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An Insight into Embedded

system Design

Pantech solutions Pvt Ltd


Chennai-17

Outline

Introduction
Application Areas
ESD Development Cycle
Hardware Selection & Pitfalls
Protocols
Wireless Communications
Summary
Conclusion
Questions?

2008 Pantech Solutions | All rights reserved

Intelligent Systems

Gadgets are increasingly becoming Intelligent and


Autonomous.

The Intelligence of these Smart Devices resides in


Embedded Systems.

What is Embedded System in General?


It is a combination of Computer Hardware, Software
and perhaps additional Mechanical Parts, designed to
perform a Specific Function.

Desktop Vs. Embedded System

In contrast to Desktops that performs a Variety of Tasks,


an Embedded System performs a Single, Well-Defined
Task.

The System has a Processor, Associated Peripherals, and


Software for a Specific Purpose.

For example, in a Mobile Phone the Embedded Processor


needs to Process Voice (to Send and Receive Speech
Signals) as well as implement Communication Protocols.

The Hardware is Custom Built for the Specific Purpose.

Outline

Introduction
Application Areas
ESD Development Cycle
Hardware Selection & Pitfalls
Protocols
Wireless Communications
Summary
Conclusion
Questions?

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5 Key Markets
Communications
Communications
Security
Security

Reliability
Reliability

Core
CoreOS
OS

Network Infrastructure
Digital Consumer
Aerospace & Defense
Industrial
Automotive

Middleware
Middleware

Services
Services

Management
Management
Development
DevelopmentTools
Tools
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Generalization of Application Areas

Embedded Systems cover such a broad range of products


that generalization is difficult. Here are some broad
categories:
Aerospace

and Defense Electronics


Automotive
Broadcast and Entertainment
Consumer and Internet Appliances
Data Communication
Digital Imaging
Industrial Measurement and Control
Telecommunications
Mobile Data Infrastructures etc.
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Digital Consumer Markets

Broadband Access

Interactive Digital TV

Digital Cameras,
Printers, MFPs, Scanners, Fax

Mobile & Handheld

Cable, Satellite and Terrestrial STBs


HDTVs

Digital Imaging

Cable, xDSL modems, Home Gateways


Home Media Servers

Mobile phones
PDAs

Digital Audio/Video

Web-Tablets
Screenphones

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In The Connected Home

Sony AirBoard
IDT-LF1 Wireless
Internet TV

CMI Digital IceBox


Kitchen Appliance

Fuji Film FinePix 40i


Digital Camera
Polaroid Ceiva
Internet Picture Frame

B&O HDTV

Media Server Gateway


Toshiba SD-9200
DVD Player

Compaq iPaq Music


Center
Digital Jukebox

Apple Airport II
with iMac

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Sharp NC20
Internet Screen Phone

Sony NW-E3
Network Walkman

Industrial Market and


Applications Power Control

Industrial Automation

Motion Control

Process Control

Semiconductor
Manufacturing
Robotics
Chemical
Steel production
Waste & water
Paper & pulp

Medical

Building Automation

Generation
Power
Distribution
Load Balancing
Demand
regulation

Environmental
controls
Security
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Systems

Radiation
MRI
Ultrasound
Instrumentation

Smart transducers
Recorders
Oscilloscopes

Market Trends

Emissions Regulations
Safety
Fuel Economy
Assembly Costs
Connectivity
Personalization (smart cards)

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Automotive Electronics

Under the Hood


Engine
Transmission
ABS, VSC, TC
Airbags
Cruise control
HVAC
Security and
entry

Connectivity
Radio
GPS
Satellite
Electronic tolls
Cellular
(2G,2.5G,3G)
Transponders (to the
roadside & home)
Infotainment

Radio

CD

DVD

Navigation

Toll payment

Satellite radio

Telematic
transceiver
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Consumer Devices
Cell phone/pager
PDA
Headset
MP3
Cameras
Laptop
Games

Market Structure
Satellite Radio
XM Radio
Sirius

Vehicle OEMs
GM, Ford, Daimler,
BMW, Toyota,

Suppliers

Tier-1 Auto Suppliers


Delphi, Bosch, Visteon,
Denso, Siemens, Becker,

Consumer Product
Cos
Sony, Pioneer, Alpine,
Clarion, Thales,

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Service Providers
OnStar
Wingcast
TeleAid
Targa
Vodofone
DoCoMo

