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Optimization: Introduction

Episode: I

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Contents
Global indicators
Typical Radio Network Problem
Coverage Problem
Interference problem
Unbalanced power budget
problem
Congestion problem
Problems and responsible

parties

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
4 stages of a call establishment,
2 stages (1&2) for location
update :
1. Radio link establishment Phase
2. SDCCH Phase
then only Circuit Switch call

3. TCH assignment Phase


4. Alerting/Connect Phase
Optimization:
Introduction

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Mobile Originated Call (MOC)

Global
Indicators

MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

CHANNEL REQUEST
(RACH)

CHANNEL REQUIRED
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)

1. Radio Link
Establishmen
t Phase

CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK


IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMEND
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
(AGCH)
SABM (L3 info)
(SDCCH)

ESTABLISH IND (L3 info)

UA (L3 info)

CR (Connection Request: L3
INFO)
CC (Connection Complete)

(SDCCH)
LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST (IN CASE OF LU)
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE

2. SDCCH Phase

CIPHERING MODE COMMAND


CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPT (IN CASE OF LU)
TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE (IN CASE OF LU)
SETUP
CALL PROCEEDING

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)

TCH allocation

CHANNEL ALLOCATION ACK.


ASSIGNMENT COMMEND
(SDCCH)
SABM
TCH

3. TCH Assignment
Phase

ESTABLISH INDICATION
UA (L3 info)
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
ALERTING
CONNECT

4. Alert and Connect


Phase

Optimization:
Introduction

CONNECT ACK.

CONVERSATION

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Global Indicators
Handover : Intracell HO
MS

BTS
Measurement Report

BSC

MSC

MEASUREMENT RESULT
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (old channel)
PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (old channel)
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (new channel)
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK (new channel)

ASSIGNMENT CMD

ASSIGNMENT COMMEND (old channel)

SABM (L3 info)


(SDCCH)

ESTABLISH IND (new channel)

UA (L3 info)
(SDCCH)
ASSIGNMENT CMP

ESTABLISH COMPLETE (new channel)


HANDOVER PERFORMED
RF CHANNEL RELEASE (old channel)
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (old channel)

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Handover : Internal HO
MS

Serving
Cell

Target
Cell

BSC

MSC

Meas. Report
MEASUREMENT RESULT
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK.
HO CMD

HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER ACCESS
HANDOVER DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION

SABM (L3 info)


UA (L3 info)
ESTABLISH INDICATION
HANDOVER COMPLETE

HO CMP
HANDOVER PERFORMED

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Handover : External HO
MS

Serving Cell

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MEAS_REPORT
MEAS_RESULT

HO_REQUIRED
CR (HO_REQUEST)
CC

CHANNEL_ACTIVATION
CHANNEL_ACT_ACK

HO_REQUEST_ACK
(HO_COMMAND)

HO_COMMAND

HO_ACCESS
HO_ACCESS
HO_DETECTION

HO_DETECTION
PHYSICAL_INFO
SABM (L3 info)
ESTABLISH_INDICATION

HO_COMPLETE

UA (L3 info)

HO_COMPLETE

CLEAR_COMMAND
Release of TCH

Optimization:
Introduction

Cause: HO_SUCCESSFUL

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MS

Global Indicators
Important indicators :

Optimization:
Introduction

SDCCH Congestion
SDCCH Assignment Failure
SDCCH Drop
TCH Assignment Failure
Call Drop
Call Setup Success
Call Success
Outgoing Handover
Incoming Handover
Handover Causes Distribution
(Better/Level/Quality/MCHO/...)
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Global Indicators
SDCCH Congestion :
MS

BTS
CHANNEL REQUEST
(RACH)

BSC
CHANNEL REQUIRED

NO FREE SDCCH !!!

