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Crude Unit Performance Management

Desalting & Crude Oil Management

Knowing the effect of crude contaminants


Understanding crude handling and blending
Knowing the impact of recovered oils

Crude Oil Management Benefits

Tank Farm
Crude Unit
Environmental

Purpose of Desalters
by design they
provide clean oil
not clean water

Why Desalt?
Efficient crude oil
desalting is critical to
good corrosion and
fouling control

Problems Caused by Dissolved Salts

MgCl2 + 2H2O

Heat

Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl

CaCl2 + 2H2O

Heat

Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl

Solid Contaminants

dirt

scale
corrosion products

clay, sand

iron oxide and sulfide

organics

asphaltenes, paraffins

How does a desalter work?

mix dirty crude oil with clean water


wash contaminants out of oil
use electrical field and chemical to break
emulsion formed
clean oil off the top
water off the bottom

Operational Variables

Crude oil gravity


Crude oil viscosity
Desalter temperature
Desalter pressure
Electrical grids

Wash water rate


Wash water pH
Mixing energy
Interface level
Emulsion breaking
chemicals

Desalter Pressure

3.5 - 17.5 kg/cm2


Minimum 1.5 kg/cm2 above the vapor pressure
of the crude oil/water blend at the desalter
operating pressure

Wash Water Rate


Target 5 - 10%
Lower crude oil gravity = higher wash
water rates for optimum performance
Talara target is 5% wash water for
effective salt and solids removal

Wash Water pH

pH affects emulsion stability


optimum pH 6-7
pH >8.5 concern level
higher naphthenic acid crude requires lower pH

DESALTER MIX P vs. DESALTED CRUDE


SALT AND BS&W CONTENT

60

40

20

1.0

SALT CONTENT
OPTIMUM
MIXING
PRESSURE

80

BS & W

INCREASING MIXING PRESSURE

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

% BS&W IN DESALTED CRUDE

% SALT IN DESALTED CRUDE

100

Petreco Bielectric Desalter


SIDE VIEW

END VIEW

DESALTED CRUDE

Transformer Transformer

Transformer

Transformer

LC

Flow Baffle

hot grids
Flow Baffle

LC

DESALTED
CRUDE

Crude Outlet Header

Distributor Header

Distributor Header

Mud
Wash

Mudwash
Header

MIX
VALVE
Mudwash
Pump

Raw
Crude

Raw
Crude
WASH WATER

Mix Valve
Wash Water

EFFLUENT WATER

Mud Wash
Header
EFFLUENT
WATER

Petreco Bielectric Desalter

END VIEW

Petreco Bielectric Emulsion


Injection System

Grid
Orifice
Plate

Grid

Crude Oil
Emulsion

Types of Chemicals Used

Demulsifiers
Wetting agents
Polymers

Demulsifier Function

disrupt stabilizing film at oil/water interface


promote coalescence of water droplets
control emulsion pad growth
improve brine quality

Wetting Agent Function

deoil solids
minimize effect of solids on emulsion stability
improve brine quality
feed continuously

Polymer Function

control growth of emulsion pad


improve brine quality
feed as needed

Desalter Performance Results


Salt removal

Single stage 90 - 95% removal


(removal % dependent on inlet value. Outlet
target is <1.5 ppm or >95%.)
Filterable solids
50 - 75% removal
BS&W
0.05% for Talara desalter design
(based on solubility of water in type of crude)

Desalting Test Results


Comparison using 70% Talara crude / 30% COE crude with 5 % wash water
Desalter additive dosage level at 7 ppm-v with Temperature at 212 F

RD 334

Desalting Test Results


Comparison using 70% Talara crude / 30% COE crude with 5 % wash water
Desalter additive dosage level at 7 ppm-v with Temperature at 212 F

RD 334

Desalting Test Results


Comparison using 50% COE crude / 50% Talara crude with 5 % wash water
Desalter additive dosage level at 7, 10 and 15 ppm-v with Temperature at 212 F

p
4@7
D 33

pm
RD

10
334@

ppm

m
15pp
@
4
3
RD 3

Desalting Test Results


Comparison using 50% COE crude / 50% Talara crude with 5 % wash water
Desalter additive dosage level at 7, 10 and 15 ppm-v with Temperature at 212 F

RD

7p
334@

pm

10
34@
3
D
R

ppm

15
34@
3
D
R

ppm

Purpose of Good Desalting

Fouling prevention
Corrosion control
Unit Performance & Reliability

Purpose of Good Desalting

Crude Unit Overhead


Corrosion Control

0.2 mts

3 mts

Wash
water

Probe No3

Probe No5

Wash
water
Probe No 1

Probe No2

Probe No4

Spray Nozzle / Quill?

Corrosion Control

Importance of Good pH Control

Initial condensation pH must be controlled (pH > 4.5) to


prevent aggressive hydrochloric acid corrosion
Lower temperature condensate pH must be controlled
(< 7.5) to prevent aggressive bisulfide corrosion
Iron sulfide deposition can be minimized by keeping pHs
from getting too high

Aqueous Corrosion

Corrosion Control

Importance of Good Filmer Control

pH is a dynamic parameter always changing.


Film integrity is the key to insuring minimal corrosion
occurrence. Filmers are insurance for the inevitable
problems.

Crude Unit Performance & Control

Effective Monitoring
Desalter salt removal
Exchanger dP and dT
pH, iron, chlorides in tower overhead condensate
Corrosometer probe readings
Coupon analyses for weight loss
Chemical dosage rates
Crude slate and charge rate
Slop oil charge volume and % of crude charge