Fiat Research Center

Fiat CRF Sysnet: Driver and passenger multimedia


services

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Example Application: Fuel Cell Engine Controller


Company: XCellsis Fuel Cell Engines
Application: Fuel Cell Engine Controller (heavy-duty transit bus)
Description:
Fuel cell engine controller regulates power output
from hydrogen fuel cells to drive train for a heavy-duty bus.
Target CPU: MPC555
Memory:
26KB RAM (internal)

448 KB flash (internal)


Devices Used:
Timer
CAN bus
QADC (A/D)
QSPI (on-board serial)
SCI (RS232)
TPU
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Aerospace and Defense


Everything is Getting Connected

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Increased Software Complexity


Application and Kernel
1 000 000+ lines of code

Browser/GUI
Java
Advanced
Interconnect
Advanced
Networking

X Windows

Application and Kernel


100 000 lines of code

Memory
Management

Memory
Management
File System

File System

File System

Network

Network

Kernel

Kernel

Kernel

Kernel

1990

Multiprocessing

Multiprocessing

Network

1980

High Availability

WindNet

1996

1999

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The Top Architectures

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Outline

Introduction
Application Areas
ESD Development Cycle
Hardware Selection & Pitfalls
Protocols
Wireless Communications
Summary
Conclusion
Questions?

2008 Pantech Solutions | All rights reserved

THE EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT

Compiler

RTOSs

Networking
Protocols

Java
Support

Graphics
Support

SW
SELECTION

SW DEVELOPMENT

HW
SELECTION

HW DEVELOPMENT

Semiconductor
Co-funded
Development

Project
& Code
Mgmt.

Rapid
Prototyping
RTOS
Simulation

Real-time
Data
Visualization

INTEGRATION

Board
Bring-Up

Board
Diagnostics &
Manufacturing
Test

Sourcelevel
Debugging

Real-time
System
Analysis &
Triggering

Hardware
Coverage

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Memory
Leak
Detection

CPU
Profiling

Postmortem
Debug

TESTING & TUNING DEPLOYMENT

Execution
Tracing

Code
Coverage
Analysis

In-field
Debugging

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Recap of Designing an Embedded system


Decide application,Features,
cost of the product

Choose Idea

Select the right processor


and packages

C/ASM/GRAPHICAL

Design and fabricate PCB

Components Assembly

Programming and testing

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Challenges in embedded system design

How much hardware do we need?


How

big is the CPU? Memory?

How do we meet our deadlines?


Faster

hardware or cleverer software?

How do we minimize power?


Turn

off unnecessary logic? Reduce memory accesses?

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Challenges, etc.

Does it really work?


Is

the specification correct?


Does the implementation meet the spec?
How do we test for real-time characteristics?
How do we test on real data?

How do we work on the system?


Observability,

controllability?
What is our development platform?
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Architecture design

What major components go satisfying the specification?

Hardware components:

Software components:

CPUs, peripherals, etc.

major programs and their operations.

Must take into account functional and non-functional


specifications.
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Designing hardware and software


components

Must spend time architecting the system before you start


coding.

Some components are ready-made, some can be


modified from existing designs, others must be designed
from scratch.

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System integration

Put together the components.

Many bugs appear only at this stage.

Have a plan for integrating components to uncover bugs


quickly, test as much functionality as early as possible.

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Summary

Embedded computers are all around us.

Many systems have complex embedded hardware and software.

Embedded systems pose many design challenges:


design time, deadlines, power, etc.

Design methodologies help us manage the design


process.

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Outline

Introduction
Application Areas
ESD Development Cycle
Hardware Selection & Pitfalls
Protocols
Wireless Communications
Summary
Conclusion
Questions?