IMM. ASS. REJECT (OPTION)

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMEND

(AGCH)

MS will try to request again for a certain of

Optimization:
Introduction

times
If still failures, it will
Wait for a certain of time without
reception of immediate_assign
message
Try an automatic cell_reselection in
case of LU (no impact for subscriber)
Notify a network error
for call
Prepared
by Performance
establishment (call setup failure for Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH Congestion : Main causes
Too much SDCCH normal traffic for

cell SDCCH design

Logical cell design, extra TRX, new site

Common Transport Effect


Difficult to avoid for small cells
LA border at crowded area
Abnormal SDCCH traffic

phantom channel requests


Inadequate LAC design, causing too

Optimization:
Introduction

much LU
Redesign LAC
Problem with neighbor cells belong to
other LAC

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

CHANNEL REQUEST
(RACH)

CHANNEL REQUIRED
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH)
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMEND

(AGCH)

???

no message from MS

Real radio problems


Unbalanced power budget
Bad coverage
Interference

In case of radio failure, MS will retry as in case


of SDCCH congestion
Optimization:
Introduction

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Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes

Phantom/Ghost/Spurious/Dummy...RA
CH

Optimization:
Introduction

Channel request received but not sent : 3


causes
1. Noise decoding
2. Reception of channel request sent to
a neighbor cell
3. Reception of HO_ACCESS sent to a
neighbor cell

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Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes : Phantom RACH

1.

Noise decoding

Optimization:
Introduction

GSM 05.05: 0.02% of RACH Frame can


be decoded without error without real
input signal (this extra-load has no
impact for the system)
BCCH not combined: 156 phantom
RACCH/hour (or about 0.08 Erlang
SDCCH)
BCCH combined: 83 phantom RACH/hour
During period with low real traffic (night),
high rate of phantom RACH
No impact for subscriber
But impact on indicator SDCCH RF access
failure

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes : Phantom RACH

2.

Optimization:
Introduction

Channel request sent to neighbor cell

Subscriber is not impacted ( the real


transaction is performed elsewhere)

But SDCCH RF access failure is impacted

Usual radio planning rules are sufficient to


avoid the trouble (BSIC and BCCH
frequency plan)

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes : Phantom RACH

3.

Channel request due to handover

During HO, first message sent to target


cell is HO access which is an access burst
like channel_request

If received on BCCH, can be understood


as a channel-request
This case is the most dangerous

MS is sending usually a sequence of HO


Access message, every frame !!

In some cases, this can create phantom


RACH if the frequency of TCH is co- or
adjacent to one of the interfered BCCH

Can block very easily SDCCH

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH Drop :
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

Radio connection loss


CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION
(cause : radio link failure)

CLEAR REQUEST
(cause : radio interface failure)

Loss of connection during SDCCH phase =

Optimization:
Introduction

SDCCH Drop
3 causes of SDCCH drop
Radio problems when connected on
SDCCH
BSS problems (Transcoder and Internal
BSS problems)
Call lost during an SDCCH HO
(handover failure without reversion to
old channel)
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Team

Global Indicators
TCH assign failure : Congestion
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC
ASSIGNMNET REQUEST

no RTCH available on request cell

ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
cause No Radio Resources Available

4 sub causes of congestion


A: Queuing is not allowed
B: Queue is full
C: T11 expired
D: RTCH requests is de-queued due to a

high priority (i.e. emergency call)


request to be queued

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
TCH assign failure : Radio
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST

PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST


PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)

TCH allocation

CHANNEL ALLOCATION ACK.


ASSIGNMENT COMMEND
(SDCCH)
TCH

Optimization:
Introduction

Radio Problem

ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
Radio interface failure

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Global Indicators
TCH assign failure : BSS
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST

PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST


PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM
CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH)

TCH allocation

CHANNEL ALLOCATION ACK.


ASSIGNMENT COMMEND
(SDCCH)

BSS Problem

Optimization:
Introduction

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Team

Global Indicators
TCH Drop : Radio
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time


Radio Problem

Optimization:
Introduction

CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION


(cause : radio link failure)

CLEAR REQUEST
(cause : radio interface failure)

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Team

Global Indicators
TCH Drop : BSS
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time


Radio Problem

CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION


(Remote transcoder failure)

CLEAR REQUEST
(Equipment failure)

Transcoder reported problem


Abis transmission Problem: Microwave,

Microwave antenna, fixed line problems.


