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Unit 1


ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy

In module 3, you have learned how changes in
the environment may affect species
extinction. It helps you understand how to
prevent extinction of organisms in an
In this module, you will learn that all
organisms need energy to sustain life. Your
study will focus on how organisms obtain
energy from food and how organisms produce

What are expected of you to learn?

1. Differentiate basic features and importance of
photosynthesis and respiration.
a) Describe the parts of organelles involved in
photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
b) Describe the process of food making by plants.
c) Describe how stored energy from food is changed to
chemical energy for cell use.
d) Identify the factors that affect the rate of
photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
2. Design and conduct an investigation to provide
evidence that plants can manufacture their own food.

Now you have to read and answer the questions that follow in the best way
you can. Your answers will give the teacher the necessary information on
what you already know and those topics that need to be given more
Pre Assessment:
1. Plants make food by absorbing water and carbon dioxide. Which of the
following substances is the origin of oxygen released as gas by green plants
during photosynthesis?
a. water c. carbon dioxide
b. sugar d. ribulose-1,5-biphosphate
2. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are gases that cycle out in the ecosystem.
Which of the following gases is important to photosynthesis?
a. ozone gas b. water vapor c. oxygen d. carbon dioxide
3. Plants are considered as food makers. In which of the following cell
organelles does photosynthesis occur?
a. ribosome b. chlorophyll c. chloroplast d. mitochondrion
4. The light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis must come first before the
light independent reaction because its products are important to the fixation
of carbon dioxide. Which of the following is/are the product/s of the light
dependent reaction?
a. ADP only b. NADPH only c. ATP only d. NADPH and ATP

5. Plants are very unique among other organisms due to their capability to
trap sunlight and make their own food. Which of the following enables
plants to trap energy from the sun?
a. epidermis b. chloroplast c. cuticle d. chlorophyll
6. All organisms get energy from food to perform different life processes.
This is done in the cells by breaking down sugar molecules into chemical
energy. Which of the following cell organelles is associated with the
production of chemical energy?
a. chloroplast b. mitochondrion c. endoplasmic reticulum d. nucleus
7. Pyruvate is the product of glycolysis. If there is no oxygen available to
cells of the human body, what becomes of pyruvate?
a. alcohol b. lactic acid c. CO2 d. a and c
8. If you did not eat for three days, where did your cell get the glucose for
ATP production?
a. blood sugar c. glycogen present in the muscle
b. glycogen in the liver
d. protein in the blood
9. How many molecule/s of carbon dioxide is/are released from one pyruvic
acid molecule being oxidized?
a. 1 b. 3 c. 2 d. 4

9. How many molecule/s of carbon dioxide is/are

released from one pyruvic acid molecule being
a. 1 b. 3 c. 2 d. 4
10. During the synthesis of ATP, what is the
direction of hydrogen flow?
a. from matrix to intermembrane space
b. from intermembrane space to matrix
c. from matrix of mitochondrion to cytoplasm
d.from cytoplasm to matrix of mitochondrion


Photosynthesis is a process of food making done by plants and

other autotrophic organisms. The presence of chlorophyll enables
these organisms to make their own food. Autotrophic organisms
require light energy, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water (H2O) to
make food (sugar).
There are two stages of photosynthesis: (a) Light-dependent
Reaction and (b) Calvin Cycle (dark reaction). Light-dependent
reaction happens in the presence of light. It occurs in the thylakoid
membrane and converts light energy to chemical energy. Waterone of the raw materials of photosynthesis-is utilized during this
stage and facilitates the formation of free electrons and oxygen.
The energy harvested during this stage is stored in the form of ATP
(Adenosine Triphosphate) and NADPH( Nicotinamide Adenine
Dinucleotide Phosphate Hydrogen). These products will be needed
in the next stage to complete photosynthetic process.

Light Reaction

Thelight reactionhappens in the thylakoid

membrane and converts light energy to chemical
energy. This chemical reaction must, therefore, take
place in the light. Chlorophyll and several other
pigments such asbeta-caroteneare organized in
clusters in the thylakoid membrane and are involved in
the light reaction. Each of these differently-colored
pigments can absorb a slightly different color of light
and pass its energy to the central chlorphyll molecule
to do photosynthesis. The central part of the chemical
structure of a chlorophyll molecule is aporphyrin
ring, which consists of several fused rings of carbon
and nitrogen with a magnesium ion in the center.

Dark Reaction

The dark reaction takes place in the stroma within

the chloroplast, and converts CO 2to sugar. This
reaction doesnt directly need light in order to
occur, but it does need the products of the light
reaction (ATP and another chemical called
NADPH). The dark reaction involves a cycle called
theCalvin cyclein which CO2and energy from
ATP are used to form sugar. Actually, notice that
the first product of photosynthesis is a threecarbon compound calledglyceraldehyde 3phosphate. Almost immediately, two of these
join to form a glucose molecule.