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Active and Passive Transport

Chapter 5

1. Passive Transport

Movement of materials in and out of the cell


Requires no energy to happen

Two Types of Passive Transport


1.
2.

Diffusion: When substance moves that is


dissolved in water
Osmosis: When water moves across the
membrane

Solutions are made of 2 parts:


Solute:

Substance that is dissolved in water


Solvent: Liquid it is dissolved in (usually water)

Next

answer some questions about the


pictures on your paper

Vocab:
Hypertonic:

More solutes than the other

solution
Hypotonic: Less solutes than the other
solution
Isotonic: Equal solutes as another solution
Now go back to the pictures above and label
the cell and the environment around it as one
of the vocab words

Vocab Word

Hypertonic
Hypotonic
Isotonic

Description

Picture with
inside of cell
as vocab

Picture with
env outside
as vocab

(a)
Molecules of dye

Membrane (cross section)

WATER

Net diffusion

Net diffusion

Equilibrium

Net diffusion
Osmosis

Net diffusion

Equilibrium

(b)

Net diffusion

Net diffusion

Equilibrium

Lower
concentration
of solute (sugar)

Higher
concentration
of sugar

Same concentration
of sugar

Selectively
permeable membrane: sugar molecules cannot pass
through pores, but
water molecules can

Water molecules
cluster around
sugar molecules

More free water


molecules (higher
concentration)

Fewer free water


molecules (lower
concentration)
Osmosis

Water moves from an area of higher


free water concentration to an area
of lower free water concentration

Describing a solution
1.

Hypotonic: when a solution is less


concentrated than another solution
Example: if around a cell is hypotonic, then
water will move into the cell.
Can cause a cell to get so large it may burst
(cytolysis)

2.

Hypertonic: When a solution is more


concentrated than another solution
If around a cell is hypertonic, water will move
out of the cell
Can cause the cell to get very small (in plants
will see plasmolysis: wilting)

3.

Isotonic: when two solutions have the same


concentration (are at equilibrium)
Causes water to move in and out equally
The cell maintains its shape

Hypotonic solution

H2O

Isotonic solution

H2O

Turgid (normal)

H2O

H2O

Normal

Lysed

Hypertonic solution

H2O

Shriveled
H2O

H2O

Flaccid

H2O

Plasmolyzed

2.

Osmosis
Water moves trying to balance out
concentrations
Goes from where there is more water to less
water

What if..
Environment

around a cell is hypotonic. What


direction will the water move?

Salt?

What if..
The

environment around a cell is hypertonic.


What direction will the water move?

Salt?

2. Active Transport
Requires

energy
Goes against the concentration gradient (from
lower concentration to higher concentration)

Figure 7.16 The sodiumpotassium pump: a specific case


of active transport
+
1 Cytoplasmic Na binds to
the sodium-potassium
pump.

EXTRACELLULAR
[Na+] high
FLUID
[K+] low
Na+
Na+
[Na+] low
Na+
CYTOPLASM [K+] high

+
+
3 K is released and Na
sites are receptive again;
The cycle repeats.

2 Na+ binding stimulates


phosphorylation by ATP.

Na+
Na+
Na+
P
ADP

Na

ATP

Phosphorylation causes the


4 protein to change its
conformation,
expelling Na+ to the outside.

Na+

Na+
K+
P

K+

Loss of the
phosphate
5 restores the
proteins
original
conformation.

+
6 Extracellular K binds to the
protein, triggering release of the
Phosphate group.

K+
K+
K+

K+
P

Pi

Sodium
Cells

Potassium Pump

usually have more sodium ions outside


and more potassium ions inside
Pump increases number of ions where
concentration is already high

When

substances are too large to pass


through the cell membrane, use endocytosis or
exocytosis
Membrane folds around substances and
release into cell or out of cell

Figure 7.20 Exploring Endocytosis


in Animal Cells
PHAGOCYTOSIS

EXTRACELLULAR
CYTOPLASM
FLUID
Pseudopodium

1 m
Pseudopodium
of amoeba

Food or
other particle

Food
vacuole

PINOCYTOSIS

Bacterium
Food vacuole
An amoeba engulfing a bacterium via
phagocytosis (TEM).
0.5 m

Plasma
membrane

Vesicle

Pinocytosis vesicles
forming (arrows) in
a cell lining a small
blood vessel (TEM).

Endocytosis

Material moved into cell


Forms vesicle
Pinocytosis: Liquids
Phagocytosis: Solids

1.
2.

Exocytosis
Material

released to outside of cell