Problem on TC boards (hardware problem)

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
TCH Drop : BSS
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time


BSS problem

CLEAR REQUEST
O&M intervention
Radio interface failure

Other BSS problem (excluding TC)


Hardware or software failures of BSC/BTS

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
TCH Drop : Handover
MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time


HO failure without reversion

Optimization:
Introduction

CLEAR REQUEST
Radio interface message failure

Call drop during handover

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
Intracell HO Failures
Congestion
Reversion to Old Channel (ROC)
Drop Radio
BSS problem

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Global Indicators
Intracell HO Failures : Congestion
Serving
BTS

MS

BSC

MSC

Measurement Report
MEASUREMENT RESULT
No Free TCH/SDCCH

Intracell HO Failures : Drop


MS

BTS
ASSIGNMENT CMD

BSC

MSC

ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)

Release of old and new channels

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
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Global Indicators
Intracell HO Failures : Reversion to Old Channel
Serving
BTS

MS
ASSIGNMENT CMD

Serving
BSC

MSC

ASSIGNMENT COMMEND (old channel)

SABM (new channel)


ESTABLISH IND (new channel)
UA (new channel)

X
X

SABM (new channel)


UA (new channel)
SABM (old channel)
UA (old channel)
ASSIGNMENT FAIL

ESTABLISH INDICATION (old channel)

ASSIGNMNENT FAILURE
RF CHANNEL RELEASE (old channel)
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (old channel)

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Internal HO Failures
Serving
Cell

MS

HO CMD

: Reversion to Old Channel

Target
Cell

BSC

MSC

HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER ACCESS
HANDOVER DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFORMATION

SABM (L3 info)


UA (L3 info)
ESTABLISH INDICATION
HANDOVER COMPLETE

SABM
UM
HO FAILURE

ESTABLISH INDICATION

HO FAILURE
Release of new channel

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Internal HO Failures
MS

Serving
Cell

: Drop

Target
Cell

BSC

MSC

Meas. Report
MEASUREMENT RESULT
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK.
HO CMD

HANDOVER COMMAND

Clear_request
Clear_command
Release of old and new TCH

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
External HO Failures : Congestion
MS

Serving Cell

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MS

Target Cell

MS

MEAS_REPORT
MEAS_RESULT

HO_REQUIRED
CR (HO_REQUEST)

HO_REQUIRED_REJECT

HO_FAILURE
Cause: no radio resource available

External HO Failures : A int.


MS

Serving Cell
BSC
Congestion

MSC

BSC

MEAS_REPORT
MEAS_RESULT

HO_REQUIRED
CR (HO_REQUEST)

HO_REQUIRED_REJECT

Optimization:
Introduction

HO_FAILURE
Cause: terrestrial circuit already allocated
Requested trerestrial resource unavailable
BSS not equipped

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Global Indicators
External HO Failures : Reversion to Old Channel

MS

Serving Cell

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MEAS_REPORT
MEAS_RESULT

HO_REQUIRED
CR (HO_REQUEST)
CC

CHANNEL_ACTIVATION
CHANNEL_ACT_ACK

HO_COMMAND

HO_REQUEST_ACK
(HO_COMMAND)

X
X

SABM
UA

HO_ACCESS
HO_ACCESS

ESTABLISH_INDICATION

HO_FAILURE(reversion to pld channel)


CLEAR_COMMAND
Radio interface fail:
Reversion to old channel

Optimization:
Introduction

Release connection

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MS

Global Indicators
External HO Failures : Drop
MS

Serving Cell

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MEAS_REPORT
MEAS_RESULT

HO_REQUIRED
CR (HO_REQUEST)
CC

CHANNEL_ACTIVATION
CHANNEL_ACT_ACK

HO_REQUEST_ACK
(HO_COMMAND)

HO_COMMAND

X
X
SABM
SABM
SABM

HO_ACCESS

X
X
X

CLEAR_COMMAND
Radio interface fail

Optimization:
Introduction

HO_ACCESS

Release connection

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MS

Global Indicators
Important indicators : SDCCH Congestion Rate

Definition: Rate of SDCCH not allocated

during radio link establishment procedure


due to congestion on Air interface
Comment: Check SDCCH Erlang : if not
critical, SDCCH availability/allocation
problem, or HO access on a nearby cell
side effect or interference on the carrier
handling SDCCH (the last 2 can lead to
high rate if Phantom RACH
Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Important indicators : SDCCH Assign Failure Rate

Definition: Rate of SDCCH seizure failed

(BSS problem, radio access problem)


during radio link establishment procedure
over the total amount of SDCCH seizure
requests during radio link establishment
procedure

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Important indicators : SDCCH Drop Rate

Definition: Rate of dropped SDCCH

(SDCCH is established for any


transaction OC, TC, LU, ...)

