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Monitor And Control Of

Greenhouse

" Green Bee"

Under the Guidence of :


Presented By:
Mr. Prateek Dubey
Rishabh Jaiswal
Mr. C.K. Maurya
Kumar

Jitendra

Greenhouse Effect & Global


Warming
The greenhouse effect & global
warming are not the same thing.

Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of the


surface of the earth

An increase in the concentration of


greenhouse gases leads to an
increase in the the magnitude of the
greenhouse effect. (Called enhanced
greenhouse effect)
This results in global warming

Selected
I. Carbon Dioxide (CO )
Greenhouse Gases
2

Source: Fossil fuel burning, deforestation


Anthropogenic increase: 30%
Average atmospheric residence time: 500 years

II.

Methane (CH4)
Source: Rice cultivation, cattle & sheep ranching, decay
from landfills, mining

Anthropogenic increase: 145%

Average atmospheric residence time: 7-10 years

III.

Nitrous oxide (N2O)


Source: Industry and agriculture (fertilizers)
Anthropogenic increase: 15%
Average atmospheric residence time: 140-190 years

1. Shorter, high
Energy wavelengths
Hit the earths
Surface

2. Incoming energy
Is converted to heat

3. Longer, infrared
Wavelengths hit
Greenhouse gas
Molecules in the
atmosphere

4. Greenhouse gas
Molecules in the
Atmosphere emit
Infrared radiation
Back towards earth

The CO2 Cycle

The CO2 cycle acts as a thermostat that regulates the temperature of


the Earth
If Earth warms up a bit, then
carbonate minerals form in the oceans at a higher
rate.
The rate at which the oceans dissolve CO2 gas
increases, pulling CO2 out of the atmosphere.
The reduced atmospheric CO2 concentration leads
to a weakened greenhouse effect that counteracts
the initial warming and cools the planet back
down.
If Earth cools a bit,
carbonate minerals form more slowly in the
oceans.
The rate at which the oceans dissolve CO2 gas
decreases, allowing the CO2 released by volcanism
to build back up in the atmosphere.
The increased CO2 concentration strengthens the

Atmospheric
Feedbacks

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

More water
vapours & other
changes

Increased CO2
+

Higher temperature

Increased cloud cover

More water vapours


More reflected solar radiation

More absorbed infrared radiation


+

Less water vapours

Higher temperature
+

More water vapours

Lower temperature

Greenhouse
Plants grow Basics
naturally outside, so why do we need a structure to
grow them in?

The basic function of a greenhouse is to provide a protective


environment for crop production.
In this world everything is being automated & controlled so
Greenhouses form an important part of the agriculture to grow
plants under controlled climatic conditions for optimum produce.

MODEL FOR AUTOMATION OF


GREENHOUSE
The proposed system is an embedded system which will closely
monitor and control the microclimatic parameters of a
greenhouse.

To eliminate the difficulties involved in the system by reducing


human intervention to the best possible extent.

Basic System
Model

Humidit
y
sensor

ARTIFICIAL
LIGHT

Temperat
ure
sensor
Light
sensor

Microcontroller
PIC16F72

AC
Interfac
e

Heater

BUZZER
Motor
LCD
DISPLAY

HARDWARE
DESCRIPTION
Sensors.
Analog to Digital Converter.
Microcontroller.
Actuators.
Liquid Crystal Display.

Sensors
Temperature sensor (LM35)
Humidity sensor (HH10D)
Light sensor (LDR)

Humidity sensor

(HH10D)
The HH10D relative humidity sensor

module is comprised with a capacitive


type humidity sensor, a CMOS
capacitor to frequency converter and
an EEPROM used to holding the
calibration factors.
HH10D
Humidity
Calculation
Data Definition
eeprom
address
sensitivit
Sens 2^12
10
Algorithm
:
y

Offset
TCS
RH(%)=

2 byte value

12

---14
(offset - Soh)*sens/2^12

Temperature sensor
(LM35)

National Semiconductors LM35 IC has been


used for sensing the temperature.
It is an integrated circuit sensor that can be
used to measure temperature with an
electrical output proportional to the
temperature (in 0C).
The sensor circuitry is sealed and not
subject to oxidation etc.
Formula Used:
Temperature (0C) = (Vout* 100 ) / 5 0C

LIGHT SENSOR
Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) also known as
photoconductor or photocell,
It is a device which has a resistance which varies according to
the amount of light falling on its surface. Since LDR is
extremely sensitive in visible light range, it is well suited for the
proposed application.

