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CONSTRUCTION

MATERIALS
AND METHODS

THE FOUNDATION OF A STRUCTURE


SUPPORTS THE WEIGHT OF THE STRUCTURE AND
ITS APPLIED LOADS. THE TERM FOUNDATION
INCLUDES THE SOIL OR ROCK UPON WHICH A
STRUCTURE RESTS, AS WELL AS THE
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM DESIGNED TO TRANSMIT
THE BUILDING LOADS TO THE SUPPORTING SOIL
OR ROCK.
FOUNDATION

SHALLOW FOUNDATION
For stable soil

DEEP FOUNDATION For


unstable soil or having low
Soil Bearing Capacity

SPOT or
INDIVIDUAL
FOOTING

CONTINIOUS
SPREAD
FOOTING

GRADEBEAM
FOOTING

SPOT or INDIVIDUAL FOOTING

STEPPED FOOTING

CANTILIVER or STRAP FOOTING

CANTILIVER or STRAP FOOTING

SECTION

MAT or RAFT FOUNDATION

To ATTAIN BOUYANCY or FLOATATION:


WEIGHT OF EXCAVATED SOIL
Equal or Greater than
WEIGHT OF THE STRUCTURE

FLOATING FOUNDATION

FRICTION PILE

END-BEARING PILE

TIMBER PILES

REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES

CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILES

STEEL PILES

COMPOSITE PILES

BULB PILES

A construction material that consists of


Cement, Aggregate and Water.
Concrete does not solidify by drying after
mixing and placement, rather, water reacts
with the cement in a chemical process known
as Hydration. This water is absorbed by the
cement, which hardens, bonding the other
components together and eventually creating
a stone-like material.

CAST-IN-SITU
PRE-CAST

BENDS AND HOOK AT THE FREE END OF


REINFORCING BARS PROVIDE ANCHORAGE TO
KEEP THE CONNECTION BETWEEN TWO
REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS INTACT.

180O
90O
135O

Standard Bends & Hooks

6 bar diameter

For Stirrups and Ties

STRUCTURAL STEEL CONSTRUCTION IS A


SPECIALIZED TASK THAT IS USUALLY PERFORMED
BY SPECIALTY SUB-CONTRACTORS. HOWEVER,
CONSTRUCTION MANAGERS AND INSPECTORS
MUST UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLES AND
PROCEEDURES INVOLVED.

Yielding Strength = 36 ksi

A36

CARBON STRUCTURAL STEEL

Yielding Strength = 42 ksi

A572 HIGH-STRENGTH, LOW ALLOY,


STRUCTURAL STEEL

Yielding Strength = 65 ksi

A588 CORROSION-RESISTANT,
HIGH-STRENGTH, LOW ALLOY,
STRUCTURAL STEEL

WEATHERING STEEL - Weathering steels are self


protecting, durable and attractive, so they are ideally suited
to a whole range of outdoor applications for structures in
exposed locations. Weathering steel is a high strength, low
alloy steel that forms a corrosion resistant oxide patina
that eliminates the need for paint or other protective
coatings.

Welding is a fabrication process that joins


materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by
causing coalescence. This is often done by melting
the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a
pool of molten material (the weld puddle) that cools
to become a strong joint. Sometimes pressure is
used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to
produce the weld.

FULL WELD

SPOT WELD

PLUG & SLOT WELD

SHOP WELDING

FIELD WELDING

BUTT JOINT
CORNER JOINT

TEE JOINT

LAP JOINT

EDGE JOINT

BOLTED JOINTS Connections consist of cap screws


or studs that capture and join other parts, and are
secured with the mating of screw threads.
One method of Jointing is that the bolt is tightened to a
calculated torque, producing a clamp load that is
designed such that the forces acting on the joint never
overcome the clamp load.
Another is that the joint relies on the shear strength of
the bolt shaft. These are joints that rely on locking
mechanism like lock washers, thread adhesives, and
lock nuts.

COVER PLATE

RIB

END PLATE

SIDE PLATE

HAUNCH

WING PLATE

END JOINT

OVERLAP JOINT

SHAPED JOINT

BUTT JOINT

REBATE JOINT

CORNER HALF or LAP JOINT MITER & HALF-MITER JOINT

CROSS HALVING

TEE HALVING

DADO or HOUSING JOINT

PLAIN LAP JOINT

WITH WEDGES

WITH STUBS

DOVE TAIL

DOWELED JOINT

MORTISE & TENON

TONGUE & GROOVE

ROLLER JOINT
Allows rotation but
resists translation
in the direction
perpendicular to its face.

PINNED JOINT
Allows rotation but
resists translation
in any direction.

RIGID JOINT
Resists rotation
and translation
in any direction.

A space frame is a truss-like, lightweight rigid


structure constructed from interlocking struts in a
geometric pattern. Space frames usually utilize a
multidirectional span, and are often used to accomplish
long spans with few supports.

A geodesic dome is an almost spherical structure based on


a network of struts arranged on great circles (geodesics)
lying approximately on the surface of a sphere. The
geodesics intersect to form triangular elements that have
local triangular rigidity and yet also distribute the stress
across the entire structure. It is the only man-made structure
that gets proportionally stronger as it increases in size. When
completed to form a full sphere, it is known as a geodesic
sphere.

Membrane structure that is stabilized by the pressure of


compressed air. Air-supported structures are supported by
internal air pressure. A network of cables stiffens the fabric,
and the assembly is supported by a rigid ring at the edge. The
air pressure within this bubble is increased slightly above
normal atmospheric pressure and maintained by
compressors or fans.

Structure with a thin, flexible surface (membrane) that carries


loads primarily through tensile stresses.
There are two main types: tent structures and pneumatic
structures.

In building construction, cladding may refer to the application


of one material over another to provide a weather-proof layer
intended to control the infiltration of weather elements.
Cladding does not necessarily have to provide a water-proof
condition but is instead a control element.

Curtain wall is a term used to describe a building faade which


does not carry any dead load from the building other than its
own dead load. These loads are transferred to the main
building structure through connections at floors or columns of
the building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water
infiltration, wind forces acting on the building, seismic forces,
and its own dead load forces.

A method for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in


tension. It can be used to produce beams, floors or bridges
with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced
concrete

Hybrid Materials are innovations in construction elements by


combining the advantageous properties of two or more building
materials, primarily for the construction to become cost effective
in terms of time duration, strength and durability, and flexibility.