Comment: Drop radio + Drop HO +

Drop BSS

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Important indicators : TCH Assign Failure/Congestion Rate

Definition:
TCH Assign Failure Rate: Rate of RTCH

Optimization:
Introduction

seizure failed (BSS problem, radio access


problem) during normal assignment
procedure over the total amount or RTCH
request for normal assignment procedure
TCH Assign Congestion Rate: Rate of
RTCH not allocated during normal
assignment due to congestion on Air
Prepared by Performance
interface
Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Call Drop Rate

Definition: Rate of dropped calls over the

Optimization:
Introduction

total amount of calls with a successful end


Comment:
Drop BSS + Drop radio + Drop HO
TCH drop occurring after successful
assignment but before speech connection
are considered as call drop even if from
customers point of view it is a call setup
failure
Prepared by Performance

Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Call Setup Success Rate

Definition: Rate of calls going until TCH

successful assignment, that is not interrupted


by SDCCH drop neither by assignment
failures
Comment:
Subscriber : call not established at the
first attempt
Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Important indicators : Call Success Rate (BSS view)

Definition: Rate of calls going until normal

Optimization:
Introduction

release, that is not interrupted by SDCCH


drop neither by assignment failures and
neither by CALL DROP
Comment:
1 call success =
1 call successfully established
Without any call drop
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Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Outgoing Handover Success Rate

Definition: Rate of outgoing external and

internal intercell TCH and SDCCH handover


successes over the total amount of outgoing
external and internal intercell TCH and
SDCCH handover required

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Important indicators : Incoming Handover Success Rate

Definition: Rate of incoming external and

internal intercell TCH and SDCCH handover


successes over the total amount of outgoing
external and internal intercell TCH and
SDCCH handover requests

Optimization:
Introduction

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Global Indicators
Important indicators : Handover Cause Distribution

Definition: Distribution of Handover requests by

cause: UL Qual, UL Lev, DL Qual, DL Lev, Better


Cell, UL Interference, DL Interference,
Interband, Micro cells HO, Concentric cell
causes

Optimization:
Introduction

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Typical Radio Problems


i.
ii.
iii.

Coverage Problem
Interference problem
Unbalanced power
budget problem
iv. Congestion problem

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Typical Radio Problems


Several sources of information for
optimization
QoS indicators
Coverage predictions
Customer complaints
Drive tests
Abis/A traces
Other teams information (NSS

statistics)

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

i. Coverage Problem
Bad coverage :
A network facing coverage problems
has bad RxLev. RxQual can be bad
at the same time.
Sometimes the RxLev can look OK on
the street (i.e. from drivetest) but
coverage inside the buildings can be
poor due to building losses. Building
losses can range from 10 to 30 dB
or more.
Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

i. Coverage Problem
Indications :

Customers complain about dropped


calls and/or No Network
OMC QoS indicators

TCH failure rate


Call drop rate
Low proportion of better cell HO
High rate of DL & UL Level HO
(possibly also DL/UL quality HO)

A interface indicators
High rate of Clear Request message,
cause radio interface failure

Drive Test
Poor RxLev ( < -95 dBm)

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

i. Coverage Problem
Investigation and Optimization :
If actual coverage is not the one
predicted by planning tool
Check antenna system (azimuth,
crossed sector?)
Check prediction in the tool (EIRP,
Clutter Type, Obstructing building?).
Most of the time the prediction will be
incorrect, as it is only a computer
simulation
Increase or decrease antenna down-tilt
Check BTS output power set in the
OMC-R (BS_TXPWR_MAX: should
always be set at 0)
Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

i. Coverage Problem
Investigation and Optimization :
If actual coverage OK compared to
predicted ones
Improve coverage by adding Macro
site, Microcell site (Border or Shadow
areas), or IBC site (In-building
coverage).
Use parameter setting ex. Bi-layer
Handover.

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

i. Coverage Problem
Example on thresholds :
From Drive test or Abis

Interface

Optimization:
Introduction

RxLev

<

-95 dBm

and
RxQual

>

Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Interference :
A network facing
interferences problems
presents good RxLev and
bad RxQual in the same
time on some areas.