ANALOG TO DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC 0809)
Easy interface to all microcontrollers.
8-channel multiplexer with address logic.
0V to 5V input range with single 5V power
supply.
Analog
world
(temperature,
pressure etc.)

Transducer

Signal
Conditioning

Analog
to
Digital
Converter

Microcontroller

LIQUID CRYSTAL
DISPLAY

A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin,


flat display device made up of any
number of colour or monochrome
pixels arrayed in front of a light source
or reflector.

Data can be placed at any location on


the line
LCD.80 81 82 83 84 85 86
First
through
8F
For 162 LCD, the
address
Second
C0 are:
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
locations
line

through

CF

Logic status on control


E
- 0 Access to LCD disabled
lines:
- 1 Access to LCD

enabled
R/W - 0 Writing data to LCD
- 1 Reading data from LCD
RS
- 0 Instruction
- 1 Character

Pin description of the


LCD

MICROCONTROLLER (pic
16f72)
Port details:

Port 0: Interfaced with the LCD data lines.


Port 1: Interfaced with the ADC data lines.
Port 2: Interfaced with the LCD Control lines
and AC Interface control.
Port 3: Interfaced with the ADC control lines.

SYSTEMS USED IN WORK


MODE
ARTIFICIAL GROWING LIGHTS FOR CONTROLLING
ILLUMINATION
Fluorescent lamps,
Incandescent lamps,
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps.

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLERS
COOLING EQUIPMENT:

Vents, Exhaust fans, Swamp coolers.


HEATING EQUIPMENT:

Hot-water or steam heater, Electric heaters.

HUMIDIFCATION SYSTEMS
Roof sprinklers increase the humidity by 5-10%.
Pad and fan systems.
Mist and fog systems to maintain a healthy humidity level of 50 to
70%.

SOFTWARES USED
Assembler of MICROCHIP
microcontroller series
PADS for PCB designing

RESULT ANALYSIS
HUMIDITY SENSOR
Condition

Transducer
Optimum Range

Dry

0V

Optimum level

Slurry

1.9 - 3.5V

> 3.5V

LIGHT SENSOR
Illumination Status

OPTIMUM

Transducer Optimum
Range

0V - 0.69V

ILLUMINATION

DIM LIGHT

0.7V - 2.5V

DARK

2.5V - 3V

NIGHT

3V - 3.47V

TEMPERATURE SENSOR
Temperature range in
degree Celsius
100 C
150 to 200 C
20 0to 250 C
250 to 30 0C
30 0to 35 0C
350 to 400 C
400 to 45 0C
450 to 500 C
500 to 55 0C
550 to 600C
600 to 650 C
650 to 70 0C
70 0to 750 C
75 0to 80 0C
80 0to 850 C
85 0to 900 C
900 to 95 0C
950 to 1000 C

Temperature sensor
output(Vout)
0.5V
0.75-1.0V
1.0-1.25V
1.25-1.5V
1.5-1.75V
1.75-2.0V
2.0-2.25V
2.25-2.5V
2.5-2.75V
2.75-3.0V
3.0-3.25V
3.25-3.5V
3.5-3.75V
3.75-4.0V
4.0-4.25V
4.25-4.5V
4.5-4.75V
4.75-5V

ADVANTAGES
Sensors used have high sensitivity and are easy to handle.
Low cost system, providing maximum automation.
Low maintenance and low power consumption.
Natural resource like water saved to a great extent.
In response to the sensors, the system will adjust the heating,
fans, lighting, irrigation immediately, hence protect greenhouse
from damage.
Endangered plant species can be saved.

DISADVANTAGES
Complete automation in terms of pest and insect detection and
eradication can not be achieved.
No self-test system to detect malfunction of sensors.
Requires uninterrupted power supply.

FUTURE SCOPE
The performance of the system can be further improved in terms
of the operating speed, memory capacity, instruction cycle
period of the microcontroller by using other controllers such as
AVRs and PICs.
The number of channels can be increased to interface more
sensors which is possible by using advanced versions of
microcontrollers.
A speaking voice alarm could be used instead of the normal
buzzer.
Time bound administration of fertilizers, insecticides and
pesticides can be introduced.
A multi-controller system can be developed that will enable a
master controller along with its slave controllers to automate
multiple greenhouses simultaneously.

CONCLUSION
The greenhouse environment has to be
closely monitored so that plants grow in the best
possible conditions. A plant that grows in an
environment where temperature, moisture, light and
humidity levels are ideal and continuous will be as
strong and healthy as it can possibly be.