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Selection of Processors

DSP

MICROPROCESSORS/
MICROCONTROLLERS

CPLD/FPGA

GENERAL PURPOSE
PROCESSORS

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Embedded Controllers
8-Bit MCU

MCS-51
AVR
MICROCHIP
RENESAS

16/32-Bit MCU

ARM
BLACKFIN
dSPIC

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Selection of Packages
SOLDERING
IRON

DIP

QFP

SOLDERING
STATION

PLCC

BGA
OVEN
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Hardware design flow

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Software Design Flow


ASM

C,C++

COMPILER

ASSEMBLER
.OBJ
LDF

LINKER
.DXE

.HEX

.BIT

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Evaluation

Simulation

Emulation

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Outline

Introduction
Application Areas
ESD Development Cycle
Hardware Selection & Pitfalls
Protocols
Wireless Communications
Summary
Conclusion
Questions?

2008 Pantech Solutions | All rights reserved

Communication Protocols
RS232/422/485
1-wire, I2C, SPI, Microwire
Bluetooth, Zigbee
RFid,
Ethernet

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Parallel Bus..

Consists of multiple digital inputs/outputs. Most common types:


4-bit
8-bit ( e.g. Centronics )
16-bit ( e.g. ISA )
32-bit ( e.g. PCI )

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Parallel Bus..

Example LCD Interface 4-bit

Example LCD Interface 8-bit

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Serial Bus..

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1-wire

Originated by Dallas Semiconductor ( now part of MAXIM ) to address a


variety of peripherals, sensors, and memory chips from a single wire
interface ( DATA and Ground ).

One signal wire carries both operating power and signal.

Usually the network is built using a wire pair where one wire carries the
signal and power and the other wire is ground. The system is sensitive to
the right timing to operate well.
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1-wire
Typical Applications

Print Cartridge ID

Medical Consumable ID

Rack Card Calibration & Control

PCB ID and Authentication

Accessory/Peripheral
Identification and Control

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1-wire

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RS-232

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RS-232

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RS-232

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RS-485

Any station can communicate with any other station, but not at the same
time.

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Ethernet

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Ethernet 10 Mbit Ethernet Networking

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SPI

4-wire interface with one master and multiple slaves. Signals: DATA
IN, DATA OUT, CLOCK, CS( Chip Select )

Originated by Motorola, SPI bus is a relatively simple synchronous


serial interface for connecting low speed external devices using
minimal number of wires.

SPI is full duplex: Data is simultaneously transmitted and received.

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SPI
Advantages

Multiple slave devices can be accessed with only few wires


Low-cost
Implemented in hardware or software
Ease to implement, many examples
Can be high speed (e.g.4MHz or higher if implemented in hardware)

Disadvantages
Short distance
Data and clock lines can be shared but each device requires a
separate Chip Select
signal, limiting the number of devices in
limited I/O systems
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SPI

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I2C

2-wire interface with one master and multiple slaves ( multi-master


configurations possible ).

Originated by Philips Semiconductor in the early 80s to connect a


microcontroller to peripheral devices in TV sets.

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I2C
Advantages

Multiple slave devices can be accessed with only 3 wires


Low-cost to implement
Implemented in hardware or software
Ease to implement, many examples
Supports multi-master configuration

Disadvantages
Short distance
Slow speed: 100 KHz although 400 KHz and 1 MHz slave devise
exist. These can not coexist with slower devices.
Limited device addresses
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Outline

Introduction
Application Areas
ESD Development Cycle
Hardware Selection & Pitfalls
Protocols
Wireless Communications
Summary
Conclusion
Questions?

2008 Pantech Solutions | All rights reserved

Outline

Hardware Selection & Pitfalls


Protocols
Wireless Communications
RFID
Bluetooth
ZigBee

Summary

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Radio Frequency ISM

RFID is an ADC technology.


Uses Radio Frequency to transfer Data.
Data is often transferred from a reader and a
movable item.
Mainly used
Identify
Categorize
Track..

And many more.

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Are all RFID Tags Same???


Basic Types:
Active
Tag transmits radio signal
Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry
High Read Range (300 feet)

Passive

Tag reflects radio signal from reader


Reader powered
Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet)

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RFID Components

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Possible Threat to RFID System

Unauthorized read out of Data

In order to duplicate
Or Modify Data

Using a faked tag in order to get unauthorized access


Eavesdropping of a communication and replay of the
sequence of signals.
Complexity of cryptographic function increases
production cost and communication cost.