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Indications :

Customers complain about bad speech


quality (noisy calls) and/or call drops
OMC QoS indicators
SDCCH/TCH Drop
Low proportion of better cell HO
High rate of DL/UL quality HO and
interference HO
Low HO success rate

A interface indicators
High rate of Clear Request message,
cause radio interface failure

Drive Test
RxQual > 4 with RxLev > -85 dBm

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Typical causes :
GSM interferences
Co-channel
adjacent
Non GSM Interference
Other

Mobile Network
Other RF sources

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Co-channel interference :

Level

C/I = Carrier-to-interference

ratio
+12 dB is taken into account
for Alcatel ( +9 dB according
to GSM standard) (i.e.
interference can be 9 12
dB weaker than serving cell
to cause poor RxQual).

Optimization:
Introduction

+12 dB

f(cell1)=f(cell2)

Frequency

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ii. Interference Problem


Co-channel interference :
Indications

Downlink and/or Uplink Interference


High rate of quality handover, call drop,
and call setup failure

Investigation

Optimization:
Introduction

Drive test analysis


Lumpini: Co-channel checking
Check prediction to verify which cell
could be causing the interference
Frequency plan C/I < 12 dB
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ii. Interference Problem


Co-channel interference :
Optimization

Optimization:
Introduction

Antenna optimization
Change frequency
Reduce BTS power (not an option in TA
Orange network)
Concentric cell

Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Co-channel interference: Optimization: Concentric cell
Concept

Conclusion from Alcatel

trial on Oranges network


(Suburban area)

Concentric cell is difficult to

optimize, and hence is


rarely used in the network
today.

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Adjacent channel interference :
C/A = Carrier-to-adjacent ratio
-6 dB is taken into account for Alcatel (

-9 dB according to GSM standard).

Level
f(cell1) f(cell2)
-6 dB

E.g.
f(cell1)= Ch.573
f(cell2)= Ch.574

f(cell2)=f(cell1)+1

Optimization:
Introduction

Frequency

Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Adjacent channel interference :
Indications
Downlink and/or Uplink Interference
High rate of quality handover, call drop, and
call failure
Investigation

Optimization:
Introduction

Adjacent HO statistics (if they are defined as


neighbors). If they often handover, then
adjacent channel interference could be a
problem.
Drive test analysis
Lumpini: Adjacent channel checking
Cell coverage prediction
Frequency plan C/I < -6 dB
Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Adjacent channel interference :
Optimization

Optimization:
Introduction

Antenna optimization
Change frequency
Reduce BTS power (not an option in TA
Orange network)
Concentric cell

Prepared by Performance
Team

ii. Interference Problem


Interference : Forced Directed Retry
MS should connect to Cell_A, but

no TCH available.
MS connects to Cell_B with forced
directed retry
MS is emitting at high level (due to
long distance from Cell_B)

Cell_B: Ch.573

UL interference for Cell_C

Cell_B is emitting at high level (if

DL PC is being used)

DL interference at Cell_C

MS is serving on the 2nd or 3rd best

server: increases chances of


interference problem (poor C/I &
C/A as C is lower)

Optimization:
Introduction

Cell_A: Ch.569
Cell_C: Ch.572

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Team

FIU,RRI,E1/T1,BOI

Optimization:
Introduction

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ii. Interference Problem


Non GSM interference :
Other mobile network

Inter-modulation with GSM BTS/MS


receiver

Other RF interferers

Optimization:
Introduction

Radar
Shop anti-theft mechanism
Medical devices
Other man-made radio transmission
Illegal usage of GSM frequencies (e.g.
illegal imported devices, illegal usage
of other organization, ...)
...

