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Adjectives

Adjectives - are words that are used to


describe (what kind of?) nouns and
pronouns and to quantify (how much
of?) and identify (which one?) them. In a
nutshell, Adjectives are what define
nouns and give them characteristics to
differentiate them from other nouns.

Types
of
Adjectives

Adjectives of Quality
These adjectives are used to describe the
nature of a noun. They give an idea about
the characteristics of the noun by
answering the question what kind.

Examples:
Honest, Kind, Large, Bulky, Beautiful,
Ugly etc.
New Delhi is a large city with many
historical monuments.
Sheila is a beautiful woman.

Adjectives of Quantity
These adjectives help to show the amount
or the approximate amount of the noun or
pronoun. These adjectives do not provide
exact numbers; rather they tell us the
amount of the noun in relative or whole
terms.

Examples:

All, Half, Many, Few, Little, No,


Enough, Great etc.
They have finished most of the
rice.
Many people came to visit the
fair.

Adjectives of Number
These adjectives are used to show the
number of nouns and their place in an
order. There are three different sections
within adjectives of number; they are

Definite Numeral Adjective - Those which


clearly denote an exact number of nouns or the
order of the noun.
Examples:
One, Two, Twenty, Thirty-Three etc. also
known as Cardinals.
First, Second, Third, Seventh etc. also
known as Ordinals.

Indefinite Numeral Adjective - Those


adjectives that do not give an exact numerical
amount but just give a general idea of the
amount.
Examples:
Some, Many, Few, Any, Several, All etc.
There were many people present at the
meeting.

Distributive Numeral Adjective -Those


adjectives that are used to refer to individual
nouns within the whole amount.
Examples:
Either, Neither, Each, Another, Other etc.
Taxes have to be paid by every employed
citizen.

Demonstrative Adjectives
These adjectives are used to point out or
indicate a particular noun or pronoun
using the adjectives - This, That, These and
Those.

Examples:

That bag belongs to Neil.


Try using this paintbrush in art
class.
I really like those shoes.
These flowers are lovely.

Interrogative Adjectives
These adjectives are used to ask questions
about nouns or in relation to nouns, they
are - Where, What, Which and Whose.

Examples:

Where did he say he was going?


What assignment did I miss out
on?
Which is your favorite author?
Whose pen is this?

Comparison of Adjectives
When we want to compare two or more
nouns using adjectives, we use the
comparative and superlative forms of the
adjective to show the comparison between
the nouns.

Examples:

Honey is sweet, sugar is sweeter but


victory is the sweetest.
In this sentence, we are comparing the
three nouns using the positive,
comparative and superlative forms of
the word sweet.

Positive Form
These are the simple adjectives that simply
describe the noun without comparing it to
another - big, sweet, clean, etc.

Examples:

She has a big black dog.


He is a sweet boy.
The cupboard is clean.

Comparative Form
These are used when we are comparing
two nouns and need to show which noun
possesses the adjective or character in a
greater or lesser amount, when compared
with the other. - bigger, sweeter, cleaner,
etc.

Examples:

I have a big dog but hers is bigger.


He is sweeter than the other boys.
The cupboard is cleaner than before.

Superlative Form
This form is used when three or more
nouns are being compared and we need to
show that one or more of the nouns posses
the adjective or characteristic to the highest
amount possible. We usually add the
before the superlative form. - biggest,
sweetest, cleanest, etc.

Examples:

She has the biggest dog in the colony.


He is the sweetest boy in his class.
The cupboard is the cleanest thing in
the house.

Making Comparatives and Superlatives


There are certain rules that must be
followed in the making of the comparatives
and superlatives of the adjectives. Not all
adjectives form their comparatives and
superlatives in the same way and there are
also some irregular adjectives that form
completely different comparative and
superlative forms.

Single Syllable Words and Double Syllable


Words ending with -y, -er, -ow, -le -

We use -er to make the comparative and est to make the superlative.

Examples:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Black

Blacker

Blackest

Fair

Fairer

Fairest

Clever

Cleverer

Cleverest

When there is a silent e at the end


of the positive form, we remove that
and add -er and -est

Examples:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Nice

Nicer

Nicest

Late

Later

Latest

When the adjective ends with a y,


we convert the y into i before
adding -er and -est

Examples:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Pretty

Prettier

Prettiest

Lazy

Lazier

Laziest

If the adjective is a small one with


little stress on the vowel, we double
the last consonant.

Examples:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Hot

Hotter

Hottest

Wet

Wetter

Wettest

Other Words with Two or More Syllables

For other double syllable words that do not


end with -y, -er, -ow, -le, and for adjectives
with more than two syllables we use more
and most to form the comparatives and
superlatives.

Examples:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Difficult

More Difficult Most Difficult

Careful

More Careful Most Careful

Handsome

More
Handsome

Most
Handsome

Interesting

More
Interesting

Most
Interesting

Special Adjectives

There a few adjectives that can use both -er


and -est and more and most to form
their comparative and superlative forms.
The distinction between these is that -er
and -est are used when we are comparing
the noun to another noun and more and
most is used when we are comparing
characteristics within the noun.

Examples:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Cleverer/ More Cleverest/Most


Clever
Clever
Clever

Quiet

Brave

Sure

Quieter/ More Quietest/ Most


Quiet
Quiet

Braver/ More
Brave

Surer/ More
Sure

Example
He is cleverer than her.
He is more clever than
studious.
This is the most quiet
place.
This is the quietest
place.

She is braver than other


Bravest/ Most
girls.
Brave
She was more brave
than afraid.
Surest/ Most
Sure

He was surer of the


result than others.
Youll be more sure
about the concept after
you read the chapter.

Irregular Comparisons

These adjectives do not make their


comparative and superlative forms using
the rules above. Their comparative and
superlative forms are different words
altogether.

Examples:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Bad

Worse

Worst

Good

Better

Best

Far (place &


time)

Further

Furthest

Far (place)

Farther

Farthest

Old (people)

Elder

Eldest

Little (amount)

Less

Least

Late (order)

Latter

Last

Exercises 1.1
Direction: Determine what
Adjective are the following.
1.) honest
6.) five
2.) many
7.) beautiful
3.) these
8.) best
4.) what
9.) dozen
5.) few
10.) who

type

of

Exercises 1.2
Direction: Give the Positive, Comparative and
Superlative form of the following Adjectives.
Positive

Comparative
prettier

good
least
more brave
tall

Superlative

Exercises 1.3
Direction: Identify the following.
________ 1.) are words that are used to
describe nouns and pronouns.
________ 2.) These adjectives are used to
describe the nature of a noun.
________ 3.) These adjectives are used to
show the number of nouns and their place
in an order.

Exercises 1.3
Direction: Identify the following.
________ 4.) These adjectives are used to
ask questions about nouns or in relation to
nouns, they are - Where, What, Which and
Whose.
________ 5.) These are the simple adjectives
that simply describe the noun without
comparing it to another - big, sweet, clean,
etc.
End

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