Not all application need security (Industry Automation)


Inversely forgoing security concerns may be critical in other
applications. (ticketing, wireless payment, etc.,)

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Common Applications

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Outline

Hardware Selection & Pitfalls


Protocols
Wireless Communications
RFID
Bluetooth
ZigBee

Summary

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Bluetooth

A cable replacement short range wireless


communication technology.

Named after the Danish King Harald Blatand.

Appearance
1994

Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link

mobile phones & accessories.


First

specification released in July 1999.


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Technical details

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Core Bluetooth Products


Notebook PCs & Desktop
computers

CD Player
TV/VCR/DVD

Printers

Access Points

PDAs
Other handheld devices
Cell phones
Wireless peripherals:
Headsets
Cameras

Telephone Answering
Devices
Cordless Phones
Cars

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Comparison of Bluetooth

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The Protocol Stack

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Security Concerns

Link Level Encryption & Authentication.

Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device


access.

Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys).

These keys are not transmitted over wireless.

Further encryption can be done at the application


layer.

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Bluetooth summarized

A new global standard for data and voice

It is not just a radio, it is an end-to-end solution

Eliminate Cables

Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices

Future Improvements

Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for


optimal resource allocation and utilization.

Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be


implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage .
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Outline

Hardware Selection & Pitfalls


Protocols
Wireless Communications
RFID
Bluetooth
ZigBee

Summary

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ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4

Specification of protocols for small, low-power


radios

History
May

2003: IEEE 802.15.4 completed


December 2004: ZigBee specification ratified
June 2005: public availability

ZigBee Alliance
Companies

developing and promoting the standard


150+ members.
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Where does ZigBee Fit?


Faster

Wireless Video
Applications

UWB

Wireless Data
Applications

Peak Data Rate

802.11g
802.11a

IrDA

Wi-Fi
802.11b

Wireless
Sensors

2.5G/3G

Slower

Bluetooth

ZigBee

Closer

Wireless
Networking

Range

Sources: WRH + Co

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Farther

802.15.4 / ZigBee Architecture


Applications

ZigBee

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC

IEEE 802.15.4
868/915 MHz
PHY

IEEE 802.15.4
2400 MHz
PHY

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Packet generation
Packet reception
Data transparency
Power Management

802.15.4 Architecture
Applications

ZigBee

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC

IEEE 802.15.4
868/915 MHz
PHY

IEEE 802.15.4
2400 MHz
PHY

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Channel acquisition
Contention mgt
NIC address
Error Correction

802.15.4 Architecture
Applications
Network Routing
Address translation
Packet
Segmentation
Profiles

ZigBee

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC

IEEE 802.15.4
868/915 MHz
PHY

IEEE 802.15.4
2400 MHz
PHY

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ZigBee Alliance members..

and many more....

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Usage Scenarios
Industrial

& commercial

Consumer
Toys
PC

electronics

& games

& periphals

Personal

health care

home/building

automation

Just everything you can imagine for wireless sensor


nodes or in general short range communications

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A Comparison Chart

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Custom Applications
CONSUMER
ELECTRONICS

BUILDING
AUTOMATION

Remote Control

PC & PERIPHERALS

Security, HVAC,
AMR,
Lighting Control,
Access Control

Mouse, Keyboard,
Joystick

RESIDENTIAL/
LIGHT COMMERCIAL
CONTROL
Security, HVAC,
Lighting Control,
Access Control

INDUSTRIAL
CONTROL
Asset Mgt,
Process Control,
Energy Mgt

PERSONAL HEALTH
CARE
Patient monitoring

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Outline

Introduction
Application Areas
ESD Development Cycle
Hardware Selection & Pitfalls
Protocols
Wireless Communications
Conclusion
Questions?

2008 Pantech Solutions | All rights reserved

Outline

Introduction
Application Areas
ESD Development Cycle
Hardware Selection & Pitfalls
Protocols
Wireless Communications
Summary
Questions?
2008 Pantech Solutions | All rights reserved

2008 Pantech Solutions | All rights reserved

2008 Pantech Solutions | All rights reserved

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