Prepared by Performance
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iii. Unbalance power budget


Problem
A cell facing unbalanced power budget

Optimization:
Introduction

problems presents a too high path-loss


difference between UL and DL (often DL>UL)
Lower Rx diversity gain of cross polarized
antenna in rural area compared to dense
area
Crossed feeders
Traffic not directly in boresight of antenna,
where cross-polar discrimination is lower
Loose connectors
Faulty antenna, feeder, TMA
Rule : try to have delta as small as possible
to avoid access network possible only in 1
direction (usually BTS->MS : OK and MS>BTS : NOK), i.e. uplink limited
Prepared by Performance
Team

iii. Unbalance power budget


Problem
Indicators :

OMC QoS indicators

High ratio of Uplink level Handover cause


Low incoming HO success rate
DL level looks OK for HO, but UL is too
weak when HO is attempted
Degradation of TCH failures and OC call
drop indicators

A interface indicators
High rate of Clear Request message,
cause radio interface failure

O&M Alarms

Optimization:
Introduction

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)


TMA
Prepared by Performance
Team

iii. Unbalance power budget


Problem
Investigation :

Abis monitoring:
ABS(delta Path loss) > 10
Check if problem is occurring for 1
TRX or all.
ABS(delta path loss) = ABS(UL Path loss
DL Path loss)
UL Path loss = MS transmitted power
measured received UL level
DL Path loss = BTS transmitted power
combiner loss measured received DL
level
Large difference between uplink and
downlink level triggered HO.

Use PM observation counter (in OMC-R)


RT11

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

iii. Unbalance power budget


Problem
Optimization : This equipment

should be checked
TRX

types (MP, HP)


Antennas or common RF
components, TMA (common to all
TRX of the BTS)
TRX RF cables, LNA

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

iv. TCH congestion


Problem
TCH Congestion :
TCH Congestion rate (TCH

Assignment Phase) is too


high (more than 2%)
Rule : try to meet the offered
traffic (asked by users) by
providing the right number
of resources (TRX extension)
Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

iv. TCH congestion


Problem
Indications :

Customers complain about Network


busy
OMC QoS indicators

High TCH Congestion rate, RTCH


Assignment fail-Congestion
Low incoming Intra/Inter BSC HO success
rate (no TCH available)
High Directed Retry rate or Congestion
Relief (Motorola) if activated
A interface indicators: BSS Congestion
failure in OC
High rate of Assignment Failure message,
No radio resource available

Drive Test
Handover to better cell is slow, or never
occurs

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

iv. TCH congestion


Problem
Optimization :

Optimization:
Introduction

Special events :
Foreseeable: football match,
important meeting, Exhibition, etc.
Add some extra TRXs
Add special mobile BTSs (Cell
on Wheel)
Activate HR (may not always be
possible due to BSC capacity
limitations)
Not foreseeable: car crash on the
highway
Prepared by Performance
Team

iv. TCH congestion


Problem
Optimization :

Optimization:
Introduction

Daily periodic problems : At busy


hour:
Hardware solution :
Add TRX(s)
Concentric cell
New site
Optimize cell boundaries (i.e.
antenna optimization) to share
traffic with surrounding cells
Prepared by Performance
Team

iv. TCH congestion


Problem
Optimization :

Optimization:
Introduction

Daily periodic problems : At busy


hour:
Software solution :
Directed Retry
Traffic Handover
Half Rate (Alcatel)
Congestion Relief (Motorola)
Flow control (Motorola)

Prepared by Performance
Team

Problems and responsible


parties

Coverage problem :
If the measured RxLev does not
match the prediction
Check the prediction, check
panoramic pictures for obstructions
Field Operation team to check
physical configuration (tilt, azimuth,
antenna height...). Also check for
faults in the antenna system (VSWR,
sweep antennas, DTF test, etc.)
If Field Operation find no problem,
antenna optimization may be
required (if necessary)

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Problems and responsible


parties

Coverage problem :
If

the field reality match the


prediction
RF team to add new sites (trisector, micro cellular, indoor
cells) to improve poor/no
coverage area (Optimizer
requests for some new sites to RF
team regarding to the drive test
result)

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Problems and responsible


parties
Interference problem :

Optimization team to identify the


interference source and request
Spectrum Management team to
correct it in case of internal source
(new frequency planning...)

Unbalanced power budget

problem :

Optimization:
Introduction

Field Operation team to check the


impacted BTS (Antenna, TMA, RF
cables, LNA, diversity system...)
according to request from Optimizer.
Prepared by Performance
Team

Problems and responsible


parties
TCH Congestion problem :
Regional

RF to request TRX
expansion.

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Optimization: Introduction

Episode: II

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Optimization: Contents
Organization
Alcatel KPIs
Optimization

Workflow
Optimization Process
Optimization Tools
Report Links
Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Optimization: Organization
Name In English

Div/De pt

No.

