1/ 2
G

G1/ 2
BX ~ 1/ 2
G

BX decreases
2) 1/ ~

BY ~
BY increases
Thus trajectories are always "up" and "to the left"

Shortcomings of the Taitel - Dukler flow regime


models
Poor prediction of stratified flow for inclined pipes.
Stratified flow model used for flow regime prediction contradicts
pressure drop and liquid holdup data.
Poor prediction of high pressures and low surface tension fluids.
Near vertical flow regime better predicted than near horizontal.
Viscosity effect not properly described.
Out of 10,000 gas liquid flow pattern observations over the last 30
years, only 67% of all observations were predicted correctly. (Shell
Research - Development, 1999)

Flow regime maps


Mandhane Plot (Mandhane et al., 1974)
Claimed that the Baker correlation overestimates the effect of
fluid properties.
Claimed that a plot with superficial velocities rather than
superficial mass velocities is better.
Suggested a slight correction for fluid properties by using a
corrected superficial gas velocity:
VG' f ( x, y )VG

0.0013

0.2

L 72.4

L 72.4
y

0.25

0.25

0.018

L
0.2

Flow regime maps


Weisman Plot (Weisman et al., 1979)
Found that Mandhanes suggestion for plotting VL versus VG is
a good first order approximation.
Presented updated corrections for fluid properties.
This paper provides the most up-tp-date correlations for
predicted flow regimes (horizontal pipes).
Note that all the experiments were for pipes 1/2in to 2in.
Weisman, J., Duncan, D., Gibson, J., and T. Crawford, Int. J.
Multiphase Flow, 5, pp.437-462, 1979.
We know fairly well what happens in a 1in horizontal pipe
for air and water flow.

Pressure Drop - homogeneous model


Assume:
1) Zero slip between phases.
2) Uniform flow.
3) Phase equilibrium.
4) Friction factor given by an eqn. similar to that for single
phase flow.
Define:
x=quality, mass fraction that is vapor or gas
G =fraction of cross-section that is gas
Mixture density, H=(Mass Flow)/(Volume flow)
Then:

1
x 1 x

H G
L

H G g 1 G L

Pressure Drop - homogeneous model


Comments:
1) Drops in air, uGuL
In this case: 1/2 f G uG2 (shear stress at the interface)
and =1/2 f H uG2 overpredicts
2) Bubbles in liquids:
In this case: 1/2 f L uL2
Now f (D uL L )/ L and =1/2 f H uL2 underpredicts
It might be better to use
since H < L and 2-p < 2-p

f (D uL L )/ 2-p

Limitations of the homogeneous model


1) Assumption of equilibrium between phases often not correct.
Only way to deal with this problem is to use a two - fluid
model.
2) Use of single phase equations with H and 2-p not very good.
3) There can be appreciable slip between the phases, so the
calculation of

from x can be incorrect. This can affect

calculations of pressure drop due to hydrostatic head.


The separated flow model, is based on calculations of slip
S=uG / uL . However, it needs more equations to calculate x and

Pressure Drop - horizontal pipes


Lockhart-Martinelli (1949) (exps. with 1 in pipe)
Approximated 2-phase flow pressure drop from single phase
flow results (when the other phase is not present).
Lockhart-Martinelli parameter:

P / L L
X

P
/
L
G

1/ 2

Two phase pressure drop:


P

G2
2 p

or

2L
2 p

The factors L2 or G2 are read from a figure (see fig 6-26 in


Perrys handbook).
High predictions for stratified, wavy, slug flows.
Low predictions for annular flow.

Pressure Drop - horizontal pipes


Lockhart-Martinelli (1949)
2

PG
2 p
Two phase pressure drop:

where

aX b

and X is the L-M parameter as before.


a

Bubble
Slug
Stratified
(horizontal)
Plug
Annular

14.2
1190
15400
27.3
4.8 -0.3125D

b
0.75
0.82
1
0.86
0.343-0.021D

D is the ID. If D > 12in, then use D=12 in

Pressure Drop - horizontal pipes


Dispersed flow:

Pressure Drop - horizontal pipes


Wavy flow:
W
H X L
WG

PWave

WG2
0.000336 f H 5
D G