Acce ss Eng
&
Performance

50

Mr.

Xa vier

Le pez

51

Ms.

Sanida

Sengyai

52

Mr.

Rob

We rne r

2EN1110

53

Mr.

Andrew

Barton

Initia l

54

First

Na me in Thai
La st

Initia l
..

First

ID No.

Ex t.

Orange
Mobile

ANTE & Performance Mgr.

2912

4995

09-100-6680

Administrator

0723

5174

0 9100 6677

Engine ering Mgr.

1086

5152

0 9100 6466

Motorola Interface

0570

5151

0 9100 6424

Alcatel Interface

0058

4986

0 9100 6432

Spectrum Management

0991

5150

0 9100 6426

Position

La st

Vacant

BKK RF Interface

55

Mr.

Prasong

Kullama

56

Mr.

Ferri

Tafreshi

57

Mr.

Aekkorn

Poomseetana

Spectrum Eng.

0239

5149

0 9100 6427

58

Ms.

Lilly

Sarujikumjornwatana

..

Spectrum Eng.

4022

5093

0 6501 0054

Technical Support Mgr.

0609

5153

0 9100 6423

Software Eng.

1846

5143

0 9100 6428

Software Eng.

3028

5219

0 9100 6209

59

Vacant

Spectrum Eng.

60

Vacant

Spectrum Eng.

61

Vacant

Spectrum Eng.

62

Mr.

Nazli

Abdullah

63

Ms.

Aphiwan

Malaithong

64

Mr.

Pnot

Limpiphiphatn

65

..

Vacant

Software Eng.

66

Ms.

Vorrachitt

Veerachitt

..

Frequency Planner (Contractor)

4027

0 6622 2907

67

Mr.

Warakorn

Angkaphaiboonsakul

Frequency Planner (Contractor)

4025

0 1833 4452

68

Mr.

Sirasith

Phanupornprapong

Frequency Planner (Contractor)

4026

0 1802 2114

Acce ss Eng
&
Performance

69

Mr.

Stephane

Te lla

Pe rformance Mgr.

5111

0 9100 6262

70

Mr.

Micha el

Powe ll

Optimization Mgr. BKK

1045

5189

0 9100 6681

71

Mr.

Atinan

Tumsatan

Optimization Eng. BKK

1872

4981

0 9100 6684

2EN1110

72

Ms.

Thitinun

Limpaphinun

..

Optimization Eng. BKK

2448

4983

0 9100 6691

73

Mr.

Supakorn

Chumnongrark

Optimization Eng. BKK

0437

4985

0 9100 6682

74

Ms.

Sutthida

Dullaya - anukit

..

Optimization Eng. BKK

2244

4984

0 9100 6685

75

Mr.

Phairoj

Thamrongthanyawong

Optimization Eng. BKK

4005

5196

0 6502 0053

76

Mr.

Boonyarith

Saovapakiran

Optimization Eng. BKK

4006

5027

0 6502 0052

77

Vacant

Optimization Eng. BKK

78

Vacant

Optimization Eng. BKK

79

Vacant

Optimization Eng. BKK

80

Vacant

Optimization Eng. BKK

81

Vacant

Optimization Eng. BKK

82

Mr.

Pongpunt

Thanddokmai

Drive Test Technician

2235

5178

0 9100 6686

Mr.

Somyos

Tharalerd

83

Drive Test Technician

2388

5178

0 9100 6688

84

Mr.

Prasit

Jeayang

Drive Test Technician

2445

5177

0 9100 6689

85

Mr.

Nikhom

Lertwilai

Drive Test Technician

2490

5177

0 9100 6690

86

Mr.

La ure nt

He mone t

Optimization Mgr Alcatel

3655

5028

0 9100 6694

87

Mr.

Kachaprid

Booramyakorn

Optimization Eng. Alcatel

2533

5173

0 9100 6692

88

Mr.

Sarasit

Wichaikhtkha

Optimization Eng. Alcatel

2376

5177

0 9100 6687

89

Vacant

Optimization Eng. Alcatel

90

Vacant

Optimization Eng. Alcatel

91

Vacant

Optimization Eng. Alcatel

Acce ss Eng
&
Performance

92

Ms.

Linda

Re nou

5064

0 9100 6696

93

Mr.

Wasan

Taweesin

Optimization Eng. Motorola

0715

4982

0 9100 6683

94

Mr.

Santiphap

Utta

Optimization Eng. Motorola

3483

5021

0 9100 6693

2EN1110

95

Ms.

Suratsawadee

Kongsettakhonchai

..

Optimization Eng. Motorola

3737

5186

0 9100 6695

BSS Eng.

3658

5144

0 9100 6555

BSS Eng.

3972

5156

0 6502 0051

96

Vacant

97

Optimization:
Introduction

Optimization Eng. Motorola

Vacant

Optimization Eng. Motorola

98

Mr.

Renaud

Lelong

99

Mr.

Kittisak

Kiatmonkong

100

Optimization Mgr Motorola

Vacant

BSS Eng.

Prepared by Performance
Team

Alcatel KPIs : Network


Statistics
TYPE OF MEASURE INDICATORS

OBJECTIVE FAT
and Phase 2

Drive test for radio


coverage.

See next page.

Drive test for


Quality of Service
indicators

Measured at
OMCR
(Statistical BSS
Quality of Service
Indicators)

Optimization:
Introduction

Down
link RXLEV

OBJECTIVE PAT
Phase 1A and 1B

CSSR

>= 98 %

RXQUAL

90 % of call
85 % of call
samples below or
samples below or
equal to RXQUAL 3 equal to RXQUAL 3

CSSR

>= 98%

TCH Blocking
Rate
SDCCH
Blocking Rate

>= 96 %

<= 2 %

<= 2 %

<= 1 %

<= 1 %

TCH Drop Rate

<= 2 %

<= 3%

HOSR

>= 95%

>= 94%

Prepared by Performance
Team

Alcatel KPIs : Drivetest


Statistics

Optimization:
Introduction

Service Area

% of Samples above
or equal to
threshold ("Valid
Measurement Sample
Percentage")

Minimum Radio
Coverage Field
Strength Acceptance
Threshold on Street
Level

Dense Urban

98%

- 75 dBm

Urban

96%

- 82 dBm

Suburban

93%

- 87 dBm

Rural

93%

- 97 dBm

Highways

93%

- 87 dBm

Prepared by Performance
Team

Optimization : Workflow
The following are activities of one Radio Network
Optimization Engineer (RNOE) managing the
areas
Worst Cell Lists
Check Data
Prioritization List
Alerts
Check Frequency
Trouble Ticket
(TT)
Check Neighbors
Weekly
Check Parameters
Dashboard
Neighbors Analysis
BGW Lists
CAT Status
Daily Dashboard
Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Optimization : Workflow
The following activities are not weekly activities
Neighbors for new

CAT Reports
A/Abis Trace Analysis

Customer Complaints
Meeting

Optimization:
Introduction

sites
Traffic Study Analysis
Antenna
Optimization
Drive Test Analysis &
Problem Log
(Potatoes)
Drive Test Reports
CAT Drive Tests

Special Studies and

Requests
Documentation

Prepared by Performance
Team

Optimization : Process
The following are processes based on
Remedy
Optimization Tasks
Cell-by-cell parameter change/Massive
parameter change
Neighbor addition/deletion
Correction Tasks
Cell-by-cell parameter change/Massive
parameter change
Neighbor addition/deletion
Spectrum Management Tasks
Frequency change request
Retune request
Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
Team

Optimization : Tools
The following are some tools used by an
Optimizer
RNO : Radio Network
OMC-R : Operation
Optimization tool
and Maintenance
Center-Radio
(A956)
NPA : Network
Drive Test Tools
Performance
TEMS
Analyzer (A985)
GREYSON
INMS
ACTIX (post
ASSET
process tool)
Net Monitor
MapInfo

Optimization:
Introduction

Lunpini
Nbclient
Prepared by Performance
Team

Report Links
G:\Working Document\Net Ops\Network

Performance\@_THAI\BGW_&_Top20

G:\Working Document\Net Ops\Network

Performance\@_THAI\Weekly_Dashboard

G:\Working Document\Net Ops\Network

Performance\@_THAI\Daily_Dashboard_&_Al
erts

Optimization:
Introduction

Prepared by Performance
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